A New Way in New Year

Arash Mohammadi Tofigh

Journal of Lasers in Medical Sciences, Vol. 12 (2021), 13 February 2021 , Page e1

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has forced numerous changes in our lives. Many of us lost our loved ones in this tragedy. Serendipitously, there were some good changes for patients and surgeons too. For example, telemedicine has been extensively integrated into patient care visits for the benefit of both the patients and the care providers.
In the Journal of Lasers in Medical Sciences (JLMS) , we are also undergoing a significant change. From now on, the publication routine of the journal changes from quarterly to continuous. This means that once an article is accepted for publication, there will be no need to wait for the next issue to be published, and the article will be displayed on the journal site immediately and indexed in global references. This significantly reduces the waiting time for authors to see the results of their work and efforts.
As a result, one of the main concerns of the authors, which was the long queue for the publication of the accepted article, is resolved. Another point is that we intend to publish a volume of the journal every year without separate issues so the citation method to the articles will change a little.
Over the past several years, JLMS has experienced a substantial increase in the number and quality of submissions and the depth and breadth of Laser science in these submissions. This welcome growth in volume and complexity, however, has challenged the review capacity of the co-editors and laid bare an insufficient organizational structure. We are extremely fortunate to have an excellent editorial board loaded with talented individuals with extensive expertise and a considerable depth of knowledge. Because of the riches of our editorial board, following a highly competitive search, we are introducing a new organizational structure that will include section editors.
We are excited to introduce these new editors, who bring expertise, energy, and networks of respected, knowledgeable colleagues in their respective specialties to JLMS. We are grateful for their unwavering commitment to the peer review process that will help us to upgrade the level of our journal. Please join us, and feel free to share your thoughts with us!



Effects of Different Laser Treatments on Some Properties of the Zirconia-Porcelain Interface

Abdulsatar M Abdulsatar, Basima M A Hussein, Ali M Mahmood

Journal of Lasers in Medical Sciences, Vol. 12 (2021), 13 February 2021 , Page e2

Introduction: This study was performed to compare the effect of Fractional CO2 laser or Q switched Nd: YAG laser of surface treatment on the shear bond strength of zirconia-porcelain interface.
Methods: Fractional CO2 laser at 30 W, 2 ms, time interval 1 ms, the distance between spots 0.3 mm, and the number of scans is (4) or Q switched Nd: YAG laser at 30 J/mm2 and 10 Hz were used to assess the shear bond strength of zirconia to porcelain. pre-sintered zirconia specimens were divided into three groups (n = 10) according to the surface treatment technique used: (a) untreated (Control) group; (b) CO2 group; (c) Nd: YAG group. All samples were then sintered and veneered with porcelain according to the manufacturer’s instructions. Surface morphology was examined using a light microscope, the surface roughness test was done by the atomic force microscope (AFM), and the shear bond strength (SBS) test was done by a universal testing machine. After debonding following the shear bond test, zirconia surfaces were examined under a light microscope to determine their fracture mode.
Results: The Results of this study showed that the lowest SBS was recorded in the control group, and the highest SBS recorded in the Fractional CO2 group, followed by the Q switched Nd: YAG laser group, as well as an increase in surface roughness and change in the morphology and mode of failure in the experimental groups.
Conclusion: This study shows that Fractional CO2 laser and Q switched Nd: YAG laser treatments significantly increase the bond strength than untreated zirconia.

Quantitative Autofluorescence Imaging of A375 Human Melanoma Cell Samples: A Pilot Study

Afshan Shirkavand, Ezeddin  Mohajerani, Shirin Farivar, Leila Ataie-Fashtami, Mohammad Hossein Ghazimoradi

Journal of Lasers in Medical Sciences, Vol. 12 (2021), 13 February 2021 , Page e4

Introduction: Skin cancer is one of the most common types of malignancy worldwide. Human skin naturally contains several endogenous fluorophores, as potential sources that can emit inherent fluorescence, called intrinsic autofluorescence (AF). The melanin endogenous fluorophore in the basal cell layer of the epidermis seems to have a strong autofluorescence signal among other ones in the skin. This pilot study aimed to investigate the feasibility of the detection of autofluorescence signals in the A375 human melanoma cell line in the cell culture stage using the FluoVision optical imaging system.
Methods: The human skin melanoma cell line (A375) donated as a gift from Switzerland (University Hospital Basel) was cultured. For the imaging of the A375 human melanoma cell sample in this pilot study, the FluoVision optical imaging device (Tajhiz Afarinan Noori Parseh Co) was applied. The proposed clustering image processing code was developed based on the K-mean segmentation method, using MATLAB software (version 16).
Results: The quantification of color pixels in the color bar along with the intensity score of the autofluorescence signal ranged between 0 and 70 was written in the image processing code execution and a threshold higher than 40%, proportional to the ratio of autofluorescent cells. The percentage of the signal of A375 autofluorescent melanoma cells in the 3 studied cell samples was calculated as 3.11%±0.6.
Conclusion: This imaging method has the advantage of no need for fluorophore labels over the existing fluorescence imaging methods, and it can be regarded as one of the important choices of label-free imaging for this A375 melanoma cell line containing the intrinsic endogenous fluorophore in cell studies.

Effect of Different Nd:YAG Laser Power Outputs on Bond Strength of Resin Cement to Zirconia in Comparison to Sandblasting

Rahab Ghoveizi, Rozbeh Parsirad, Sara Tavakolizadeh, Elaheh Beyabanaki

Journal of Lasers in Medical Sciences, Vol. 12 (2021), 13 February 2021 , Page e6

Introduction: This study investigated the effect of various laser powers on the shear bond strength (SBS) of resin cement to the zirconia surface.
Methods: Seventy-five zirconia disks were prepared and assigned to five groups including no surface treatment (control group), sandblasting with 50 µ Al2O3 particles (second group), and Nd: YAG laser treatments with 2 W, 2.5 W, and 3 W powers respectively (third, fourth and fifth groups). Afterward, composite resin cylinders were cemented on zirconia disks using dual-curing resin cement. Before thermocycling (2000 cycles, 5-55°C), all samples were placed in distilled water at 37°C for 24 hours. Using a universal testing machine at the crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min, the SBS was examined. Also, using a stereomicroscope, the failure type was determined. Data analyses were performed using Welch and Games-Howell tests (P< 0.05).
Results: The mean bond strength difference between the control group and the other groups was significant. The respective bond strength from the highest to the lowest was observed in the sandblast group, the laser group with 2.5 W power, the laser group with 3 W power, the laser group with 2 W power, and finally the control group. However, no significant difference was observed between different laser groups (P< 0.05). Also, there was no significant difference between the sandblast and laser groups with 2.5 W and 3 W power (P< 0.05). Most of the failures in the sandblasting and laser groups with powers of 2.5 W and 3 W were mixed, but in the control and 2 W laser groups, most of the failures were of adhesive nature.
Conclusion: The highest bond strength was achieved by sandblasting with Al2 O3 particles and then using an Nd: YAG laser with a power of 2.5 W.

Influence of Low-Level Laser Modification and Adhesive Application Mode on the Bonding Efficiency of Universal Adhesives to Er:YAG Laser-Ablated Dentin

Nesrine Ali Elsahn, Hatem M. El-Damanhoury, Dina W Elkassas

Journal of Lasers in Medical Sciences, Vol. 12 (2021), 13 February 2021 , Page e7

Introduction: Erbium laser ablation as a method of tooth preparation and conditioning has shown promising results. Although previous studies have adopted various combinations of different laser parameters and several dentin adhesive systems, very few have investigated combining high-level and low-level Er: YAG lasers with Universal adhesives. This study aimed to assess the impact of using low-energy irradiation on the surface micro-topography and shear bond strength (SBS) of universal adhesive (UA) to the erbium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Er: YAG) laser-ablated dentin substrate, bonded in etch-and-rinse or self-etch adhesive mode.
Methods: Eighty-seven extracted molars were sectioned to expose flat occlusal dentin surface; 60 teeth were divided equally into three groups according to the surface treatment; bur-cutting (B), Er: YAG high-energy laser cutting, or L1 followed by low-energy laser modification. Then each group was equally divided into two groups (n=10) according to the mode of application of the universal adhesive; either etch-and-rinse (ER) or self-etching (SE). The samples were subjected to thermocycling (5000 cycles between 5°C and 55°C), and SBS was tested. Two-way ANOVA and Tukey post hoc test was used to analyze the results. The remaining 27 samples were used to investigate the effect of the treatment on the topography of the treated dentin surfaces using a scanning electron microscope (SEM).
Results: B/SE recorded the highest SBS (25.48 ± 2.6 MPa) followed by B/ER and L1/L2/SE (22.94 ± 4.1 MPa) and with no statistically significant difference between these groups (P >0.05). The lowest SBS results (P<0.05) were recorded for L1/SE (12.22 ± 3 MPa). No statistical differences were found between the SBS of L1/L2/ER and L1/ER groups or between the SBS of L1/L2/ER and L1/L2/SE groups.
Conclusion: A subsequent treatment of the Er: YAG laser-ablated dentin with low-energy laser modification mode (LMM) enhances the SBS of the tested UA when applied in SE mode.

Efficacy of Photobiomodulation Therapy for Orthodontic Pain Control Following the Placement of Elastomeric Separators: A Randomized Clinical Trial

Amirhossein Mirhashemi, Reza Rasooli, Shiva Shahi, Nasim Chiniforush

Journal of Lasers in Medical Sciences, Vol. 12 (2021), 13 February 2021 , Page e8

Introduction: Controlling pain in orthodontic patients has gained special attention. This study assessed the efficacy of photobiomodulation therapy (PBMT) for pain control following the placement of elastomeric separators.
Methods: This split-mouth single-blind randomized clinical trial evaluated 30 orthodontic patients who required posterior elastomeric separators. The two maxillary quadrants were randomized into the laser and control groups. In the laser quadrant, an 808 nm diode laser (400 mW, 15.60 J/cm2,11 seconds, continuous-wave, contact mode) was irradiated to the cervical third of the maxillary first molar roots 24 hours prior to the placement of separators. The control quadrant received placebo radiation by a light-curing unit. The patients received the second laser cycle right before the placement of separators 24 hours later. The level of self-perceived pain was recorded at 0, 2, 6, 24, and 72 hours and 5 days after the intervention in the laser and control quadrants using a visual analog scale (VAS). Data were analyzed using the analysis of variance (ANOVA) and paired-samples t test.
Results: The trend of change in the pain score was similar in both groups. The pain score was significantly lower in the laser group than the control group at all-time points (P<0.05) except at time 0. The pain score increased in the first 6 hours and reached its maximum level in 24 hours in both groups.
Conclusion: PBMT by an 808 nm diode laser can effectively decrease pain following the placement of elastomeric separators

The Combined Effect of Photobiomodulation and Curcumin on Acute Skin Wound Healing in Rats

Abdollah Amini, Hasan Soleimani, Fatemehalsadat Rezaei, Seyed Kamran Ghoreishi, Sufan Chien, Mohammad Bayat

Journal of Lasers in Medical Sciences, Vol. 12 (2021), 13 February 2021 , Page e9

Introduction: Abnormal wound repair is a cause for a considerable expense, as well as patient morbidity and mortality. Here, we investigated the combined impact of photobiomodulation (PBM) and curcumin on a rat experimental model of an acute skin wound.
Methods: A round full-thickness wound was created on the back of each rat. We divided the rats into the following four groups. Group one was the control group. Group two received pulse wave (PW) PBM at a dose of 890 nm, 80 Hz, and 0.2 J/cm2. Group 3 received 40 mg/kg curcumin by gastric gavage and group 4 was treated with PWPBM + curcumin. We measured the wound area on days 4, 7, and 15, and performed microbiologically and tensiometry examinations.
Results: There was markedly improved wound contraction in the curcumin (7.5 ± 0.57; P=0.000), PBM (8.5 ± 1.2; P=0.000), and PBM + curcumin (14.5 ± 4.3; P=0.002) groups relative to the control group (25 ± 6). PBM (100 ± 7.3; P=0.005), and PBM + curcumin (98 ± 6; P=0.005) groups meaningfully improved tensile strength relative to the control group (61 ± 8.2). On day 15, the PBM (10 ± 5; P=0.000), curcumin (14 ± 4.5, P=0.000), and PBM + curcumin (27.3 ± 8.3; P=0.000) groups meaningfully decreased microbial flora relative to the control group (95 ± 6).
Conclusion: We concluded that the PBM and PBM + curcumin groups meaningfully accelerated wound healing of the acute skin wound in the rats. The results of the PBM group were statistically more effective than the curcumin alone and PBM + curcumin-treated groups.

Cancerous Tissue Diagnosis by LIF Spectroscopy Derived From Body-Compatible Fluorophores

Atefeh Asghari Moghaddam, Batool Sajad, Fariba Mehrad Nia, Seyed Hamid Madani

Journal of Lasers in Medical Sciences, Vol. 12 (2021), 13 February 2021 , Page e10

Introduction: The laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) method as molecular emission spectroscopy is used to diagnose cancerous tissues. According to the previous reports, the red-shift in the fluorescence spectrum from Rhodamine 6G (Rd6G)-stained cancerous tissues compared to healthy ones impregnated with the same dye provides the feasibility for diagnosis. In this paper, we have employed the LIF emissions as a diagnostic method to distinguish between cancerous and healthy tissues infiltrated by a body-compatible fluorophore to avoid the toxicity and hazard of Rd6G dye.
Methods: Biological tissue specimens are stained with sodium fluorescein (NaFl) dye and then irradiated by the blue CW diode laser (405 nm) to examine the spectral properties that are effective in detecting cancerous tissues.
Results: The spectral shift and the intensity difference of fluorescence are keys to diagnosing in vitro cancerous breast, colon, and thyroid tissues for clinical applications. The notable tubular densities in the breast and colon tissues and the space between the papillae in the thyroid ones cause the cancerous tissues to be prominently heterogeneous, providing numerous micro-cavities and thus more room for dye molecules.
Conclusion: Here, we have assessed the spectral shift and intensity difference of fluorescence as a diagnostic method to distinguish between cancerous and healthy tissues for clinical applications.

Effects of Diode and Nd:YAG Laser Irradiation on Friction Forces Between Two Types of Ceramic Brackets and Rhodium-Coated Archwires

Hannaneh Ghadirian, Allahyar Geramy, Mohammad Ali Keshvad, Soolmaz Heidari, Nasim Chiniforush

Journal of Lasers in Medical Sciences, Vol. 12 (2021), 13 February 2021 , Page 1-8 (e13)

Introduction: Ceramic brackets have gained increasing popularity among dental clinicians and orthodontic patients but friction is a major concern when using them. This study sought to assess the effects of diode and Nd: YAG (neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet) laser irradiation on friction forces between two types of ceramic brackets and rhodium-coated esthetic archwires.
Methods: Thirty polycrystalline and 30 poly-sapphire brackets were divided into 6 groups (n=10) as follows: (I) control polycrystalline brackets (no laser irradiation), (II) polycrystalline brackets subjected to diode laser irradiation, (III) polycrystalline brackets subjected to Nd: YAG laser irradiation, (IV) control poly-sapphire brackets (no laser irradiation), (V) poly-sapphire brackets subjected to diode laser irradiation, and (VI) poly-sapphire brackets subjected to Nd: YAG laser irradiation. The bracket slots were laser-irradiated on a custom-made table. Sixty 5-cm pieces of rhodium-coated archwires were used for the friction test in a universal testing machine at a speed of 10 mm/min. Ten brackets from the six groups underwent scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX).
Results: The frictional resistance value of polycrystalline brackets was significantly higher than that of poly-sapphire brackets, irrespective of laser type (P < 0.05). Irradiation of diode and Nd: YAG lasers, compared with the control group, had no significant effect on friction, irrespective of bracket type (P> 0.05).
Conclusion: It appears that diode and Nd: YAG laser irradiation cannot significantly decrease the friction. Future studies are warranted on different laser types with variable exposure.

Effect of an 810 nm Diode Laser on the Healing of a Periapical Abscess

Fahimeh Anbari, Mehrnaz Asfia, Gelareh Forouzani, Katayoun Talebi Rafsanjan

Journal of Lasers in Medical Sciences, Vol. 12 (2021), 13 February 2021 , Page e3

Introduction: The golden standard of the treatment of radicular cysts is mainly root canal therapy or surgical excision with apicectomy. The root canals are usually disinfected by the mechanical and chemical actions of instruments and chemical irrigating solutions respectively. To improve the efficacy of the root canal disinfection process, many techniques have been used and many researchers are still trying to reach the quickest and most convenient way to achieve this goal. Diode lasers have shown antibacterial activity on dentinal tubules, and they can penetrate more than 1000 μm into the dentin.
Case Presentation: Our patient was a 25-year-old female with an infraorbital abscess caused by a non-vital maxillary canine with periapical radiolucency. After completing the conventional treatment, the optical fiber was inserted into the canal according to the working length previously measured. An 810 nm diode laser at the output power of 4 W was used to irradiate the root canals, with a 300 μm fiber.The lesion was resolved in radiographic follow-ups, 3 and 6 months after the root canal treatment.
Conclusion: A combination of conventional root canal therapy and an 810 nm diode laser is an effective treatment for non-vital teeth with periapical lesions.

Infrared Thermography in the Evaluation of Dental Socket Healing After Photobiomodulation Therapy: A Case Report

Giovanna Rodrigues de Carvalho, Wictor Nogueira Rodrigues, João Victor Melo Barboza, Cláudio de Góis Nery, Francine do Couto Lima Moreira, Virgílio Moreira Roriz

Journal of Lasers in Medical Sciences, Vol. 12 (2021), 13 February 2021 , Page e11

Introduction: The aim of this article was to evaluate the efficacy of photobiomodulation therapy (PBMT) in the alveolar tissue healing process post-extraction using infrared thermography (IT).
Case Presentation: A 36-year-old male patient had teeth extractions (18 and 28). Four PBMT sessions (660 nm; 2 J per tooth) were performed in the region of tooth 28 and recorded with thermographic images to compare the healing process, bilaterally. In the first two postoperative sessions, the temperature was higher (hyperradiant) on the left side (treated). After the third laser application, the left side was hyporradiant. In a later session, the treated side became hyperradiant compared to the control side. The alveolus of tooth 28 showed more rapid healing than tooth 18 over a period of 60 days.
Conclusion: IT can be used to detect the favorable effect of PBMT on accelerating the healing process in the alveolus within 60 days after the tooth extraction.

Photodynamic Therapy as an adjunct in the Treatment of Medication-Related Osteonecrosis of the Jaw: A Case Report

Marcelo Vieira da Costa Almeida, Antonio C. Moura, Lúcia Santos, Luciana Gominho, Ully Dias Nascimento Távora Cavalcanti, Kaline Romeiro

Journal of Lasers in Medical Sciences, Vol. 12 (2021), 13 February 2021 , Page e12

Introduction: Medication-related osteonecrosis of the jaws (MRONJ) corresponds to an adverse effect of the use of drugs such as Bisphosphonates and Denusomab. The management of MRONJ tends to be conservative, through the guidance of oral hygiene, antibiotic therapy and mouthwashes. However, the use of antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) has shown promise in the treatment of these injuries. The purpose of this article is to report a case of MRONJ treatment associated with aPDT.

Case report: A 75-year-old patient, with a history of breast cancer and use of intravenous Zoledronic Acid, presented with bilateral MRONJ lesions in tuberosity on the right and left sides. Treatment was conservatively instituted with the use of aPDT as an adjuvant. After 12 aPDT sessions, complete regression of the lesion was observed. However, after two weeks, the presence of a new lesion was noted, this time in the anterior region of the maxilla. The same protocol previously established was followed and after two aPDT sessions, the patient returned with complete lesion regression.

Conclusion: The use of aPDT may represent an important adjuvant within a set of clinical protocols in the treatment of MRONJ.

Treatment of Congenital Melanocytic Nevi With a Dual-Wavelengths Copper Vapor Laser: A Case Series

Igor V. Ponomarev, Sergey B. Topchiy, Alexandra E. Pushkareva, Svetlana V. Klyuchareva, Yury N. Andrusenko

Journal of Lasers in Medical Sciences, Vol. 12 (2021), 13 February 2021 , Page e5

Introduction: Congenital melanocytic nevus (CMN) is a severe challenge for dermatology. This pigmented skin lesion is undesirable for patients because of its localization in open areas of the body. Various visible and near-infrared laser systems and intense pulsed light (IPL) sources have been applied for CMN treatment. However, post-traumatic hyperpigmentation, structural changes, atrophy, and scarring due to non-specific thermal damage have been observed. Many patients have shown recurrence after treatment. Therefore, it highlights the need for testing new laser modalities for the management of CMN.
Methods: Two adult II Fitzpatrick phototype patients (a 55-year-old male and a 30-year-old female) with middle-sized facial CMN (on the forehead and lower eyelid) are presented. All patients were treated with dual-wavelength copper vapor laser (CVL) radiation at 511 nm and 578 nm wavelengths with a power ratio of 3:2. The average power was 0.7-0.85 W with an exposure time of 0.3 seconds. The spot size amounted to 1 mm.
Results: Both patients showed complete resolution of CMN after CVL treatments. CMN became crusted within a few days after the laser treatment and peeled off within seven days. No recurrences were observed during the follow-up period up to 24 months.
Conclusion: The middle-sized CMN can be successfully treated with dual-wavelength CVL radiation.