Vol. 9 No. 1 (2021)

Continuous volume

Original/Research Article

Clinical Predictors of Emergency Department Revisits within 48 Hours of Discharge; a Case Control Study

Panvilai Tangkulpanich, Chaiyaporn Yuksen, Wanchalerm Kongchok, Chestsadakon Jenpanitpong (Author)

Archives of Academic Emergency Medicine, Vol. 9 No. 1 (2021), 1 January 2021, Page e1

Introduction: Emergency department (ED) revisits increase overcrowding and predicting which patients may need to revisit could increase patient safety. This study aimed to identify clinical variables that could be used to predict the probability of revisiting ED within 48 hours of discharge.

Methods: A retrospective case-control study was conducted between July 2018 and January 2019 at the Emergency Medicine Department in Ramathibodi Hospital, Bangkok, Thailand. Patients who revisited the ED within 48 hours of discharge (case group) and patients who did not (control group) participated. The predictive factors for ED revisit were identified through multivariate logistic regression analysis.

Results: The case group consisted of 372 patients, who revisited the ED within 48 hours, and the control group consisted of 1488 patients. The most common reason for revisiting the ED was recurring gastrointestinal illness, in 107 patients (28.76%). According to the multivariate data analysis , five factors influenced the probability of revisiting the ED: age of more than 60 years (p < 0.001, OR = 2.04, 95%CI: 1.51-2.77), initial Emergency Severity Index (ESI) triage level of 2 (p = 0.007, OR = 1.20, 95%CI: 0.93-1.56), ED stay duration of 4 hours or longer (p = 0.013, OR = 1.12, 95%CI: 0.87-1.44), body temperature of ≥37.5ºC on discharge (p = 0.034, OR = 1.34, 95%CI: 1.00-1.80), and pulse rate of less than 60 (OR = 1.55, 95%CI: 0.87-2.77) or more than 100 beats/minute (OR = 1.53, 95%CI: 1.10-2.11) (p = 0.011).

Conclusion: According to the findings, the most important and independent predictive factor of ED revisit within 48 hours of discharge were, age ≥ 60 years, ESI triage level 2, ED length of stay ≥ 4 hours, temperature ≥ 37.5 C, and 60 > pulse rate ≥ 100 beats/minute.

Antibody Rapid Test Results in Emergency Medical Services Personnel during COVID-19 Pandemic; a Cross Sectional Study

Peyman Saberian, Seyed Mohammad Mireskandari, Alireza Baratloo, Parisa Hasani-Sharamin, Sepideh Babaniamansour, Ehsan Aliniagerdroudbari, Mahnaz Jamshididana (Author)

Archives of Academic Emergency Medicine, Vol. 9 No. 1 (2021), 1 January 2021, Page e2

Introduction: Like other infectious diseases, it is expected that COVID-19 will mostly end with the development of neutralizing antibody immunity. This study aimed to evaluate the value of COVID-19 antibody rapid test assessment in emergency medical services (EMS) personnel.

Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in Tehran, Iran from 20th March until 20th May 2020. The results of chest computed tomography (CT) scan, and antibody rapid test were compared in EMS personnel with confirmed COVID-19, as well as symptomatic and asymptomatic ones who had exposure to a probable/confirmed COVID-19 teammate. In symptomatic or asymptomatic individuals who were only IgM-positive, chest CT scan or RT-PCR was recommended.

Results: A total of 243 EMS personnel with the mean age of 36.14±8.70 (range 21 to 59) years took part in this study (87.7% were males). Most of the participants (73.3%) had history of exposure. One hundred sixty-three EMS personnel were tested using either RT-PCR test or chest CT-scan or both, and 78 (47.9%) of them had at least one positive result. Among the participants who had undergone chest CT-scan and/or RT-PCR test (n=163), 78 had positive chest CT-scan and/or RT-PCR test; of these, 18 individuals had negative results for IgM and IgG. The rate of positive IgM and IgG in participants with positive chest CT-scan was 1.6 or 1.3 times more than those with negative chest CT-scan, respectively (p < 0.05). The percentage of positive results for both IgM and IgG in participants having positive RT-PCR test was 1.7 times more than those having negative RT-PCR test (p < 0.05).

Conclusion: Rapid antibody test could help in diagnosis of COVID-19 in asymptomatic or symptomatic EMS personnel who did not undergo RT-PCR test or the test was reported as negative. However, its sensitivity could be enhanced through use along with other diagnostic methods.

The Clinical Skills of Emergency Medical Service (EMS) Personnel Regarding Spinal Immobilization of Trauma Victims; a Cross Sectional Study

Nasir Jadgal, Malahat Nikravan Mofrad, Maryam Jamsahar, Malihe Nasiri (Author)

Archives of Academic Emergency Medicine, Vol. 9 No. 1 (2021), 1 January 2021, Page e3

Introduction: Spinal immobilization is the most important measure the Emergency Medical Service (EMS) has to take when facing the victims of traumatic events, especially those with confirmed or suspected traumatic spinal cord injury (TSCI). The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical skills of EMS personnel regarding the spinal immobilization of trauma victims.

Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted to examine the clinical skills of EMS personnel, regarding spinal immobilization of trauma victims during a 1-year period in 2019. EMS personnel were selected via convenience sampling method. Data collection tools were a demographic questionnaire and a researcher-made checklist to assess clinical skills. The face and content validity of the tool was reviewed and approved by 10 experts. Also, the overall reliability coefficient for the skills was 0.98. Data were collected by the researcher through observing the skills performed, and filling out the clinical skills checklist accordingly.

Results: The mean overall score of the clinical skills of the 120 participants regarding spinal immobilization of trauma victims in supine, prone, and sitting positions were 0.60 ± 1.44, 0.58 ± 1.42 and 0.65 ± 1.62, respectively. Most of the studied personnel had moderate clinical skills in spinal immobilization, and they had poor clinical skills required to correctly pull the trauma victims in the longitudinal axis of the body to put them on a long backboard and immobilize their torso, legs, and head using the Kendrick Extrication Device (KED).

Conclusion: The studied EMS personnel had moderate clinical skills regarding the spinal immobilization of trauma victims. It is recommended that the EMS training programs focus more on the practical aspects of clinical skills in addition to theoretical aspects.

Straddle versus Conventional Chest Compressions in a Confined Space; a Comparative Study

Praphaphorn Supatanakij, Chaiyaporn Yuksen, Terapat Chantawong, Pilaiwan Sawangwong, Chetsadakon Jenpanitpong, Jirayoot Patchkrua, Ponlawat Kanchayawong (Author)

Archives of Academic Emergency Medicine, Vol. 9 No. 1 (2021), 1 January 2021, Page e4

Introduction: When cardiac arrest occurs in a confined space, such as in an aircraft or ambulance, kneeling by the patient’s side may be difficult. Straddle chest compression is an alternative technique that can be used in a confined space. This study was performed to compare the quality of chest compressions in straddle versus conventional CPR on a manikin model.

Methods: The participants were randomized into two groups using the sequential numbered, opaque, sealed envelope method chosen through block-of-four randomization: straddle and conventional chest compression technique. Each participant performed a maximum of 4 minutes of hands-only chest compressions, and quality parameters (compression rate and depth) were recorded from the defibrillator's monitor.

Results: 124 participants with mean age of 26.67 ± 6.90 years (27.58% male) were studied. There was no difference in the mean compression rate between the conventional and straddle chest compression techniques (126.18 ± 17.11 and 127.01 ± 21.01 compressions/min, respectively; p = 0.811) or their mean compression depth (43.8 ± 9.60 and 43.4 ± 9.10 mm, respectively; p = 0.830). The participants’ comfort and fatigue were assessed through changes in their vital signs. In both methods, statistically significant differences were observed in vital signs before and after performing chest compression, but the differences were not clinically significant. In addition, there was no difference between the 2 groups in this regard.

Conclusion: The quality of CPR using the straddle chest compression was as good as conventional chest compression technique. No significant differences were found in the quality of chest compressions or the participants’ comfort and fatigue levels.

Topical Tranexamic Acid versus Phenylephrine-lidocaine for the Treatment of Anterior Epistaxis in Patients Taking Aspirin or Clopidogrel; a Randomized Clinical Trial

Keyvan Amini, AmirAhmad Arabzadeh, Sevda Jahed, Payman Amini (Author)

Archives of Academic Emergency Medicine, Vol. 9 No. 1 (2021), 1 January 2021, Page e6

Introduction: Epistaxis is one of the most prevalent complaints in the emergency department (ED), especially in patients who take antiplatelet agents. This study aimed to compare the effect of topical use of tranexamic acid (TXA) with phenylephrine-lidocaine anterior nasal packing (PANP) in controlling epistaxis of patients who take aspirin or clopidogrel.

Methods: This prospective, double-blind, parallel-group, randomized clinical trial was conducted to compare the effect of topical use of intravenous (IV) TXA compared with PANP on controlling anterior epistaxis in patients who take aspirin or clopidogrel.

Results: One hundred patients with the mean age of 59.24 ± 7.75 (45 – 75) years were studied (52% male). Two groups were similar in terms of age (p=0.81) and sex (p=0.23) distribution, diabetes mellitus (p=0.54), and hypertension (p = 0.037). The mean time to stop bleeding was 6.70 ± 2.35 minutes in the TXA group and 11.50±3.64 minutes in the PANP group (p=0.002). Bleeding recurrence occurred in 3 (6%) cases of the TXA group and 10 (20%) cases of the PANP group (p =0.03). Time to discharge from ED in the TXA group was significantly lower than the PANP group (p<0.001). The absolute risk reduction (ARR), relative risk reduction, and number needed to harm of treatment with TXA for anterior nasal bleeding were 14.00% (95%CI: 1.11 – 26.89), 17.50% (95%CI: 0.60 - 37.27), and 7.14 (95%CI: 3.71 -90.43), respectively.

Conclusion: Topical TXA is an appropriate treatment option in bleeding cessation, and reducing re-bleeding and duration of hospital stay in patients with epistaxis who take antiplatelet agents.

Baseline Characteristics and Outcomes of Patients with Head and Neck Burn Injuries; a Cross-Sectional Study of 2181 Cases

Soudabeh Haddadi, Arman Parvizi, Reza Niknama, Shadman Nemati, Ramyar Farzan, Ehsan Kazemnejad (Author)

Archives of Academic Emergency Medicine, Vol. 9 No. 1 (2021), 1 January 2021, Page e8

Introduction: Despite recent progress in treatment of burn injuries, head and neck burn and its complications is still considered a challenge. This study aimed to evaluate the baseline characteristics and outcomes of patients with head and neck burn.

Methods: In this retrospective cross-sectional study, the medical profiles of patients with head and neck burn referring to a burn care center during 2 years were reviewed and analyzed regarding the baseline characteristics and outcomes of participants.

Results: 392 (17.97%) cases suffered from head and neck burns. The mean burn percentage of participants was 29.31 ± 24.78, and 126 (32.14%) cases required tracheal intubation. There was a direct correlation between length of hospital stay and the degree of burn (p < 0.001). The length of hospitalization for patients burned by electricity was longer than those burned by other mechanisms (p = 0.003). There was a significant correlation between degree of burn and abnormal laryngoscopy findings (p = 0.036), developing acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) (p < 0.001) and pneumonia (p < 0.001), need for mechanical ventilation (p < 0.001), and mortality rate (p < 0.001).

Conclusion: Based on the findings of the present study, the prevalence of head and neck burn injuries was about 18% and 32.14% of these cases required airway management. 19 (4.85%) cases developed ARDS, 41 (10.46%) developed pneumonia, and 50 (12.76%) cases died. There was a significant correlation between degree of burn and abnormal laryngoscopy findings, developing ARDS and pneumonia, need for mechanical ventilation, and mortality rate.

Determining the Need for Computed Tomography Scan Following Blunt Chest Trauma through Machine Learning Approaches

Mohsen Shahverdy, Hamed Malek (Author)

Archives of Academic Emergency Medicine, Vol. 9 No. 1 (2021), 1 January 2021, Page e15

Introduction: The use of computed tomography (CT) scan is essential for making diagnoses for trauma patients in emergency medicine. Numerous studies have been conducted on guiding medical examinations in light of advances in machine learning, leading to more accurate and rapid diagnoses. The present study aims to propose a machine learning-based method to help emergency physicians prevent performance of unnecessary CT scans for chest trauma patients.

Methods: A dataset of 1000 samples collected in nearly two years was used. Classification methods used for modeling included the support vector machine (SVM), logistic regression, Naïve Bayes, decision tree, multilayer perceptron (four hidden layers), random forest, and K nearest neighbor (KNN). The present work employs the decision tree approach (the most interpretable machine learning approach) as the final method.

Results: The accuracy of 7 machine learning algorithms was investigated. The decision tree algorithm was of higher accuracy than other algorithms. The optimal tree depth of 7 was chosen using the training data. The accuracy, sensitivity and specificity of the final model was calculated to be 99.91% (95%CI: 99.10% – 100%), 100% (95%CI: 99.89% – 100%), and 99.33% (95%CI: 99.10% – 99.56%), respectively.

Conclusion: Considering its high sensitivity, the proposed model seems to be sufficiently reliable for determining the need for performing a CT scan.

Effects of Intravenous Lipid Emulsion on Tramadol-Induced Seizure; a Randomized Clinical Trial

Amir Mohammad Kazemifar, Zohreh Yazdi, Abbas Bedram, Javad MAhmoudi, Mojtaba Ziaee (Author)

Archives of Academic Emergency Medicine, Vol. 9 No. 1 (2021), 1 January 2021, Page e20

Introduction: There are numerous studies on the efficacy of intralipid emulsion (ILE) in various xenobiotic toxicities. This study aimed to evaluate the potential role of ILE as an antidote in tramadol-induced seizure.

Methods: A single-blind clinical trial was undertaken to establish the efficacy and safety of ILE in patients with acute tramadol intoxication, who referred to Booali Hospital in Qazvin. Patients were randomly assigned to 2 groups. The Control group received standard care while the intervention group received intralipid emulsion (ILE) 20% in addition to the standard care. The occurrence of in-hospital seizure was compared between the groups.

Results: 80 patients who abused tramadol and met the study criteria were randomly assigned to either the intervention (40 cases) or the control (40 cases) group. Seizure occurred in 44 (56%) patients before admission to the emergency department. There were not any statistical differences between the groups regarding sex distribution (p=0.513) and mean age (p=0.19), presenting vital signs (p < 0.05), laboratory findings (p < 0.05), and mean abused dose of tramadol (p = 0.472) as well as occurrence of prehospital seizure (p = 0.7). In-hospital seizure occurred in 15 (18.75%) cases (all in the control group; p < 0.001). The mean duration of admission was 2.01 ± 1.13 days in the control group and 2.15 ± 1.04 days in the intervention group (p = 0.6).  The number needed to treat for ILE to prevent tramadol-induced seizure was 2.7 (37.5% absolute risk reduction).

Conclusions: The findings of this study supported ILE administration, as an adjunct to standard antidote protocols, in tramadol intoxication to prevent tramadol-induced seizures.

Echocardiographic Abnormalities as Independent Prognostic Factors of In-Hospital Mortality among COVID-19 Patients

Mehdi Pishgahi, Kimia Karimi Toudeshki, Saeed Safari, Mahmoud Yousefifard (Author)

Archives of Academic Emergency Medicine, Vol. 9 No. 1 (2021), 1 January 2021, Page e21

Introduction: Direct and indirect sequels of COVID-19 in the cardiovascular system are unclear. The present study aims to investigate the echocardiography findings in COVID-19 patients and possible correlations between the findings and the disease outcome.

Methods: In this cross-sectional study, baseline characteristics and echocardiographic findings of hospitalized COVID-19 cases, and their correlation with mortality were evaluated. Furthermore, computed tomography (CT) angiography was performed to assess possible pulmonary embolism. In-hospital mortality was considered as the main outcome of the present study.

Results: 680 confirmed COVID-19 cases with the mean age of 55.15 ± 10.92 (range: 28 – 79) years were studied (63.09% male). Analysis showed that history of ischemic heart disease (RR=1.14; 95% CI: 1.08-1.19), history of hypertension (RR=1.04; 95% CI: 1.00-1.08), presence of embolism in main pulmonary artery (RR=1.53; 95% CI: 1.35-1.74), CT involvement more than 70% (RR=1.08; 95% CI: 1.1.01-1.16), left ventricular ejection fraction < 30 (RR=1.19; 95% CI: 1.07-1.32), pleural effusion (RR=1.08; 95% CI: 1.00-1.16), pulmonary artery systolic blood pressure 35 to 50 mmHg (RR=1.11; 95% CI: 1.03-1.18), right ventricular dysfunction (RR=1.54; 95% CI: 1.40-1.08), and collapsed inferior vena-cava (RR=1.05; 95% CI: 1.01-1.08) were independent prognostic factors of in-hospital mortality.

Conclusion: Our study showed that cardiac involvement is a prevalent complication in COVID-19 patients. Echocardiography findings have independent prognostic value for prediction of in-hospital mortality. Since echocardiography is an easy and accessible method, echocardiography monitoring of COVID-19 patients can be used as a screening tool for identification of high-risk patients.

The Correlation between Head of Bed Angle and Intra-Abdominal Pressure of Intubated Patients; a Pre-Post Clinical Trial

Sedigheh Samimian, Sadra Ashrafi, Tahereh Khaleghdoost Mohammadi, Mohammad Reza Yeganeh, Ali Ashraf, Hamideh Hakimi, Maryam Dehghani (Author)

Archives of Academic Emergency Medicine, Vol. 9 No. 1 (2021), 1 January 2021, Page e23

Introduction: The recommended position for measuring Intra-Abdominal Pressure (IAP) is the supine position. However, patients put in this position are prone to Ventilator-associated pneumonia. This study was done to evaluate the relationship between bed head angle and IAP measurements of intubated patients in the intensive care unit.

Methods: In this clinical trial, seventy-six critically ill patients under mechanical ventilation were enrolled. IAP measurement was performed every 8 hours for 24 hours using the KORN method in three different degrees of the head of bed (HOB) elevation (0 , 15 , and 30 ). Bland-Altman analysis was performed to identify the bias and limits of agreement among the three HOBs. According to World Society of the Abdominal Compartment Syndrome (WSACS), we can consider two IAP techniques equivalent if a bias of <1 mmHg and limits of agreement of - 4 to +4 were found between them. Data were analyzed using SPSS statistical software (v. 19), and the significance level was considered as 0.05.

Results: The prevalence of intra-abdominal hypertension was 18.42%. Mean ± standard deviation (SD) of IAP were 8.44 ± 4.02 mmHg for HOB angle 0°, 9.58 ± 4.52 for HOB angle 15  and 11.10 ± 4.73 for HOB angle 30o (p = 0.0001). The IAP measurement bias between HOB angle 0°and HOB angle 15° was 1.13 mmHg. This bias was 2.66 mmHg between HOB angle 0° and HOB angle 30°.

Conclusion: Elevation of HOB angle from 0 to 30 degree significantly increases IAP. It seems that the measurement of IAP at HOB angle 15° was more reliable than 30°.

The Geographical Distribution of Probable COVID-19 Patients Transferred by Tehran Emergency Medical Services; a Cross Sectional Study

Peyman Saberian, Hosein Rafiemanesh, Mostafa Sadeghi, Parisa Hasani-Sharamin, Fatemeh Dadashi, Alireza Baratloo (Author)

Archives of Academic Emergency Medicine, Vol. 9 No. 1 (2021), 1 January 2021, Page e25

Introduction: Mapping of COVID-19 infection in the city can help us know more about how the disease is distributed and spread. This study was conducted to investigate the geographical distribution of probable COVID-19 patients who were transferred to destination hospitals by emergency medical services (EMS) in the first wave of the epidemic, in Tehran, Iran.

Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed based on recorded missions during the first 3-month period of the pandemic in Tehran, Iran. All probable cases of COVID-19 who were transferred to the hospitals following contact with Tehran EMS during the study period were enrolled. Arc-GIS software was utilized to draw the distribution map of the contact places of the cases.

Results: In this study, the data of 4018 patients were analyzed (60.9% male). The mean age of the patients was 54.1 ± 20.7 years; and the mean age of the patients had increased with time during the studied 3 months (p = 0.003). The average incidence rate of this disease in Tehran during the study period was 4.6 per 10,000 population. Generally, the lowest and highest raw frequencies of Tehran COVID-19 contamination were seen in municipal districts 21 and 4, respectively. The raw frequency of cases during the 3-month study period also showed that the highest number of cases in Tehran occurred in municipal districts 5 and 4, respectively.

Conclusion: In the present study, using geographic information systems (GIS), geographical distribution map of COVID-19 in Tehran, Iran, during the first 3 months of the pandemic was drawn.

Fibrinogen Dysregulation is a Prominent Process in Fatal Conditions of COVID-19 Infection; a Proteomic Analysis

Mostafa Rezaei-Tavirani, Mohammad Rostami Nejad, Babak Arjmand, Sina Rezaei Tavirani, Mohammadreza Razzaghi, Vahid Mansouri (Author)

Archives of Academic Emergency Medicine, Vol. 9 No. 1 (2021), 1 January 2021, Page e26

Introduction: Molecular pathophysiology of COVID-19 is not completely known. Expression changes in patients' plasma proteins have revealed new information about the disease. Introducing the key targeted plasma protein in fatal conditions of COVID-19 infection is the aim of this study.

Methods: Significant differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) in the plasma of cases with a fatal condition of COVID-19 were extracted from an original article. These proteins were included in a network via STRING database along with 100 first neighbor proteins to determine central nodes of the network for analyzing.

Results: Queried and added proteins were included in a scale free network. Three hub nodes were identified as critical target proteins. The top queried hub proteins were chains of fibrinogen; Fibrinogen Alpha chain (FGA), Fibrinogen gamma chain (FGG), and Fibrinogen beta chain (FGB), which are related to the coagulation process.

Conclusions: It seems that fibrinogen dysregulation has a deep impact on the fatality of COVID-19 infection.

Platelet and Haemostasis are the Main Targets in Severe Cases of COVID-19 Infection; a System Biology Study

Mona Zamanian Azodi, Babak Arjmand, Mohammadreza Razzaghi, Mostafa Rezaei Tavirani, Alireza Ahmadzadeh, Mohammad Rostaminejad (Author)

Archives of Academic Emergency Medicine, Vol. 9 No. 1 (2021), 1 January 2021, Page e27

Introduction: Many proteomics-based and bioinformatics-based efforts are made to detect the molecular mechanism of COVID-19 infection. Identification of the main protein targets and pathways of severe cases of COVID-19 infection is the aim of this study.

Methods: Published differentially expressed proteins were screened and the significant proteins were investigated via protein-protein interaction network using Cytoscape software V. 3.7.2 and STRING database. The studied proteins were assessed via action map analysis to determine the relationship between individual proteins using CluePedia. The related biological terms were investigated using ClueGO and the terms were clustered and discussed.

Results: Among the 35 queried proteins, six of them (FGA, FGB, FGG, and FGl1 plus TLN1 and THBS1) were identified as critical proteins. A total of 38 biological terms, clustered in 4 groups, were introduced as the affected terms. “Platelet degranulation” and “hereditary factor I deficiency disease” were introduced as the main class of the terms disturbed by COVID-19 virus.

Conclusion: It can be concluded that platelet damage and disturbed haemostasis could be the main targets in severe cases of coronavirus infection. It is vital to follow patients’ condition by examining the introduced critical differentially expressed proteins (DEPs).

Early Detection of Rhabdomyolysis-Induced Acute Kidney Injury through Machine Learning Approaches

Poorya Poorsarvi Tehrani, Hamed Malek (Author)

Archives of Academic Emergency Medicine, Vol. 9 No. 1 (2021), 1 January 2021, Page e29

Introduction: Rhabdomyolysis-induced acute kidney injury (AKI) is one of the most common complications of catastrophic incidents, especially earthquakes. Early detection of AKI can reduce the burden of the disease. In this paper, data collected from the Bam earthquake was used to find a suitable model that can be used in prediction of AKI in the early stages of the disaster.

Methods: Models used in this paper utilized many inputs, which were extracted from the previously published dataset, but depending on the employed method, other inputs have also been considered. This work has been done in two parts. In the first part, the models were constructed from a smaller set of records, which included all of the required fields and in the second part; the main purpose was to find a way to replace the missing data, as data are mostly incomplete in catastrophic events.  The data used belonged to the victims of the Bam earthquake, who were admitted to different hospitals. These data were collected on the first day of the incident via questionnaires that were provided by the Iranian Society of Nephrology, in collaboration with the International Society of Nephrology (ISN).

Results: Overall, neural networks have more robust results and given that they can be trained on more data to gain better accuracy, and gain more generalization, they show promising results. Overall, the best specificity that was achieved on testing almost all of the records was 99.24% and the best sensitivity that was achieved in testing almost all of the records was 94.44%.

Conclusion: We introduced several machine learning-based methods for predicting rhabdomyolysis-induced AKI on the third day after a catastrophic incident. The introduced models show higher accuracy compared to previous works performed on the Bam earthquake dataset.  

High Incidence of Workplace Violence in Metropolitan Emergency Departments of Thailand; a Cross Sectional Study

Adisak Nithimathachoke, Wanawat Wichiennopparat (Author)

Archives of Academic Emergency Medicine, Vol. 9 No. 1 (2021), 1 January 2021, Page e30

Introduction: Violence against healthcare workers mostly occurs in emergency departments and is a serious global public health issue. This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of violence directed towards emergency department healthcare personnel and to ascertain the factors that might be correlated with it.

Methods: In this cross-sectional study, an anonymous questionnaire was used to gather data from healthcare personnel working in the emergency departments under the direction of the Bangkok Metropolitan Administration between 1 August 2019 and 30 November 2019, regarding the experience of violence during the previous year.

Results: A total of 258 (87.5%) responses were received from 295 personnel. The results showed that 88.4% (228 personnel) had experienced violence during the past year, of these, 37.6% involved physical abuse that caused minor injuries. Employees with shorter tenures, nurses, and those working in tertiary academic emergency departments in the central business district were found to have increased likelihood of confronting violence. Measures taken to prevent violence had a limited impact on the occurrence rate. The most common impact on employees after experiencing violence was discouragement in their jobs (75.1 %). The key factors that promoted cases of violence were the consumption of alcohol or drugs (81.3%) and long waiting times (73.6%). Most violence tended to occur during non-office hours (95.4%). One-third of emergency healthcare personnel reported facing violence during their work.

Conclusion: Emergency healthcare personnel in metropolitan of Thailand had a high rate of experiencing violence in the previous year. Younger age, lower work experience, being a nurse, and working in the urban academic or tertiary emergency department increased the likelihood of being a victim of workplace violence.

HEART Score in Predicting One-Month Major Adverse Cardiac Events in Patients with Acute Chest Pain; a Diagnostic Accuracy Study

Hossein Alimohammadi, Majid Shojaee, Mohammad Reza Sohrabi, Saman Salahi (Author)

Archives of Academic Emergency Medicine, Vol. 9 No. 1 (2021), 1 January 2021, Page e31

Introduction: Screening of high-risk patients and accelerating their therapeutic procedures can reduce the burden of acute coronary syndrome (ACS). This study aimed to evaluate the accuracy of HEART score in predicting the risk of one-month major adverse cardiac events (MACE) in these patients.

Methods: In this prospective cross-sectional study, the accuracy of HEART score in patients over 18 years old who presented to emergency department following acute chest pain, was evaluated during a 21-month period. Each patient was followed up regarding the incidence of MACE for one month via phone call and the hospital’s integrated health information system.

Results: 240 cases with the mean age of 60.50 ± 16.07 years were studied (56.3% male).  MACE was observed in 77 (32.1%) cases. The most common MACE was percutaneous coronary artery revascularization (PCAR) (12.9%). The mean HEART score of studied cases was 4.74 ± 2.12. The mean score of cases with MACE was significantly higher than others (6.25 ± 1.97 versus 4.03 ± 1.79; p < 0.0001).  Based on this score, the risk of MACE was high in 34 (14.2%), moderate in 118 (49.2%), and low in 88 (36.7%) cases. The incidence of one-month MACE was 85.3% in high-risk cases, 35.6% in moderate one, and 6.8% in low-risk cases based on HEART score. The area under the ROC curve of HEART score in predicting the risk of MACE was 0.796 (95% CI: 0.736 – 0.856). The best cut off point of HEART score in this regard was calculated as 4.5. The sensitivity and specificity of this score in 4.5 cut off were 83.11% (95% CI: 72.49 – 90.35) and 66.25% (95% CI: 58.38 – 73.35), respectively.

Conclusion: Based on the findings of the present study the mean HEART score of ACS patients with one-month MACE was significantly higher than others and the incidence of MACE in high-risk patients was significantly higher. But the overall accuracy of score in predicting one-month MACE in ACS patients was in moderate range.

Factors Related to Mortality in Patients with Fournier’s Gangrene or Necrotising Fasciitis; a 10-year Cross-Sectional Study

Anahita Ansari Djafari, Amirhossein Rahavian, Babak Javanmard, Saeed Montazeri, Vahid Shahabi, Seyyed Ali Hojati, Saleh Ghiasy, Ramin Hamidi, jalallodin khoshnevis (Author)

Archives of Academic Emergency Medicine, Vol. 9 No. 1 (2021), 1 January 2021, Page e33

Introduction: Fournier’s gangrene (FG) is a life-threatening disease, even with early diagnosis and administration of vigorous treatment, its mortality rate is high. This study aimed to evaluate the factors relate to mortality in patients with FG or necrotising fasciitis managed in a referral center. 

Methods: This retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted on patients managed in a tertiary referral center, Tehran, Iran, from March 2009 to March 2019, with diagnosis of FG or necrotising fasciitis. The correlation between different demographic and clinical parameters with mortality was analysed and reported.

Results: 73 cases with the mean age of 59.1 ± 15.8 (range: 25 – 88) years were studied (87.7% male). 21 (28.8%) patients died. Escherichia coli (26 cases, 35.6%) was the most frequent microorganism in cultures. Non-survived cases had higher mean age (p = 0.01), higher frequency of hyperlipidaemia (p = 0.02), immunosuppression (p < 0.001), longer hospital stay (p=0.02), lower blood pressure (p=0.01), and lower platelet count (p=<0.001). Based on multivariate analysis, age (p = 0.015; Odds: 0.88 (0.79-0.97)), haematocrit level (p = 0.01; Odds: 1.27 (1.04-1.55)), platelet count (p = 0.03; Odds: 10.11 (1.14-89.35)), and immunosuppression (p = 0.01; Odds: 0.01 (0.0-0.54)) were independent related factors of mortality.

Conclusions: The rate of mortality due to FG and necrotizing fasciitis was 28.8%. Based on multivariate analysis, the independent related factors of mortality were older age, lower haematocrit level and platelet count, and presence of immunosuppression.

Neurological Manifestations and their Correlated Factors in COVID-19 Patients; a Cross-Sectional Study

Farzad Ashrafi, Davood Ommi, Alireza Zali, Sina Khani, Amirali Soheili, Mehran Arab-Ahmadi, Behdad Behnam, Shabnam Nohesara, Farbod Semnani, Alireza Fatemi, Mehri Salari, Reza Jalili khoshnood, Mohammad Vahidi, Niloofar Ayoobi-Yazdi, Saeed Hosseini Toudeshki, Elham Sobhrakhshankhah (Author)

Archives of Academic Emergency Medicine, Vol. 9 No. 1 (2021), 1 January 2021, Page e34

Introduction: COVID-19 might present with other seemingly unrelated manifestations; for instance, neurological symptoms. This study aimed to evaluate the neurologic manifestations and their correlated factors in COVID-19 patients.

Methods: This retrospective observational study was conducted from March 17, 2020 to June 20, 2020 in a tertiary hospital in Iran. The study population consisted of adult patients with a positive result for COVID-19 real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) using nasopharyngeal swabs. Both written and electronic data regarding baseline characteristic, laboratory findings, and neurological manifestations were evaluated and reported.

Results: 727 COVID-19 patients with the mean age of 49.94 ± 17.49 years were studied (56.9% male). At least one neurological symptom was observed in 403 (55.4%) cases. Headache (29.0%), and smell (22.3%) and taste (22.0%) impairment were the most prevalent neurological symptoms, while seizure (1.1%) and stroke (2.3%) were the least common ones. Patients with neurological manifestations were significantly older (p = 0.04), had greater body mass index (BMI) (p = 0.02), longer first symptom to admission duration (p < 0.001) and were more frequently opium users (p = 0.03) compared to COVID-19 patients without neurological symptoms. O2 saturation was significantly lower in patients with neurological manifestations (p = 0.04). In addition, medians of neutrophil count (p = 0.006), neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) (p = 0.02) and c-reactive protein (CRP) (p = 0.001) were significantly higher and the median of lymphocyte count (p = 0.03) was significantly lower in patients with neurological manifestations.

Conclusion: The prevalence of neurological manifestations in the studied cases was high (55.4%). This prevalence was significantly higher in older age, grated BMI, longer lasting disease, and opium usage.

Prevalence and Related Factors of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder in Emergency Medical Technicians; a Cross-Sectional Study

Afshin Khazaei, Maryam Esmaeili, Habib Masoumi, Elham Navab (Author)

Archives of Academic Emergency Medicine, Vol. 9 No. 1 (2021), 1 January 2021, Page e35

Introduction: Ongoing exposure to a variety of Pre-hospital Emergencies (PE) has placed Emergency Medical Technicians (EMTs) at serious psychiatric compromise such as Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). The present study aimed to evaluate the prevalence and associated factors of PTSD among EMTs.

Methods: This prospective cross-sectional study was conducted on EMTs in the Emergency Medical Services (EMS) in west of Iran. A baseline information questionnaire including personal work-related characteristics and the PTSD checklist of DSM-5 (PCL-5) were used for data collection. Non-parametric tests and multivariate linear regression were used to evaluate the associated factors of PTSD in these participants.

Results: Among the participants, 22% of technicians had PTSD-diagnostic criteria. The mean total PCL-5 score was 21.60 ± 11.45, while the scores were 38.02 ± 6.08 and 17.47 ± 8.36 in the PTSD-diagnosed and undiagnosed groups, respectively. The most common symptom of the clusters was negative alterations in cognition with a mean score of 7.42 ± 4.63. After adjusting confounders, the number of missions (t= 2.50, P= 0.013), work experience (t= -3.24, P= 0.001) and number of shifts (t: 26.38, P < 0.001) were significantly corelated with PCL-5 score.

Conclusion: The results indicated that the prevalence of PTSD among EMTs personnel of Hamadan province is high. EMTs with the age of ≤ 30 years, work experience of ≤ 10 years, married status, informal employment, emergency medical technician's degree, and more than 8 shifts per month, as well as no previous training history had a higher total PCL-5 score.

Comparing the Accuracy of Ohmann and Alvarado Scoring Systems in Detection of Acute Appendicitis; a Cross-Sectional Study

seyed Jalal Eshagh Hoseini, Mostafa Vahedian, Alireza Sharifi (Author)

Archives of Academic Emergency Medicine, Vol. 9 No. 1 (2021), 1 January 2021, Page e37

Introduction: Alvarado Scoring System (ASS) and Ohmann Scoring System (OSS) are two scoring systems for diagnosing acute appendicitis (AA). This study was designed to compare the diagnostic accuracy of the two mentioned scores in detection of acute abdominal cases at risk for AA.

Methods: In this prospective cross-sectional study, patients admitted to the emergency departments of two academic hospitals in Qom, Iran, with right lower quadrant (RLQ) abdominal pain suspected to AA were evaluated. All cases were scored using ASS and OSS, and screening performance characteristics of the two scores were calculated and reported considering the pathologic findings as a gold standard.

Results: 174 patients with a preliminary AA diagnosis and the mean age of 38.1 ± 10.63 years (11- 73) were included in this study (62.07% male). At the optimal cutoff point of ≥7 for the ASS, the sensitivity and the specificity were 46.43% (95% CI: 37.97%-55.07%), 97.05% (95% CI: 84.67%-92.93%), respectively. At the optimal cutoff point of ≥11 for the OSS, the sensitivity and the specificity were 74.29% (95% CI: 66.22%-81.29%), and 55.88% (95% CI: 37.89% - 72.82%), respectively.

Conclusion: Based on the finding of this study, the ASS ≥ 7 was more accurate than the OSS ≥ 11 for detection of AA. But it should be considered that the overall accuracy of Alvarado and Ohmann scores in this regard were fair (0.83) and poor (0.67), respectively. 

Validation of Songklanagarind Pediatric Triage Model in the Emergency Department; a Cross-Sectional Study

Siriwimon Tantarattanapong, Nut Chonwanich, Wannipha Senuphai (Author)

Archives of Academic Emergency Medicine, Vol. 9 No. 1 (2021), 1 January 2021, Page e39

Introduction: An effective triage needs to consider many factors, such as good triage protocol, experienced triage nurses, and patient factors. This study aimed to evaluate the validity of Songklanagarind Pediatric Triage (SPT) for triage of pediatric patients in the emergency department (ED) and identify the factors associated with triage appropriateness.

Methods: This study was done in two phases. In the first phase, a team of emergency physicians, a pediatric emergency physician, and a pediatric critical care physician developed SPT model by considering and combining Emergency Severity Index (ESI), Pediatric Assessment Triangle (PAT), Pediatric Canadian Triage and Acuity Scale (PaedCTAS), and Pediatric Septic Shock early warning signs protocol of the hospital as the core concept. In the second phase, a prospective observational study was conducted in the ED of Songklanagarind Hospital, which is a tertiary university hospital in southern Thailand, from September to October 2019 to evaluate the accuracy of the developed triage model.

Results: A total of 520 pediatric patients met the inclusion criteria. The pediatric triage model had sensitivity and specificity values of 98.28% and 26.24%, respectively, and positive and negative predictive values of 27.67% and 98.15%, respectively, in prediction of death, hospitalization, and resource utilization. The rates of appropriate triage, over-triage, and under-triage were 68.8%, 28.5%, and 2.7%, respectively. Significant factors associated with appropriateness of triage were underlying disease of the respiratory system (OR = 4.16, 95%CI: 1.75‒9.23), fever (OR = 0.60, 95%CI: 0.41‒0.88), dyspnea (OR: 6.38, 95%CI: 2.51‒16.22), diarrhea (OR = 0.26, 95%CI: 0.09‒0.73), oxygen saturation <95% (OR = 3.18, 95%CI: 1.09‒9.27), accessory muscle use during breathing (OR = 3.67, 95%CI: 1.09‒12.41), and wheezing or rhonchi (OR = 6.96, 95%CI: 3.14‒15.43).

Conclusion: SPT showed good correlation of hospital admission rates and resource utilization with pediatric triage level of urgency. However, further efforts are needed to decrease the rates of over- and under-triage.

Awareness of Iranian Medical Sciences Students Towards Basic Life Support; a Cross-Sectional study

Meisam Akhlaghdoust, Saeid Safari, Poorya Davoodi, Shaghayegh Soleimani, Maryam Khorasani, Fatemeh Raoufizadeh, Hosna Karimi, Elahe Etesami, Zeynab Hamzehloei, Seyedeh Sara Sadeghi, Ladan Heidaresfahani, Tooba Ebadi Fard Azar, Haniyeh Afshari Badrloo (Author)

Archives of Academic Emergency Medicine, Vol. 9 No. 1 (2021), 1 January 2021, Page e40

Introduction: Augmentation of the number of trained basic life support (BLS) providers can remarkably reduce the number of cardiac arrest victims. The aim of this study was to evaluate the level of BLS awareness among students of medical sciences in Iran.  

Methods: This multicenter cross-sectional study was performed on medical students at the 4 major medical schools in Tehran, the capital of Iran, between Jan 2018 and Feb 2019, using convenience sampling method. The level of medical sciences students’ awareness of BLS was measured using an international questionnaire.

Results: Finally, 1210 students with the mean age of 21.2 ± 2.3 years completed the survey (79% female). 133 (10.9%) students had CPR experience and none had received any formal training. None of the responders could answer all questions correctly. The mean awareness score of participants was 11.93 ± 2.87 (range: 10.13 -17.25). The awareness score of participants was high in 49 (4.04 %) participants, moderate in 218 (18.01%), and low in 943 (77.93%) of studied cases.

Conclusion: Based on the findings of this study, more than 70% of the studied medical sciences students obtained a low score on BLS awareness.

Is Social Distancing Policy Effective in Controlling COVID-19? An Interrupted Time Series Analysis

Mehdi Yaseri, Rahim Soleimani-Jelodar, Zohreh Rostami, Saeed Shahsavari, Mostafa Hosseini (Author)

Archives of Academic Emergency Medicine, Vol. 9 No. 1 (2021), 1 January 2021, Page e41

Introduction: The social distancing plan is one of the ways that was implemented for management of COVID-19 pandemic. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of the social distancing on reducing the daily new cases and deaths from COVID-19.

Methods: In this cross-sectional study, the data of daily new cases and daily deaths were collected from 15/02/2020 to 19/04/2020. Changes in the level and trend of daily new cases and daily deaths before and after the implementation of social distancing plan were evaluated using interrupted time series (ITS) analysis in STATA software.

Results: The post-intervention trend had a decrease of 102 new cases per day and 7 new deaths per day compared to the pre-intervention trend (p < 0.001). Moreover, in the post-intervention period, the daily new cases had a decrease of 58 new cases per day and 2 new deaths per day (p < 0.001).

Conclusion: It Could be concluded that social distancing plan directly affects the new daily cases and new daily deaths.

Comparing the Severity of Injury and Trauma Pattern between Scooter and Street Motorcycle Riders; a Prospective Cohort Study

Mansour Bahardoust, Arman Karimi Behnagh, Abolfazl Bagherifard, Mehrdad Khodabandeh, Sayed Ali Emami, Shakiba Ghasemi Assl, Farid Najd Mazhar (Author)

Archives of Academic Emergency Medicine, Vol. 9 No. 1 (2021), 1 January 2021, Page e43

Introduction: The popularity of motorcycle riding in Iran is increasing. However, there is a lack of information about the safety of different motorcycle types. This study aimed to compare the severity of injury and trauma pattern between scooter (vespa) and street (standard) motorcycle riders.

Method: In a prospective cohort study, a comparison of demographics, injury severity, trauma pattern, and clinical characteristics between 324 riders (162 Vespa and 162 standard motorcycles) admitted to emergency departments was undertaken. The risk factors associated with severe injuries in the two groups were also determined. An emergency medicine specialist determined the severity of trauma based on the abbreviated injury scale (AIS).

Results: The Odds Ratio (OR) of severe injuries was significantly higher in the standard motorcycle riders’ group (OR: 3.09; 95% CI: 1.9-4.21; p: 0.013). The frequency of lower extremity fractures was significantly lower in the Vespa group (OR: 4.11; 95% CI: 2.01-6.25; p = 0.012). The frequency of admission to the intensive care unit was significantly higher in the standard motorbike riders’ group (OR: 1.64; 95% CI: 1.11-2.51; p = 0.033). The multivariate analysis indicated that motorcycle type, the speed at the time of the accident, use of helmet, and age of riders are the most important predictors of trauma severity in riders (p<0.05).

Conclusion: The pattern of injury varies between standard and Vespa motorcycles. The standard motorcycle riders were prone to a higher risk of adverse outcomes such as severe injuries. Due to the particular structure of scooters, the rate of lower limb injuries was significantly lower than standard motorcycles.

Door-to-antibiotic Time and In-hospital Mortality of Elder Patients Presenting to Emergency Department with Sepsis; a Cross-Sectional Study

Siriwimon Tantarattanapong, Thanaporn Hemwej (Author)

Archives of Academic Emergency Medicine, Vol. 9 No. 1 (2021), 1 January 2021, Page e44

Introduction: The current international sepsis guideline recommends that administration of intravenous broad-spectrum antibiotics should be initiated within 1 hour of emergency department (ED) arrival for sepsis patients. This study aimed to evaluate the association between door-to-antibiotic time and in-hospital mortality of these patients.

Methods: In this retrospective cross-sectional study, elderly patients (age ≥65 years) diagnosed with sepsis in the ED of a tertiary referral and academic hospital from January to December 2019 were enrolled. Door-to-antibiotic time was defined as the time from ED arrival to antibiotic initiation. The associations of door-to-antibiotic time and each hour delay in first antibiotic initiation with in-hospital mortality were assessed.

Results: Six hundred patients with the median age of 78.0 (IQR: 72.0-86.0) were studied (50.8% female). The median door-to-antibiotic time was 51.0 (36.0 – 89.0) minutes and in-hospital mortality rate was 12.5%. There was no significant difference in the in-hospital mortality rate between door-to-antibiotic time ≤1 hour and >1 hour (13.1% vs. 11.6%, p = 0.726). When considering hour-upon-hour of door-to-antibiotic time, no significant difference in in-hospital mortality was observed (p = 0.866). Factors that led to a delay in door-to-antibiotic time were presenting body temperature <38°C (odds ratio [OR] 3.34; 95% CI, 2.12-5.29; p < 0.001) and age <75 years (OR 1.7; 95% CI, 1.09-2.64; p = 0.019).

Conclusion: Door-to-antibiotic time was not associated with in-hospital mortality in elderly sepsis patients in this study. Significant factors that led to a delay in door-to-antibiotic time were no fever, age <75 years, doctor time, and blood sample taking time.

Electrocardiographic Findings and In-Hospital Mortality of COVID-19 Patients; a Retrospective Cohort Study

Mohammad Haji Aghajani, Amirmohammad Toloui, Moazzameh Aghamohammadi, Asma Pourhoseingholi, Niloufar Taherpour, Mohammad Sistanizad, Arian Madani Neishaboori, Ziba Asadpoordezaki, Reza Miri (Author)

Archives of Academic Emergency Medicine, Vol. 9 No. 1 (2021), 1 January 2021, Page e45

Background: Although current evidence points to the possible prognostic value of electrocardiographic (ECG) findings for in-hospital mortality of COVID-19 patients, most of these studies have been performed on a small sample size. In this study, our aim was to investigate the ECG changes as prognostic indicators of in-hospital mortality.

Methods: In a retrospective cohort study, the findings of the first and the second ECGs of COVID-19 patients were extracted and changes in the ECGs were examined. Any abnormal finding in the second ECG that wasn’t present in the initial ECG at the time of admission was defined as an ECG change. ECGs were interpreted by a cardiologist and the prognostic value of abnormal ECG findings for in-hospital mortality of COVID-19 patients was evaluated using multivariate analysis and the report of the relative risk (RR).

Results: Data of the ECGs recorded at the time of admission were extracted from the files of 893 patients; likewise, the second ECGs could be extracted from the records of 328 patients who had an initial ECG. The presence of sinus tachycardia (RR = 2.342; p <0.001), supraventricular arrhythmia (RR = 1.688; p = 0.001), ventricular arrhythmia (RR = 1.854; p = 0.011), interventricular conduction delays (RR = 1.608; p = 0.009), and abnormal R wave progression (RR = 1.766; p = 0.001) at the time of admission were independent prognostic factors for in-hospital mortality. In the second ECG, sinus tachycardia (RR = 2.222; p <0.001), supraventricular arrhythmia (RR = 1.632; p <0.001), abnormal R wave progression (RR = 2.151; p = 0.009), and abnormal T wave (RR = 1.590; p = 0.001) were also independent prognostic factors of in-hospital mortality. Moreover, by comparing the first and the second ECGs, it was found that the incidence of supraventricular arrhythmia (RR = 1.973; p = 0.005) and ST segment elevation/depression (RR = 2.296; p <0.001) during hospitalization (ECG novel changes) are two independent prognostic factors of in-hospital mortality in COVID-19 patients.

Conclusion: Due to the fact that using electrocardiographic data is easy and accessible and it is easy to continuously monitor patients with this tool, ECGs can be useful in identifying high-risk COVID-19 patients for mortality.

Comparing the Clinical Characteristics, Laboratory Findings, and Outcomes between Epidemic and Episodic Methanol Poisoning Referrals; a Cross-sectional Study

Mehdi Hadipourzadeh, Sara Ebrahimi, Pardis Ziaeefar, Nasim Zamani, Hassan Falahati, Darren M Roberts, Hossein Hassanian-Moghaddam (Author)

Archives of Academic Emergency Medicine, Vol. 9 No. 1 (2021), 1 January 2021, Page e46

Introduction: Due to illegal manufacturing and sales of alcoholic beverages, epidemic outbreaks of methanol poisoning may occur. The aim of this study was to determine if there were differences in the severity, course of poisoning, and outcomes between methanol-poisoned patients admitted during an outbreak versus those who were admitted following episodic exposures.

Methods: The present retrospective study was performed in a single referral poisoning center between March 2018 and March 2019 in patients with confirmed methanol poisoning. During this time, in addition to episodic cases of methanol intoxication, there were three methanol poisoning outbreaks. Outbreaks were characterized by an unexpected increase in the number of methanol-poisoned patients in a short period of time, which impacted resources and decision-making. The two groups were compared regarding their severity of poisoning, sessions of hemodialysis, and clinical outcomes.

Results: Outbreak cases had a higher level of methanol than episodic cases. Odds of being dialyzed more than once was 5.4 times higher in the cases presenting during an outbreak (95% CI 2.1-14.0; p=0.001). Mean hospital stay, intubation/mechanical ventilation, and death were similar between the two groups. An evaluation of the alcoholic beverage samples available in the Iranian black market during the outbreak showed a 7-percent methanol concentration with no ethanol content.

Conclusions: Poisoning risk may be higher during methanol outbreaks due to the higher methanol concentrations, requiring more hemodialysis sessions for persistent metabolic acidosis. In addition to alcohol dehydrogenase blockade, careful risk assessment of all methanol poisonings can assist with stratifying the priority for, and duration of, hemodialysis to optimize outcomes.

Emergency Department Quality Dashboard; a Systematic Review of Performance Indicators, Functionalities, and Challenges

Sohrab Almasi, Reza Rabiei, Hamid Moghaddasi, Mojtaba Vahidi-Asl (Author)

Archives of Academic Emergency Medicine, Vol. 9 No. 1 (2021), 1 January 2021, Page e47

Introduction: Effective information management in the emergency department (ED) can improve the control and management of ED processes. Dashboards, known as data management tools, efficiently provide information and contribute greatly to control and management of ED. This study aimed to identify performance indicators and quality dashboard functionalities, and analyze the challenges associated with dashboard implementation in the ED.

Methods: This systematic review began with a search in four databases (Web of Science, PubMed, Embase, and Scopus) from 2000 to May 30, 2020, when the final search for papers was conducted. The data were collected using a data extraction form and the contents of the extracted papers were analyzed through ED performance indicators, dashboard functionalities, and implementation challenges.

Results: Performance indicators reported in the reviewed papers were classified as the quality of care, patient flow, timeliness, costs, and resources. The main dashboard functionalities noted in the papers included reporting, customization, alert creation, resource management, and real-time information display. The dashboard implementation challenges included data sources, data quality, integration with other systems, adaptability of dashboard functionalities to user needs, and selection of appropriate performance indicators.

Conclusions: Quality dashboards facilitate processes, communication, and situation awareness in the ED; hence, they can improve care provision in this department. To enhance the effectiveness and efficiency of ED dashboards, officials should set performance indicators and consider the conformity of dashboard functionalities with user needs. They should also integrate dashboards with other relevant systems at the departmental and hospital levels.

The Role of Cardiac Arrest Sonographic Exam (CASE) in Predicting the Outcome of Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation; a Cross-sectional Study

Babak Masoumi, Reza Azizkhani, Farhad Heydari, Majid Zamani, Mehdi Nasr Isfahani (Author)

Archives of Academic Emergency Medicine, Vol. 9 No. 1 (2021), 1 January 2021, Page e48

Introduction: Ultrasonography (US) has been suggested as an integral part of resuscitation to identify potentially reversible causes of cardiac arrest (CA). This study aimed to evaluate the association between cardiac activity on ultrasonography during resuscitation and outcome of patients with non-shockable rhythms.

Methods: We conducted a prospective, observational study on adult patients presenting with CA or experiencing CA in the emergency department (ED), and initial non-shockable rhythm. US examination of the sub-xiphoid region was performed during the 10-second interval of rhythm and pulse check and the association of US findings and patients’ outcomes was evaluated.

Results:  151 patients with the mean age of 65.32 ± 11.68 years were evaluated (76.2% male). 43 patients (28.5%) demonstrated cardiac activity on the initial US. The rate of asystole in initial rhythm was 58.9% (n=89). Return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) was achieved in 36 (23.8%) patients, twenty (13.2%) survived to hospital admission and seven (4.6%) survived to hospital discharge. When the cardiac standstill duration increased to six minutes, no patient survived hospital discharge. Potentially reversible causes were detected in 15 cases (9.9%), and four of them survived to hospital discharge. Cardiac activity on first scan was associated with ROSC (OR: 6.86, 95%CI: 2.92-16.09; p < 0.001), survival to hospital admission (OR: 17.80, 95%CI: 3.95–80.17; p < 0.001), and survival to hospital discharge (OR: 17.35, 95%CI: 2.02–148.92; p = 0.001).

Conclusion: In non-traumatic cardiac arrest patients with non-shockable rhythms, bedside US is of great importance in predicting ROSC. The presence of pulseless electrical activity (PEA) rhythm and cardiac activity on initial US were associated with ROSC, survival to hospital admission, and hospital discharge. When the cardiac standstill duration increased to six minutes, no patient survived hospital discharge.

Effect of Collagen Hydrolysate and Fish Oil on High-Sensitivity C-Reactive Protein and Glucose Homeostasis in Patients with severe Burn; a Randomized Clinical Trial

Elham Alipoor, Mohammad Javad Hosseinzadeh-Attar , Shiva Salehi, Mostafa Dahmardehei, Mehdi Yaseri, Mohammad Reza Emami, Mehdi Hajian, Seyed Mahdi Rezayat, Shima Jazayeri (Author)

Archives of Academic Emergency Medicine, Vol. 9 No. 1 (2021), 1 January 2021, Page e50

Introduction: Collagen and omega-3 fatty acids (FAs) are suggested to have anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, and insulin-sensitizing properties. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of collagen hydrolysate and omega-3 FAs on inflammation and insulin resistance in patients with major burns.

Methods: In this double-blind randomized clinical trial, 66 patients with 20-45% burns were assigned to either of the three groups of collagen (40 gr/d), collagen (40 gr/d) plus fish oil (10 ml/d), or control. High-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), fasting blood glucose (FBG) and insulin concentrations, and homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) were assessed at baseline, as well as end of weeks two and three.

Results: Based on post-hoc analyses, hs-CRP levels were significantly lower in the collagen (p=0.026) and collagen+omega-3 (p=0.044) groups compared to the control group, at week three. However, pre- to post- (week three) changes of hs-CRP were significantly higher only in the collagen+omega-3 group compared to the control group (173.2 vs. 103.7 mg/l, p=0.024). After three weeks of the intervention, insulin (11.3 and 11.9 vs. 22.8 µIU/ml) and HOMA-IR (2.9 and 2.8 vs. 7.9) values seemed to be clinically, but not statistically, lower in both intervention groups compared to the control group. Pre- to post- (week three) values of FBG decreased significantly in the collagen (p=0.002) and collagen+omega-3 (p=0.036) groups. Insulin (p=0.008) and HOMA-IR (p=0.001) decreased significantly only in the collagen+omega-3 group at week three compared to the baseline.

Conclusions: Supplementation with collagen hydrolysate and omega-3 FAs can improve hs-CRP concentration and probably insulin resistance in patients with severe burns. Omega-3 FAs had additional effects on modulating inflammation. Larger clinical trials are needed to confirm the current findings especially in terms of glucose homeostasis.

Factors Affecting Pre-Hospital and In-Hospital Delays in Treatment of Ischemic Stroke; a Prospective Cohort Study

Neda Ghadimi, Nasrin Hanifi, Mohammadreza Dinmohammadi (Author)

Archives of Academic Emergency Medicine, Vol. 9 No. 1 (2021), 1 January 2021, Page e52

Introducion: The outcomes of acute ischemic stroke (AIS) are highly affected by time-to-treatment. The present study aimed to determine the factors affecting in-hospital and pre-hospital delays in treatmentof AIS.

Methods: This prospective study was carried out on 204 AIS patients referring to the stroke care unit in Zanjan (Iran) in 2019. The required data were collected by interviewing the patients and families and using patients’ records and observations.

Results: The maximum delay was related to onset-to-arrival time (288.19 ± 339.02 minutes). The logistic regression analysis indicated a statistically significant decline in the treatment delay via consultation after the initiation of symptoms (p< 0.001), transferring the patient through emergency medical service to the hospital (p<0.001), and patients’ perception regarding AIS symptoms (P< 0.001).

Conclusion: It is essential to inform people regarding AIS symptoms and referring to AIS treatment units to reduce the treatment time.

Comparison of Emergency Echocardiographic Results between Cardiologists and an Emergency Medicine Resident in Acute Coronary Syndrome

Fatemeh Rasooli, Farideh Bagheri, Azadeh Sadatnaseri, Haleh Ashraf, Maryam Bahreini (Author)

Archives of Academic Emergency Medicine, Vol. 9 No. 1 (2021), 1 January 2021, Page e53

Introduction: Early detection of regional wall motion abnormality (RWMA) can be a reliable tool for rapid disposition of patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) in the emergency department. In this study, the diagnostic accuracy of point-of-care echocardiography performed by a trained emergency medicine resident was evaluated in comparison with board-certified cardiologists.

Methods: A prospective, cross-sectional study was implemented on adult patients with ACS. A trained emergency medicine (EM) PGY-3 resident performed point-of-care echocardiography under the supervision of two cardiologists and the reports were compared with cardiologists as a reference test.

Results: 100 patients with the mean age of  54.1 ± 11.5 years were recruited (65% male). Based on Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) and History, EKG, Age, Risk factors, and troponin (HEART) scores, 43.0% and 25.0% of patients were categorized as low-risk for ACS, respectively. The absolute measure of agreement between cardiologists to determine ejection fraction (EF) was 0.829 (95% CI: 0.74-0.89) based on intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) estimation. The measurements of agreement between specialists and the EM resident based on the analysis of Kappa coefficient were 0.677 and 0.884 for RWMA and pericardial effusion, respectively. Moreover, 25 patients were in the-low risk group according to the HEART score with an agreement rate of 92% for the lack of RWMA between the EM resident and cardiologists.

Conclusion: This study found acceptable agreement between the EM resident and cardiologists in assessing RWMA in different ACS risk groups. In addition, there was acceptable agreement between the EM resident and cardiologists in determining left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and pericardial effusion.

Comparison of Digital (Two-finger) and Video Laryngoscopy Methods during Nasogastric Tube Insertion in Intubated Patients

Mehdi Nasr Isfahani, Elahe Nasri Nasrabadi (Author)

Archives of Academic Emergency Medicine, Vol. 9 No. 1 (2021), 1 January 2021, Page e55

Background: Performing Nasogastric Tube (NGT) insertion is very challenging in anesthetized and intubated patients and a conclusive method has not yet been presented in this regard. Hence, the current study aimed at comparing Digital (two-finger) and Video Laryngoscopy methods during NGT insertion.

Materials and Methods: The present clinical trial was performed on 76 intubated patients that were randomly divided into two groups. Groups A and B underwent Video Laryngoscopy and Digital (two-finger) methods, respectively. Then, the success rate, the number of attempts to insert NGT, duration of insertion, hemodynamic parameters, and patients’ satisfaction level were recorded and examined in this study.

Results: The results of the study revealed that the duration of NGT insertion in group A with a mean of 19.07±2.07 seconds was significantly higher than that of group B with a mean of 11.53±2.16 seconds (P-value <0.001). Furthermore, the success rate was higher in group B as compared with group A (94.7% vs. 78.9%; P-value <0.05). Considering the interfering factors such as patients’ BMI, the chance of success in group B was reported to be 8.49 times higher than that of group A (P-value <0.05).

Conclusion: Given the high success rate of NGT insertion and the speed of performing this process in the Digital method compared to Video Laryngoscopy method, the Digital method can be regarded as a safe and appropriate method. Hence, Digital method can be used in medical centers due to its ease of implementation, practicality, availability, and lack of need for advanced and expensive devices. However, application and integration of new methods with conventional ones can yield a more desirable output with a very high success rate.



Predictive Factors of 30-day Adverse Events in Acute Heart Failure after Discharge from Emergency Department; a Historical Cohort Study

Siriwimon Tantarattanapong, Keerati Keeratipongpun (Author)

Archives of Academic Emergency Medicine, Vol. 9 No. 1 (2021), 1 January 2021, Page e58

Introduction: The rates of unscheduled emergency department (ED) visits and readmissions after discharge from the ED in acute heart failure (AHF) patients are high. This study aimed to identify the predictive factors of 30-day adverse events after discharge from the ED.

Methods: A retrospective study was conducted from 2017 to 2019 in patients diagnosed with AHF and discharged from the ED at a tertiary university hospital. Thirty-day adverse events were defined as (i) unscheduled revisit to the ED with AHF, (ii) hospital admission from AHF, and, (iii) death after discharge from the ED. The predictive factors of 30-day adverse events were examined using multivariate analyses by logistic regression.

Results: 421 patients with the median age of 73 (IQR: 63-81) years were studied (52.3% male). 81 (19.2%) patients had 30-day adverse events. Significant predictive factors of 30-day adverse events consisted of underlying valvular heart disease (OR = 2.46; 95%CI: 1.27-4.78; p = 0.008), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (OR = 0.08; 95%CI: 0.01-0.64; p=0.001), malignancy (OR=3.63; 95%CI: 1.17-11.24; p = 0.031), New York Heart Association functional class III (OR = 4.88; 95%CI: 0.93-25.59) and IV (OR = 7.23; 95% CI: 1.37-38.08) at the ED (p = 0.035), and serum sodium <135 mmol/L (OR = 2.20; 95%CI: 1.17-4.14; p = 0.014). Precipitating factors were anemia (OR = 2.42; 95%CI: 1.16-5.02; p = 0.021), progressive valvular heart disease (OR = 3.52; 95%CI: 1.35-7.85; p = 0.009), acute kidney injury (OR = 6.98; 95%CI: 2.32-20.96; p < 0.001), time to diuretic administration >60 minutes after ED arrival (OR = 3.89; 95%CI: 2.16-7.00; p < 0.001), and no discharge advice for follow-up (OR = 2.30; 95%CI: 1.10-4.77; p = 0.028).

Conclusion: AHF patients who had good response to intravenous diuretics and were discharged from the ED were at high risk for 30-day adverse events. Ten factors predicted 30-day adverse events after discharge from the ED.

Effect of Queue Management System on Patient Satisfaction in Emergency Department; a Randomized Controlled Trial

Ali Bidari, Shabahang Jafarnejad, Nazanin Alaei Faradonbeh (Author)

Archives of Academic Emergency Medicine, Vol. 9 No. 1 (2021), 1 January 2021, Page e59

Introduction: Patients’ experience in hospitals affects their satisfaction. The purpose of the present study was to assess the effect of applying a queue management system on patient satisfaction in emergency department waiting rooms.

Methods: The present prospective randomized single-blinded interventional study was performed from July to August 2020 and involved 236 patients that were divided into one intervention group and one control group, each consisting of 118 patients. The mentioned patients’ perception of the waiting time and satisfaction before being visited by an emergency medicine doctor was evaluated with and without applying the queue management system.

Results: The mean actual waiting time (15.5 ± 7.5 minutes) as well as the mean perceived waiting time (11.9 ± 7.4 minutes) for the intervention group were significantly lower than those of the control group with the values of 27.03 ± 8.5 and 32.8 ± 8.7 minutes, respectively (p < 0.001).  The mean perceived waiting time was significantly less than the mean actual waiting time (11.9 min vs 15.5 minutes) for the intervention group (p <0.001); however, the mean perceived waiting time was significantly higher than the mean actual waiting time (32.8 vs 27.03 minutes) for the control group (p < 0.001). The level of satisfaction in the intervention group was significantly higher than that of the control group (p <0.001). There was an inverse relationship between the actual waiting time (Intervention group: r=-0.463; Control group: r= -0.567) and the perceived waiting time (Intervention group: r= -0.439; Control group: r= -0.568) with the satisfaction level in both groups (p < 0.001).

Conclusion: It can be proposed that the application of a queue management system in the emergency department waiting rooms can reduce the actual and perceived waiting times and increase the patient satisfaction.

Fentanyl versus Methadone in Management of Withdrawal Syndrome in Opioid Addicted Patients; a Pilot Clinical Trial

Baharak Najafi, Shahin Shadnia, Hossein Hassanian-Moghaddam, Amir Heydarian, Arezou Mahdavinejad, Nasim Zamani (Author)

Archives of Academic Emergency Medicine, Vol. 9 No. 1 (2021), 1 January 2021, Page e62

Introduction: The most effective treatment for withdrawal syndrome in Opioid-dependent patients admitted to intensive care units (ICUs) remains unknown. This study aimed to compare fentanyl and methadone in this regard.

Methods: This prospective, single-blinded, controlled pilot study was conducted on opioid-dependent intubated patients admitted to the toxicology ICU of Loghman Hakim Hospital, Tehran, Iran, between August 2019 and August 2020. Patients were alternately assigned to either fentanyl or methadone group after the initiation of their withdrawal syndrome. Duration and alleviation of the withdrawal signs and symptoms, ICU and hospital stay, development of complications, development of later signs/symptoms of withdrawal syndrome, and need for further administration of sedatives to treat agitation were then compared between these two groups.

Results: Median age of the patients was 42 [interquartile range (IQR): 26, 56]. The two groups were similar in terms of the patients’ age (p = 0.92), sex (p = 0.632), primary Simplified Acute Physiology Score (SAPS) II (p = 0.861), and Clinical Opiate Withdrawal Score (COWS) before (p = 0.537) and 120 minutes after treatment (p = 0.136) with either methadone or fentanyl. The duration of intubation (p = 0.120), and ICU stay (p = 0.572), were also similar between the two groups. The only factor that was significantly different between the two groups was the time needed for alleviation of the withdrawal signs and symptoms after the administration of the medication, which was significantly shorter in the methadone group (30 vs. 120 minutes, p = 0.007).

 Conclusion: It seems that methadone treats the withdrawal signs and symptoms faster in dependent patients. However, these drugs are similarly powerful in controlling the withdrawal signs in these patients.

Topical Lidocaine plus Diclofenac as a Local Anesthetic Agent in Central Venous Catheterization; a Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial

Reza Azizkhani, Maysameh Shahnazari Sani, Farhad Heydari, Mina Saber, Sarah Mousavi (Author)

Archives of Academic Emergency Medicine, Vol. 9 No. 1 (2021), 1 January 2021, Page e63

Introduction: Various methods of analgesia can be used to reduce or prevent procedural pain in emergency department (ED). This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of topical lidocaine-diclofenac combination compared to lidocaine-prilocaine combination (Xyla-P) in reduction of the pain during central venous catheter (CVC) insertion.

Methods: In this randomized clinical trial, 100 adult patients requiring CVC insertion in the ED were enrolled. These patients were randomly divided into two groups. The site of CVC insertion was covered with 2 g of topical Xyla-P cream in the first group, and 2 g of topical lidocaine-diclofenac cream in the second group. The primary outcome was the pain during CVC implantation. The secondary outcomes were physician satisfaction and the incidence of side effects.

Results: On the visual analog scale (VAS), the pain score during CVC insertion was significantly lower in the second group (p = 0.027). However, there was no difference in pain scores during lidocaine injection between the two groups (p = 0.386). Also, there was no significant difference in the rate of side effects between the two groups (p = 1.0). The physician’s satisfaction with the first group was significantly lower than the second group (p = 0.042).

Conclusion: Although the CVC insertion pain was significantly lower in patients who received the topical combination of Lidocaine plus Diclofenac, there was no clinically important difference between the two groups and both topical anesthetics were effective and safe in reducing pain intensity. Also, lidocaine-diclofenac combination cream was more cost-effective than Xyla-P cream.

Physiologic Scoring Systems versus Glasgow Coma Scale in Predicting In-Hospital Mortality of Trauma Patients; a Diagnostic Accuracy Study

Farhad Heydari, Reza Azizkhani, Omid Ahmadi, Saeed Majidinejad, Mohammad Nasr-Esfahani, Ahmad Ahmadi (Author)

Archives of Academic Emergency Medicine, Vol. 9 No. 1 (2021), 1 January 2021, Page e64

Introduction: In recent years, several scoring systems have been developed to assess the severity of trauma and predict the outcome of trauma patients. This study aimed to compare Rapid Emergency Medicine Score (REMS), Modified Early Warning Score (MEWS), Injury Severity Score (ISS), and Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) in predicting the in-hospital mortality of trauma patients.

Methods: This diagnostic accuracy study was done on adult patients admitted to the emergency department (ED) between June 21, 2019, and September 21, 2020, following multiple trauma. Patients were followed as long as they were hospitalized. The REMS, MEWS, GCS, and ISS were calculated after data gathering and comprehensive assessment of injuries. Receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis was performed to examine the prognostic performance of the four different tools.

Results: Of the 754 patients, 32 patients (4.2%) died and 722 (95.8%) survived after 24 hours of admission. The mean age of the patients was 38.54 ± 18.58 years (78.9% male). The area under the ROC curves (AUC) of REMS, MEWS, ISS, and GCS score for predicting in-hospital mortality were 0.942 (95% CI [0.923-0.958]), 0.886 (95% CI [0.861-0.908]), 0.866 (95% CI [0.839-0.889]), and 0.851 (95% CI [0.823-0.876]), respectively. The AUC of REMS was significantly higher than GCS (p=0.035). The sensitivities of GCS ≤ 11, ISS ≥ 13, REMS ≥ 4, and MEWS ≥ 3 scores for in-hospital mortality were 0.56, 0.97, 0.81, and 0.94, respectively. Also, the specificities of GCS, ISS, REMS, and MEWS scores for in-hospital mortality were 0.93, 0.82, 0.81, and 0.85, respectively.

Conclusion: It seems that REMS is more accurate than GCS, ISS, and MEWS in predicting in-hospital mortality ≥ 24 hours of multiple trauma patients.

Effect of Underlying Cardiovascular Disease on the Prognosis of COVID-19 Patients; a Sex and Age-Dependent Analysis

Mohammad Haji Aghajani, Ziba Asadpoordezaki, Mehrdad Haghighi , Asma Pourhoseingoli, Niloufar Taherpour, Amirmohammad Toloui, Mohammad Sistanizad (Author)

Archives of Academic Emergency Medicine, Vol. 9 No. 1 (2021), 1 January 2021, Page e65

Introduction: Adults with underlying medical disorders are at increased risk for severe illness from the virus that causes COVID-19. This study aimed to compare the effect of underlying diseases on the mortality of male and female patients as a primary objective. We also evaluated the effect of drugs previously used by COVID-19 patients on their outcome.

Methods: This retrospective cohort study was carried out on confirmed cases of COVID-19 who were admitted to a teaching hospital in Tehran, Iran. Data was gathered from patients’ files. Log binomial model was used for investigating the association of underlying diseases and in-hospital mortality of these patients.

Results: A total of 991 patients (mean age 61.62±17.02; 54.9% male) were recruited.  Hypertension (41.1%), diabetes mellitus (30.6%), and coronary artery disease (19.6%) were the most common underlying diseases.  The multivariable model showed that hypertension (RR = 1.62; 95% CI: 1.22-2.14, p = 0.001) in male patients over 55 years old and coronary artery disease (RR = 2.40; 95% CI: 1.24-4.46, p = 0.009) in female patients under 65 years old were risk factors of mortality. In females over 65 years old, the history of taking Angiotensin Converting Enzyme inhibitors (ACEi) and Angiotensin Receptor Blockers (ARB) (RR = 0.272; 95% CI: 0.17-0.41, p = 0.001) was a significant protective factor for death.

Conclusions: COVID-19 patients with a history of cardiovascular diseases such as hypertension and coronary artery disease, especially those in specific age and sex groups, are high-risk patients for in-hospital mortality. Additionally, a previous history of taking ACEi and ARB medications in females over 65 tears old was a protective factor against in-hospital mortality of COVID-19 patients.

Red Blood Cell Distribution Width (RDW) as a Predictor of In-Hospital Mortality in COVID-19 Patients; a Cross Sectional Study

Setareh Jandaghian, Atefeh Vaezi, Amirreza Manteghinejad, Maryam Nasirian, Golnaz Vaseghi, Shaghayegh Haghjooy Javanmard (Author)

Archives of Academic Emergency Medicine, Vol. 9 No. 1 (2021), 1 January 2021, Page e67

Introduction: Red blood cell distribution width (RDW) has been introduced as a predictive factor for mortality in several critical illnesses and infectious diseases. This study aimed to assess the possible relationship between RDW on admission and COVID-19 in-hospital mortality.

Method: This cross-sectional study was performed using the Isfahan COVID-19 registry. Adult confirmed cases of COVID-19 admitted to four hospitals affiliated with Isfahan University of Medical Sciences in Iran were included. Age, sex, O2 saturation, RDW on admission, Intensive Care Unit admission, laboratory data, history of comorbidities, and hospital outcome were extracted from the registry. Cox proportional hazard regression was used to study the independent association of RDW with mortality.

Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Outcomes of Patients with COVID-19; a One-Year Survey

Afshin Goodarzi, Masoud Khodaveisi, Alireza Abdi, Rasoul Salimi, Khodayar Oshvandi (Author)

Archives of Academic Emergency Medicine, Vol. 9 No. 1 (2021), 1 January 2021, Page e70

Introduction: Assessing cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) outcomes of patients with COVID-19 and employing effective strategies for their improvement are essential. This study is designed in this regard.

Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted between January 20, 2020 and January 20, 2021 in the emergency departments of two hospitals in Hamadan and Kermanshah, Iran. Participants were 487 patients with confirmed COVID-19 and cardiac arrest (CA) who had undergone CPR during the study period. Data were collected using the available CPR documentation forms developed based on the Utstein Style and analyses were performed using Chi-square, Fisher’s exact, and Mann-Whitney U tests and the logistic regression analysis.

Results: Participants’ mean age was 69.31±14.73 years and most of them were male (61.8%) and suffered from at least one underlying disease (58.1%). The rate of total and in-hospital CA was 9.67% and 9.39%, respectively. The most prevalent first documented rhythm was asystole (67.9%) and the highest responsivity to CPR was for shockable rhythms. The rate of the return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) was 9% and the rate of survival to hospital discharge was 2%. The significant predictors of CPR success were age (p = 0.035), epinephrine administration time interval (p = 0.00), CPR duration (p = 0.00), and First documented rhythm (p = 0.009).

Conclusion: The rate of in-hospital CA among studied COVID-19 cases was 9.39% with 9% ROSC and 2% survival to hospital discharge rates after CPR. Primary CPR success among patients with COVID-19 was poor, particularly among those with asystole and bradycardia. It seems that old age and improper doses of epinephrine can reduce CPR success.

Review Article

Burnout among Healthcare Providers of COVID-19; a Systematic Review of Epidemiology and Recommendations

Mehrdad Sharifi, Ali Akbar Asadi-Pooya, Razieh Sadat Mousavi-Roknabadi (Author)

Archives of Academic Emergency Medicine, Vol. 9 No. 1 (2021), 1 January 2021, Page e7

Introduction: In the current systematic review, we intended to systematically review the epidemiology of burnout and the strategies and recommendations to prevent or reduce it among healthcare providers (HCPs) of COVID-19 wards, so that policymakers can make more appropriate decisions.

Methods: MEDLINE (accessed from PubMed), Science Direct, and Scopus electronic databases were systematically searched in English from December 01, 2019 to August 15, 2020, using MESH terms and related keywords. After reading the title and the abstract, unrelated studies were excluded. The full texts of the studies were evaluated by authors, independently, and the quality of the studies was determined. Then, the data were extracted and reported.

Results: 12 studies were included. Five studies investigated the risks factors associated with burnout; none could establish a causal relationship because of their methodology. No study examined any intervention to prevent or reduce burnout, and the provided recommendations were based on the authors' experiences and opinions. None of the studies followed up the participants, and all assessments were done according to the participants’ self-reporting and declaration. Assessing burnout in the HCPs working in the frontline wards was performed in four studies; others evaluated burnout among all HCPs working in the regular and frontline wards.

Conclusion: Paying attention to the mental health issues, reducing the workload of HCPs through adjusting their work shifts, reducing job-related stressors, and creating a healthy work environment may prevent or reduce the burnout.

Electrocardiography in Early Diagnosis of Cardiovascular Complications of COVID-19; a Systematic Literature Review

Reza Nemati, Mahasty Ganjoo, Faezeh Jadidi, Ahmad Tanha, Reza Baghbani (Author)

Archives of Academic Emergency Medicine, Vol. 9 No. 1 (2021), 1 January 2021, Page e10

Introduction: Many reports have stated that patients admitted for COVID-19 may also suffer from cardiovascular diseases, suggesting cardiovascular involvement in COVID-19. Since there is direct association between electrocardiography (ECG) data and the prognosis of cardiovascular disease, a systematic literature review was performed in the present study to address this association and make a conclusive agreement on the early diagnostic and prognostic values of ECG in patients with COVID-19.

Methods: Electronic databases including PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, Science Direct, Ovid, Embase, and Google Scholar were searched for “COVID-19” and “ECG” using all their equivalents and similar terms as search words. Afterwards, the records were limited to English articles and irrelevant documents, as well as articles that reported drug-induced cardiac dysfunction or patients with previous history of cardiovascular complications were excluded.

Results: Overall, 31 articles with 2379 patients were found and used for qualitative data extraction. Findings showed that there is a significant association between COVID-19 infection and ECG findings. Also, ST-segment changes, T wave inversions, QT prolongation, and atrial fibrillation were found to be early indicators of cardiac involvement of COVID-19, which were associated with worse outcomes.

Conclusion: It is recommended to use ECG as a valuable diagnostic and prognostic tool for cardiac evaluation of patients with COVID-19.

Late Complications of COVID-19; a Systematic Review of Current Evidence

SeyedAhmad SeyedAlinaghi, Amir Masoud Afsahi, Mehrzad MohsseniPour, Farzane Behnezhad, Mohammad Amin Salehi, Alireza Barzegary, Pegah Mirzapour, Esmaeil Mehraeen, Omid Dadras (Author)

Archives of Academic Emergency Medicine, Vol. 9 No. 1 (2021), 1 January 2021, Page e14

Introduction: COVID-19 is a new rapidly spreading epidemic. The symptoms of this disease could be diverse as the virus can affect any organ in the body of an infected person. This study aimed to investigate the available evidence for long-term complications of COVID-19.

Methods: This study was a systematic review of current evidence conducted in November 2020 to investigate probable late and long-term complications of COVID-19. We performed a systematic search, using the keywords, in online databases including PubMed, Scopus, Science Direct, Up to Date, and Web of Science, to find papers published from December 2019 to October 2020. Peer-reviewed original papers published in English, which met the eligibility criteria were included in the final report. Addressing non-human studies, unavailability of the full-text document, and duplicated results in databases, were characteristics that led to exclusion of the papers from review.

Results: The full-texts of 65 articles have been reviewed. We identified 10 potential late complications of COVID-19. A review of studies showed that lung injuries (n=31), venous/arterial thrombosis (n=28), heart injuries (n=26), cardiac/brain stroke (n=23), and neurological injuries (n=20) are the most frequent late complications of COVID-19.

Conclusion: Since we are still at the early stages of the COVID-19 epidemic, it is too soon to predict what long-term complications are likely to appear in the survivors of the disease in years after recovery. Furthermore, the complexity of COVID-19 behaviors and targets in the human body creates uncertainty in anticipating long-term complications.

Cardiac Complications and Pertaining Mortality Rate in COVID-19 Patients; a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Amirmohammad Toloui, Donya Moshrefiaraghi, Arian Madani Neishaboori, Mahmoud Yousefifard, Mohammad Haji Aghajani (Author)

Archives of Academic Emergency Medicine, Vol. 9 No. 1 (2021), 1 January 2021, Page e18

Introduction: Raising knowledge over cardiac complications and managing them can play a key role in their recovery. In this study, we aim to investigate the evidence regarding the prevalence of cardiac complications and the resulting mortality rate in COVID-19 patients.

Method: Search was conducted in electronic databases of Medline (using PubMed), Embase, Scopus, and Web of Science, in addition to the manual search in preprint databases, and Google and Google scholar search engines, for articles published from 2019 until April 30th, 2020. Inclusion criterion was reviewing and reporting cardiac complications in patients with confirmed COVID-19.

Results: The initial search resulted in 853 records, out of which 40 articles were included. Overall analysis showed that the prevalence of acute cardiac injury, heart failure and cardiac arrest were 19.46% (95% CI: 18.23-20.72), 19.07% (95% CI: 15.38-23.04) and 3.44% (95% CI: 3.08-3.82), respectively. Moreover, abnormal serum troponin level was observed in 22.86% (95% CI: 21.19-24.56) of the COVID-19 patients. Further analysis revealed that the overall odds of mortality is 14.24 (95% CI: 8.67-23.38) times higher when patients develop acute cardiac injury. The pooled odds ratio of mortality when the analysis was limited to abnormal serum troponin level was 19.03 (95% CI: 11.85-30.56).

Conclusion: Acute cardiac injury and abnormal serum troponin level were the most prevalent cardiac complications/abnormalities in COVID-19 patients. The importance of cardiac complications is emphasized due to the higher mortality rate among patients with these complications. Thus, troponin screenings and cardiac evaluations are recommended to be performed in routine patient assessments.

The Value of Lactate Dehydrogenase in Predicting Rhabdomyolysis-Induced Acute Renal Failure; a Narrative Review

Hazhir Heidari Beigvand, Kamran Heidari, Behrooz Hashemi, Amin Saberinia (Author)

Archives of Academic Emergency Medicine, Vol. 9 No. 1 (2021), 1 January 2021, Page e24

Introduction: Determining the diagnostic value of available biomarkers in predicting rhabdomyolysis-induced acute kidney injury (AKI) is a priority. This study aimed to review the current evidence about the value of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in this regard.

Methods: In this narrative review, the papers in PubMed, Embase, and web of science were studied. The keywords prognosis, prognoses, prognostic, LDH, rhabdomyolysis, emergency patients, and acute kidney failure or AKI had been selected from MeSH medical dictionary. Related papers written in English and published from November 2007 to December 2020 were selected.

Results: Finally, 14 articles were accepted for analysis. Among the selected articles, four were randomized clinical trials, seven were cross-sectional, and three were case-control studies. The results of the present review showed that abuse of illegal drugs is the most common cause of rhabdomyolysis. AKI is the most serious complication of rhabdomyolysis reported in the studies. These studies have shown a three-fold increase in AKI following drug-induced rhabdomyolysis. The review of the included articles shows that high LDH can predicts AKI, especially in critical and emergency situations such as rhabdomyolysis where there is a risk of death if diagnosed late. These studies show that LDH increases in the presence of renal failure and tissue damage.

Conclusion: Serum LDH is an appropriate and cost-effective prognostic indicator that can be used for risk classification of patients at risk for rhabdomyolysis-induced AKI.

Corticosteroid Therapy in Management of Myocarditis Associated with COVID-19; a Systematic Review of Current Evidence

William Kamarullah, Nurcahyani Nurcahyani, Claudia Mary Josephine, Rachmatu Bill Multazam, Aqila Ghaezany Nawing (Author)

Archives of Academic Emergency Medicine, Vol. 9 No. 1 (2021), 1 January 2021, Page e32

Introduction: Myocarditis in patients infected with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) seems to be associated with a higher mortality rate. This study aims to summarize the latest evidence on whether the use of corticosteroids in patients with myocarditis associated with COVID-19 is necessary.

Methods: We performed an extensive search using a combination of search terms in PubMed, Europe PMC, ProQuest, EBSCOhost, and Google Scholar up to January 2021. Full-text articles that met the predefined inclusion criteria were included in the present study.

Results: The full-texts of 18 articles have been reviewed. Thirteen out of the eighteen (72%) patients who got corticosteroid administration experienced major clinical improvements during follow-up while the other five (28%) were experiencing uneventful events. The mean age of the reported patients was 47.8±13.2 years. There was no gender predominance. Most of the reported cases were from USA (39%) followed by Spain, China, and UK (11% each), while Brazil, Colombia, France, Belgium, and Italy contributed one case each. Various corticosteroids were used but the most commonly applied were methylprednisolone (89%), hydrocortisone (5.5%), and prednisolone (5.5%). The most common route of administration among the studies was intravenous administration and the duration of treatment varied between one and fourteen days.

Conclusion: A review of the currently available literature shows that with the use of corticosteroid agents in treating myocarditis associated with COVID-19, favorable outcomes are attainable. Well-established randomized clinical trials are needed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of using corticosteroids in this condition.

Cardiovascular Diseases in Natural Disasters; a Systematic Review

Javad Babaie, Yousef Pashaei asl, Bahman Naghipour, Gholamreza Faridaalaee (Author)

Archives of Academic Emergency Medicine, Vol. 9 No. 1 (2021), 1 January 2021, Page e36

Introduction: As a result of destruction and lack of access to vital infrastructures and mental stress, disasters intensify cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) and hence management of CVDs becomes more challenging. The aim of this study is investigating incidence and prevalence of CVDs, morbidity and mortality of CVDs, treatment and management of CVDs at the time of natural disasters.

Methods: In the present systematic review, the articles published in English language until 28. 11. 2020, which studied CVDs in natural disasters were included. The inclusion criteria were CVDs such as myocardial infarction (MI), acute coronary syndrome (ACS), hypertension (HTN), pulmonary edema, and heart failure (HF) in natural disasters such as earthquake, flood, storm, hurricane, cyclone, typhoon, and tornado.

Result: The search led to accessing 4426 non-duplicate records. Finally, the data of 104 articles were included in quality appraisal. We managed to find 4, 21 and 79 full text articles, which considered cardiovascular diseases at the time of flood, storm, and earthquake, respectively.

Conclusion: Prevalence of CVD increases after disasters. Lack of access to medication or lack of medication adjustment, losing home blood pressure monitor as a result of destruction and physical and mental stress after disasters are of the most significant challenges of controlling and managing CVDs. By means of quick establishment of health clinics, quick access to appropriate diagnosis and treatment, providing and access to medication, self-management, and self-care incentives along with appropriate medication and non-medication measures to control stress, we can better manage and control cardiovascular diseases, particularly hypertension.

Facemask and Respirator in Reducing the Spread of Respiratory Viruses; a Systematic Review

Negin Shaterian, Fatemeh Abdi, Zahra Atarodi Kashani, Negar Shaterian, Mohammad Darvishmotevalli (Author)

Archives of Academic Emergency Medicine, Vol. 9 No. 1 (2021), 1 January 2021, Page e56

Introduction: Respiratory viruses spread fast, and some manners have been recommended for reducing the spread of these viruses, including the use of a facemask or respirator, maintaining hand hygiene, and perfoming social distancing. This systematic review aimed to assess the impact of facemasks and respirators on reducing the spread of respiratory viruses.

Methods: We conducted a systematic review using MeSH terms, and reported findings according to PRISMA. PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, Scopus, ProQuest, Web of Science(WoS), and Google Scholar were searched for articles published between 2009 and 2020. Two independent reviewers determined whether the studies met inclusion criteria. The risk of bias of studies was assessed using Newcastle-Ottawa (NOS) and Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials (CONSORT).

Results: A total of 1505 articles were initially retrieved and 10 were finally included in our analysis (sample size: 3065). 96.8% of non-infected participants used facemask or respirator in contact with people infected with a respiratory virus, facemask and respirator have a significant effect on reducing the spread of respiratory viruses.

Conclusion: Evidence support that using a facemask or respirator can reduce the spread of all types of respiratory viruses; therefore, this result can be generalized to the present pandemic of a respiratory virus (SARS-COV-2) and it is recommended to use a facemask or respirator for reducing the spread of this respiratory virus.

Active and Passive Immunization with Myelin Basic Protein as a Method for Early Treatment of Traumatic Spinal Cord Injury; a Meta-Analysis

Mahmoud Yousefifard, Arian Madani Neishaboori, Seyedeh Niloufar Rafiei Alavi, Amirmohammad Toloui, Mohammed I M Gubari, Amirali Zareie Shab Khaneh, Maryam Karimi Ghahfarokhi, Mostafa Hosseini (Author)

Archives of Academic Emergency Medicine, Vol. 9 No. 1 (2021), 1 January 2021, Page e57

Introduction: Traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI), as a dangerous central nervous system damage, continues to threaten communities by imposing various disabilities and costs. Early adjustment of the immune system response using Myelin Basic Protein (MBP) immunization may prevent the SCI-related secondary damages. As a result, the current study is designed to review and analyse the evidence on active and passive immunization with MBP for treatment of traumatic SCI.

Methods: Medline, Embase, Scopus, and Web of Science databases were systematically searched until the end of 2020. Criteria for inclusion in the current study included pre-clinical studies, which performed passive (injection of MBP-activated T cells) or active (administration of MBP or MBP-modified peptides) immunization with MBP after traumatic SCI. Exclusion criteria was defined as lack of a non-treated SCI group, lack of evaluation of locomotion, review studies, and combination therapy. Finally, analyses were conducted using STATA software, and a standardized mean difference (SMD) with a 95% confidence interval (CI) were reported.

Results: Data from 17 papers were included in the present study. Finally, analysis of these data showed that passive immunization (SMD=0.87; 95%CI: 0.19-1.55; p=0.012) and active immunization (SMD=2.08, 95%CI: 1.42-2.73; p<0.001) for/with MBP both have good efficacy in improving locomotion following traumatic SCI. However, significant heterogeneity was observed in both of them. The most important sources of heterogeneity in active immunization were differences in SCI models, route of administration, time interval between SCI and transplantation, and type of vaccine used. In passive immunization, however, these sources were the model of SCI and the time interval between SCI and transplantation. Although, there was substantial heterogeneity among studies, subgroup analysis showed that active immunization improved locomotion after traumatic SCI in all tested conditions (with differences in injury model, severity of injury, method of administration, different time interval between SCI to vaccination, etc.).  

Conclusion: The results of the present study demonstrated that immunization with MBP, especially in its active form, could significantly improve motor function following SCI in rats and mice. Therefore, it could be considered as a potential treatment in acute settings such as emergency departments. However, the safety of this method is still under debate. Therefore, it is recommended for future research to focus on the investigation of safety of MBP immunization in animal studies, before conducting human clinical trials.

The Value of Physiological Scoring Criteria in Predicting the In-Hospital Mortality of Acute Patients; a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Amirmohammad Toloui, Arian Madani Neishaboori, Seyedeh Niloufar Rafiei Alavi, Mohammed I M Gubari, Amirali Zareie Shab Khaneh, Maryam Karimi Ghahfarokhi, Fatemeh Amraei, Zahra Behroozi, Mostafa Hosseini, Sajjad Ahmadi, Mahmoud Yousefifard (Author)

Archives of Academic Emergency Medicine, Vol. 9 No. 1 (2021), 1 January 2021, Page e60

Introduction: There is no comprehensive meta-analysis on the value of physiological scoring systems in predicting the mortality of critically ill patients. Therefore, the present study intended to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis to collect the available clinical evidence on the value of physiological scoring systems in predicting the in-hospital mortality of acute patients.

Method: An extensive search was performed on Medline, Embase, Scopus, and Web of Science databases until the end of year 2020. Physiological models included Rapid Acute Physiology Score (RAPS), Rapid Emergency Medicine Score (REMS), modified REMS (mREMS), and Worthing Physiological Score (WPS). Finally, the data were summarized and the findings were presented as summary receiver operating characteristics (SROC), sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic odds ratio (DOR).

Results: Data from 25 articles were included. The overall analysis showed that the area under the SROC curve of REMS, RAPS, mREMS, and WPS criteria were 0.83 (95% CI: 0.79-0.86), 0.89 (95% CI: 0.86-0.92), 0.64 (95% CI: 0.60-0.68) and 0.86 (95% CI: 0.83-0.89), respectively. DOR for REMS, RAPS, mREMS and WPS models were 11 (95% CI: 8-16), 13 (95% CI: 4-41), 2 (95% CI: 2-4) and 17 (95% CI: 5-59) respectively. When analyses were limited to trauma patients, the DOR of the REMS and RAPS models were 112 and 431, respectively. Due to the lack of sufficient studies, it was not possible to limit the analyses for mREMS and WPS.

Conclusion: The findings of the present study showed that three models of RAPS, REMS and WPS have a high predictive value for in-hospital mortality. In addition, the value of these models in trauma patients is much higher than other patient settings.

Risk Factors for Road Traffic Injury-Related Mortality in Iran; a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Mahmoud Yousefifard, Amirmohammad Toloui, Koohyar Ahmadzadeh, Mohammed I M Gubari, Arian Madani Neishaboori, Fatemeh Amraei, Saeed Safari, Alireza Baratloo, Vafa Rahimi-Movaghar, Mostafa Hosseini (Author)

Archives of Academic Emergency Medicine, Vol. 9 No. 1 (2021), 1 January 2021, Page e61

Introduction: Gathering information regarding the risk factors of mortality and disability due to road traffic injuries can provide evidence for adopting effective interventions to reduce the burden of the injury. Therefore, the present study intends to identify the most important risk factors of road accident-related mortality in Iran by conducting a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Methods: Search was done in English and Persian electronic databases, for articles published until the end of 2020. Cross-sectional, cohort and case-control studies were included. Risk factors were divided into age and sex, road related factors, exceeding speed limit, road user behaviors, vehicle related factors, weather condition, and light condition. Data were reported as adjusted odds ratio (OR) of death with 95% confidence interval (95% CI).

Results: 20 studies were included (2,682,434 traffic accident victims and 23,272 deaths; mortality rate=1.28%). The risk of death in road traffic injuries in men was 1.66 times higher than women (OR = 1.66; 95% CI: 1.03, 2.68) and with each year increase in age, the risk increased by 1% (OR = 0.01; 95% CI: 1.00, 1.01). In addition, accident in urban streets (OR = 1.76; 95% CI: 1.08, 2.88), roadway defects (OR = 2.15, 95% CI: 1.59, 2.91), and not driving on a flat and straight road (OR = 1.60; 95% CI: 1.14, 2.24) were the most important road-related risk factors for mortality. Exceeding the speed limit was another risk factor of death (OR = 3.16; 95% CI: 2.83, 3.54). However, regarding exceeding safe speed, only three studies have been included, which greatly reduces the power of analysis. Not maintaining focus on the road (OR = 2.99; 95% CI: 1.49, 6.04), not fastening seatbelt (OR = 3.11; 95% CI: 1.08, 8.91), and reckless overtaking (OR = 4.04; 95% CI: 3.34, 4.89) were independent road user-related risk factors for mortality. Risk of pedestrian mortality in comparison with drivers and passengers is 2.07 times higher (OR = 2.07; 95% CI: 1.53, 2.58). In addition, risk of death in accidents occurring during daylight hours (OR = 0.26; 95% CI: 0.18, 0.37) is lower than that of other hours. No significant relationship was present between mortality and vehicle types (four-wheeled vehicle: OR = 0.99; 95% CI: 0.050, 1.97; two-wheeled vehicle: OR = 0.75; 95% CI: 0.48, 1.16). In the case of vehicle-related factors, only 2 studies were included, which also dealt only with the type of vehicle (two-wheeled/four-wheeled). Vehicle-related factors such as the car model, its safety rating, and safety standards were not mentioned in any study.

Conclusion: Low to very low-level evidence shows that there is a significant relationship between factors related to age, sex, road, road user, exceeding the speed limit, and light condition with the mortality of traffic accident victims. However, all studies included in the present study were retrospectively designed and the analyses were not adjusted for most of the key potential confounders. Therefore, it seems that despite years of effort by researchers in the field of traffic accidents in Iran, there is still no comprehensive and reliable picture of the most important risk factors for road accident mortalities in Iran.

Aluminum Phosphide Poisoning Mortality Rate in Iran; a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Farhad Bagherian, Navid Kalani, Fatemeh Rahmanian, Samaneh Abiri, Naser Hatami, Mahdi Foroughian, Neema John Mehramiz, Behzad Shahi (Author)

Archives of Academic Emergency Medicine, Vol. 9 No. 1 (2021), 1 January 2021, Page e66

Introduction: According to statistics provided by the forensic medicine facility of Iran, there are a high number of Aluminum phosphide (ALP) poisoning-related deaths in the country; while the mortality rate varies in different studies. This study aimed to determine a pooled estimate of ALP poisoning mortality rate in Iran.

Methods: The present study was a systematic review and meta-analysis of the mortality rate of ALP poisoning in Iran. Through the quarry of Persian and English databases, using “aluminum phosphide”, “phosphine”, “rice pills”, “poisoning”, and “Iran” as keywords, and no time restrictions, studies reporting mortality rate in ALP poisoning cases were collected. The random-effects model was used to pool the proportions of mortality and age of survivors versus non-survivors.

Results: 21 studies with 3432 cases of ALP poisoning were included in this meta-analysis. The pooled mortality rate of ALP poisoning in Iran was 39.6%, (95% CI: 31.5%-47.9%; I2 = 95%). Since there was significant publication bias, the trim-and-fill correction was conducted and the corrected pooled mortality rate was estimated to be 27.3% (95% CI: 18.9%- 36.5%), which is the rate that should be considered for clinical guidance. Morality rate in male and female patients was 62.3% (95% CI: 53.5%-70.8%) and 37.7% (95% CI: 29.2%-46.5%), respectively (p < 0.01). Survivors had significantly lower mean age than non-survivors (SMD: -0.26 (95% CI: -0.37 to -0.15); p < 0.01; I2=0%).

Conclusion: According to this report, the Mortality rate of ALP poisoning in Iranian population is about 27%, with men having a higher fatality rate than women. Poisoning at a younger age is associated with better results.

Screening Performance Characteristics of Ultrasonography in Confirmation of Endotracheal Intubation; A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

Mehrdad Farrokhi, Bardia Yarmohammadi, Amir Mangouri, Yasaman Hekmatnia, Yaser Bahramvand, Moein Kiani, Elham Nasrollahi, Milad Nazari-Sabet, Niusha Manoochehri-Arash, Maria Khurshid, Shima Mosalanejad, Vida Hajizadeh, Reza Amani-Beni, Masoumeh Moallem, Maryam Farahmandsadr (Author)

Archives of Academic Emergency Medicine, Vol. 9 No. 1 (2021), 1 January 2021, Page e68

Introduction: Recent studies have suggested that point-of-care ultrasonography can be used for confirming the placement of endotracheal tube. This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to investigate the sensitivity and specificity of ultrasonography for confirming endotracheal tube placement.

Methods: In this meta-analysis, systematic search of the previous published papers investigating the diagnostic accuracy of ultrasonography for confirmation of endotracheal tube placement was performed. Seven electronic databases, including PubMed, Scopus, Google Scholar, EBSCO, EMBASE, Web of Science, and Cochrane Database were searched up to July 2021, for all relevant articles published in English on this topic. Meta-DiSc version 1.4 software was used for statistical analysis.

Results: The estimated pooled sensitivity and specificity of ultrasonography for confirmation of endotracheal tube location were 0.98 (95% CI: 0.98–0.99) and 0.94 (95% CI 0.91–0.96), respectively. The pooled positive likelihood ratio and negative likelihood ratio were 5.94 (95% CI 4.41–7.98) and 0.03 (95% CI: 0.02-0.04), respectively. The diagnostic odds ratio of ultrasonography was 281.47 and the area under hierarchical summary receiver operating characteristic (HSROC) revealed an appropriate accuracy of 0.98.

Conclusion: Ultrasonography has high diagnostic accuracy and can be used as a promising tool for confirmation of endotracheal tube placement, especially in critically ill patients or when capnography is not available, or its result is equivocal.

Accuracy of CREST Guideline in Management of Cellulitis in Emergency Department; a Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

Hossein Akhavan, Seyed Reza Habibzadeh, Fatemeh Maleki, Mahdi Foroughian, Sayyed Reza Ahmadi, Reza Akhavan, Bita Abbasi, Behzad Shahi, navid kalani, Naser Hatami, Amir Mangouri, Sheida Jamalnia (Author)

Archives of Academic Emergency Medicine, Vol. 9 No. 1 (2021), 1 January 2021, Page e69

Introduction: Skin and soft tissue infections are important causes of outpatient visits to medical clinics or hospitals. This study aimed to review the literature for the accuracy of Clinical Resource Efficiency Support Team (CREST) guideline in management of cellulitis in emergency department.

Method: Studies that had evaluated cellulitis patients using the CREST guideline were quarried in Scopus, Web of Science, and PubMed database, from 2005 to the end of 2020. The quality of the studies was evaluated using Scottish Intercollegiate Guideline Network (SIGN) checklist for cohort studies. Pooled area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) of CREST guideline regarding the rate of hospital stay more than 24 hours, rate of revisit, and appropriateness of antimicrobial treatment in management of cellulitis in emergency department was evaluated.

Results: Seven studies evaluating a total of 1640 adult cellulitis patients were finally entered to the study. In evaluation of the rate of the appropriate treatment versus over-treatment, the pooled AUROC was estimated to be 0.38 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.06 – 0.82), indicating low accuracy (AUROC lower than 0.5) of guideline for antimicrobial choice. CREST II patients had a significantly lower odds ratio (OR) of revisiting the Emergency Department, OR=0.21 (95% CI: 0.009‎ – ‎ 0.47). Pooled AUROC value of 0.86 (CI95%: 0.84 – 0.89) showed accuracy of the CREST classification in prediction of being hospitalized more or less than 24 hours.

Conclusion: CREST classification shows good accuracy in determining the duration of hospitalization or observation in ED but it could lead to inevitable over/under treatment with empirical antimicrobial agents.

Case Report

Possible Vertical Transmission of COVID-19 to the Newborn; a Case Report

Yekta Parsa, Nazila Shokri, Tayebeh Jahedbozorgan (Author); Zahra Naeiji; Shahrzad Zadehmodares, Atefeh Moridi (Author)

Archives of Academic Emergency Medicine, Vol. 9 No. 1 (2021), 1 January 2021, Page e5

Vertical transmission of the novel coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19), has been reported in case reports and series, while the data regarding its transmission is still not enough. Thus, presenting different experiences form various regions could help better understand the virus behavior in pregnancy. We herein report a possible vertical transmission of COVID-19 from a mother to the neonate. A 41-year-old mother with signs and symptoms of acute respiratory illness presented with labor pain and vaginal leak at 37 weeks of gestation.  She tested positive for COVID-19 using RT-PCR and underwent emergency cesarean section delivery and gave birth to a girl neonate. The baby tested positive for the COVID-19. Although vertical transmission of COVID-19 has not been proved yet, but there are several lines of evidences suggesting it. Paying close attention to the mother and newborn with COVID-19 and long-term follow-up are needed for better understanding of the virus in pregnancy.

Plastic Bronchitis in a Five-Year-Old Boy Treated Using Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation; a Case Report

Tsuyoshi Nojima, Hiromichi Naito, Takafumi Obara, Kohei Tsukahara, Atsunori Nakao (Author)

Archives of Academic Emergency Medicine, Vol. 9 No. 1 (2021), 1 January 2021, Page e16

Plastic bronchitis is an uncommon disorder marked by the production of bronchial casts and acute respiratory failure development. In pediatric cases, influenza infection sometimes results in the obstruction of bronchi and leads to this potentially life-threatening condition. We report the case of a five-year-old boy with plastic bronchitis related to influenza A infection, which could only be recovered by the use of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO). ECMO could effectively provide sufficient oxygenation for patients suffering from severe reversible acute respiratory failure. If patients infected with the influenza virus present acute respiratory distress with total lung atelectasis, clinicians should consider the diagnosis of plastic bronchitis and the subsequent treatment interventions with ECMO in a severe cases.

Rare and Underestimated Association of Pulmonary Embolism and Olanzapine Therapy; Report of Two Cases

Hammam Rasras, Mustapha Beghi, Maryem Samti, Nabila Ismaili, Noha El Ouafi (Author)

Archives of Academic Emergency Medicine, Vol. 9 No. 1 (2021), 1 January 2021, Page e17


Venous thromboembolic disease (VTD) is a very common and severe pathological condition in which there are many predisposing factors. Olanzapine is a drug frequently used in psychiatric practises; it is thought to increase the risk of VTD. Here, we report two cases, a young man and a woman, with a medical history of schizophrenia treated by olanzapine who developed pulmonary embolism and we did not find any aetiologies of VTD in them. Due to the link between olanzapine and pulmonary embolism, which has been previously described, olanzapine is considered responsible for this problem. Two mechanisms have been reported in the literature in this regard; significant weight gain and lethargy, which are very common side effects of olanzapine. So far, no direct effect of olanzapine on platelet aggregation or coagulation has been found. In patients developing VTD while being treated with olanzapine, discontinuation of olanzapine as a treatment option must be done with an adjustment of antipsychotic treatment and regular monitoring of psychic symptoms. Since the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism is not easy to make in a schizophrenic patient, clinicians should take that in consideration when prescribing these drugs and when facing clinical situations where VTD is suspected.

Thyrotoxic Periodic Paralysis with Thyroid Storm as the First Presentation of Graves’ disease; a Case Report

Tejaswee Banavathu, Swapnil Tripathi, Pankaj Sukhadiya, Kamlesh Ahari, Durga Shankar Meena, Mahendra Kumar Garg (Author)

Archives of Academic Emergency Medicine, Vol. 9 No. 1 (2021), 1 January 2021, Page e19

Thyrotoxic periodic paralysis is a rare endocrine emergency that manifests as acute onset muscle weakness and hypokalaemia secondary to thyrotoxicosis. It mainly occurs due to rapid and dramatic intracellular shift of potassium resulting in hypokalaemia and acute flaccid paralysis. This condition predominantly affects males of Asian descent, and presentation can range from mild generalized weakness to complete quadriplegia, as seen in our case. We herein report a case of a 40-year-old female, who presented to us with acute onset flaccid quadriplegia and thyroid storm, which is the first ever manifestation of previously undiagnosed Grave’s disease. Liver abscess was found to be the underlying trigger for thyrotoxic paralysis and thyroid storm.

Delayed post-traumatic Tension Hydropneumocephalus; a Case Report of Conservative Treatment

Talayeh Mirkarimi, Mohammad Salek, Ehsan Modirian, Peyman namdar (Author)

Archives of Academic Emergency Medicine, Vol. 9 No. 1 (2021), 1 January 2021, Page e22

Pneumocephalus refers to the presence of air in the cranial cavity. Trauma is the most common cause of acquired pneumocephalus. Tension pneumocephalus occurs when intracranial accumulation of air causes high pressure on the brain as compared to extracranial pressure. Tension pneumocephalus is usually acute, and causes neurological symptoms, and its delayed form rarely occurs. A 12-year-old girl presented with a headache, lethargy, mild fever, and nausea from two days before admission to emergency department of Shahid Rajaei Hospital, Qazvin, Iran. The patient had a history of head trauma in a driving accident six weeks before and had undergone brain computed tomography (CT) scan in another centre, which had revealed no sign of pneumocephalus. The patient had been treated for one week and had been discharged in good general condition.

Considering her reduced consciousness, the patient underwent brain CT scan again in our centre. CT scan revealed tension hydropneumocephalus. The patient was transferred to the intensive care unit (ICU) for treatment. Considering the trend of her recovery, the patient was a candidate for conservative non-surgical therapy based on the in-charge neurosurgery specialist’s decision. The patient reported no complications during the six-month follow-up. Delayed tension pneumocephalus is among neurosurgery emergencies usually treated with early surgical intervention and dura defect restoration, but this patient received non-surgical treatment without any serious problem during the six-month follow-up.

Prolonged Fever; a Case Report of Medical Malpractice

Fares Najari, Nasser Malekpour-Alamdari, Ideh Baradaran Kial, Dorsa Najari, Sahar Mirzaei (Author)

Archives of Academic Emergency Medicine, Vol. 9 No. 1 (2021), 1 January 2021, Page e49

Any surgical or preoperative treatment and diagnostic procedure may be associated with complications and risks. Therefore, introduction of complicated cases plays an important role in educating those involved in the diagnosis of patients. Generally, if a physician or a nurse is informed that an item is inadvertently left behind in a patient's body during surgery, he/she is obliged to take action by notifying the healthcare system authorities and informing the patient as soon as possible; otherwise, he/she has committed a disciplinary violation. Here we present a 27-year-old female patient with a history of renal failure with prolonged fever following a retained Shaldon catheter in a patient’s chest.

A Case of Acute Leukemia Following Remission of COVID-19 Infection; an Urge to Search for a Probable Association

Seyyed Mojtaba Nekooghadam, Afshin Moradi, Kimia Karimi Toudeshki, Mehdi Pishgahi (Author)

Archives of Academic Emergency Medicine, Vol. 9 No. 1 (2021), 1 January 2021, Page e51


Many aspects of Covid-19 infection, especially its complications and long-term health consequences are still unknown. Several reports concerning concomitant covid-19 infection and hematological disorders have been published recently. We aim to present a unique case of acute myeloid leukemia in a 61-year-old man with a previous history of covid-19 infection 40 days ago, with near complete resolution of signs and symptoms attributable to covid-19 infection. After 3 weeks, the patient presented again with progressive weakness, nausea, vomiting, and epigastric pain. No evidence of active covid-19 infection was observed. Instead, remarkable drop of hemoglobin and platelets relative to the values recorded in the discharge notes of the patient was observed. Further workup of the patient revealed evidence of acute leukemia and severe bone marrow involvement. We decided to present the current case as a concerning probable association.

Facial Nerve Palsy with Total Ophthalmoplegia; a Novel Presentation of Fungal Invasion

Zainab Mehdi, Nidhi Bhardwaj , Jyoti Aggarwal, Narinder Kaur, Brijdeep Singh (Author)

Archives of Academic Emergency Medicine, Vol. 9 No. 1 (2021), 1 January 2021, Page e54

Mucormycosis is an expeditious invasion of a fungus of angioinvasive nature, predominant in immunocompromised individuals, often leading to organ malfunction and loss. Facial nerve involvement and total ophthalmoplegia are its rare presentations. Early detection and treatment can alter natural disease course and prevent potential catastrophic outcomes in diabetic patients. Facial nerve palsy is mostly attributed to peripheral neuropathy in patients with advanced diabetes mellitus. It rarely raises alarm about an invasive fungal infection. Here, we report the case of a 38-year-old male with type 2 diabetes mellitus, who presented to us with left lower motor neuron type facial palsy and left-sided total ophthalmoplegia due to invasive rhino-orbito-cerebral mucormycosis (ROCM). Despite aggressive measures, including antifungal therapy and repeated endoscopic debridement, he subsequently developed central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO) and underwent left eye exenteration.


Discrepancy in Screening Performances of Different Rapid Test Kits for SARS-CoV-2; a Letter to Editor

Phee Kheng Cheah, Darlene F. Ongkili, Fatin Salwani Zaharuddin, Muammar Iqbal Hashim, Chiak Vun Ho, Heng Gee Lee, Phaik Kin Cheah (Author)

Archives of Academic Emergency Medicine, Vol. 9 No. 1 (2021), 1 January 2021, Page e9

Point-of-care testing has always been an attractive modality to quickly confirm diagnosis in the emergency department (ED). This attribute is highly valuable during the current Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), where early diagnosis means quicker case detection and earlier isolation. Rapid test kits (RTKs) developed to diagnose COVID-19 utilised two types of assay to detect SARS-CoV-2 infection(1). Molecular assays detect antigen in the form of viral RNA or protein on the patient’s respiratory tract, whilst serology immunoassays are used to detect IgM and IgG antibodies in the blood. There are many RTKs available commercially, but reports on effectiveness are scarce. We share the results of our study, which evaluated three colloidal gold-based immunoassay RTKs available in our centre (Sabah Women and Children’s Hospital, Kota Kinabalu, Malaysia).

Cardiologists’ Knowledge and Perception towards American Heart Association Guidelines of Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation; a Letter to Editor

Sajjad Ali, Annam Zahid, Syed Zahid Jamal, Samahir Tariq Khan, Nisha Lohana, Raahim Ahmed, Nobia Mehdi (Author)

Archives of Academic Emergency Medicine, Vol. 9 No. 1 (2021), 1 January 2021, Page e11

Sudden cardiac arrests (SCA) pose massive threats to millions of lives worldwide. Latest statistics report an annual death count of approximately 17.9 million for cardiovascular diseases (1). SCA has caused 15% of these deaths (2) and is considered a major threat in both out-of-hospital and in-hospital settings. Early identification and prompt cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is essential to increase the survival rate of SCA patients from about 50% to 70% (3). To accomplish this increment, it is cardinal for each physician to be versed with the protocols of basic life support (BLS) and advanced cardiac life support (ACLS). 

Video-Laryngoscopy-Assisted Fishbone Removal from the Upper Digestive Tract; a Letter to the Editor

Petros Vlastarakos, Konstantinos Chondrogiannis (Author)

Archives of Academic Emergency Medicine, Vol. 9 No. 1 (2021), 1 January 2021, Page e12

Fish bones are frequently lodged in the upper digestive tract, usually at the palatine tonsils, tongue base, valleculae, and pyriform sinuses. The otorhinolaryngologist represents the first point of contact in such cases, which may in fact account for a sizeable percentage of ENT emergencies (1). Persistent sharp pain in the throat, experienced by the patient following eating fish, indicates that a fishbone has stuck. If the bone is not removed in a timely manner, it may result in serious septic complications (2).

Fishbone removal requires dexterity on the part of the ENT Surgeon and co-operation on the part of the patient. Removal of fishbones in the oro-pharynx or base of tongue is usually easy; bones lodged further down may require a three-hand technique, i.e. the patient or an assistant holding the tongue, and not infrequently, turn out to be an intolerable task in the outpatient setting. We Have succeeded in managing such cases under general anaesthesia without intubation, with the use of a rigid anaesthetic video-laryngoscope and a pair of Magill forceps.

Mass Suicide of COVID-19 Patient's Survivors; a Clinical Experience

Mohammad Mahdi Forouzanfar, Ziba Shahini, Behrooz Hashemi, Sahar Mirbaha (Author)

Archives of Academic Emergency Medicine, Vol. 9 No. 1 (2021), 1 January 2021, Page e13

We had just started our shift at the emergency department that day, when a highly agitated pale middle-aged woman was brought to the emergency department by the emergency medical service (EMS). Behind her were 5 of her family members, 3 were her children and the other 2 were her sister and her brother in law. She was immediately transferred to the cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) room and cardiac and respiratory monitoring were provided, central venous access was established (due to lack of peripheral vascular access because of severe hypotension), and fluid infusion was performed. During the time these services were provided, a history was taken from her relatives.

Emergency Department and Overcrowding During COVID-19 Outbreak; a Letter to Editor

Jean-Baptiste Bouillon-Minois, Julien Raconnat, Maelys Clinchamps, Jeannot Schmidt, Frédéric Dutheil (Author)

Archives of Academic Emergency Medicine, Vol. 9 No. 1 (2021), 1 January 2021, Page e28

Dear editor;

Emergency Physicians (EPs) work under extreme stress conditions (1). Overcrowding – defined as hospital beds not being available for several patients who need one – has been a significant public health problem for more than a decade and is the consequence of the increase in health care demand and the decrease in bed spaces and number of staff (2). These parameters increase stress at work, which leads EPs to experience significant stress consequences, a feeling of diminished skills, and loss of time control (3). Many studies are interested in the overcrowding problem, like a recent study by Tangkulpanich et al. who found the predictive factors of revisiting in 48 hours (4).

Tactile Method in Confirming Proper Endotracheal Intubation in Emergency Setting; a Letter to Editor

Behrang Rezvani Kakhki, Mohsen Miri, Morteza Talebi Doluee, Zeynab Sabeti Baygi, Zahra Abbasi Shaye, Elnaz Vafadar Moradi (Author)

Archives of Academic Emergency Medicine, Vol. 9 No. 1 (2021), 1 January 2021, Page e38

Orotracheal intubation is one of the sure ways to manage airways in critical patients (1, 2). Failed intubation (Failure to properly place the endotracheal tube (ETT) in trachea) is a rather common event (3). There have been many techniques to confirm proper intubation, but none of them are applicable in all conditions. Methods such as capnography, tracheal sonography and chest-X-ray, were introduced for verification of proper tracheal intubation but they have their own limitations (4, 5). Given the significance of proper airway management, the authors focused on a secondary method of verifying proper intubation using tracheal tactile method and compared it to existing methods.

Rapid and Deep versus Normal Breathing in Salbutamol Inhalation Effectiveness; a Letter to Editor

Faeze Zeinali.N, Naser Mohammad Karimi, Mohamadali Jafari, Ebrahim Akbarzadeh Moghadam (Author)

Archives of Academic Emergency Medicine, Vol. 9 No. 1 (2021), 1 January 2021, Page e42

Metered dose Inhalers (MDIs) are widely used in the management of patients with asthma and choronoc obstractyive polmunary disease (COPD). Studies comparing the efficacy of inhalers versus nebulizers have shown no significant difference (1, 2). Good inhaler technique is essential to improve patient compliance and control of symptom, and diminish side effects. The usual technique is to use 5 tidal breaths. The Global Initiative for Asthma guidelines suggest that patients can take a slow and single breath to inhale the drug or do tidal breathing. The total lung deposition of an inhaled treatment is strongly affected by the speed of inhalation.