Topical Tranexamic Acid versus Phenylephrine-lidocaine for the Treatment of Anterior Epistaxis in Patients Taking Aspirin or Clopidogrel; a Randomized Clinical Trial
Archives of Academic Emergency Medicine,
Vol. 9 No. 1 (2021),
1 January 2021
Introduction: Epistaxis is one of the most prevalent complaints in the emergency department (ED), especially in patients who take antiplatelet agents. This study aimed to compare the effect of topical use of tranexamic acid (TXA) with phenylephrine-lidocaine anterior nasal packing (PANP) in controlling epistaxis of patients who take aspirin or clopidogrel.
Methods: This prospective, double-blind, parallel-group, randomized clinical trial was conducted to compare the effect of topical use of intravenous (IV) TXA compared with PANP on controlling anterior epistaxis in patients who take aspirin or clopidogrel.
Results: One hundred patients with the mean age of 59.24 ± 7.75 (45 – 75) years were studied (52% male). Two groups were similar in terms of age (p=0.81) and sex (p=0.23) distribution, diabetes mellitus (p=0.54), and hypertension (p = 0.037). The mean time to stop bleeding was 6.70 ± 2.35 minutes in the TXA group and 11.50±3.64 minutes in the PANP group (p=0.002). Bleeding recurrence occurred in 3 (6%) cases of the TXA group and 10 (20%) cases of the PANP group (p =0.03). Time to discharge from ED in the TXA group was significantly lower than the PANP group (p<0.001). The absolute risk reduction (ARR), relative risk reduction, and number needed to harm of treatment with TXA for anterior nasal bleeding were 14.00% (95%CI: 1.11 – 26.89), 17.50% (95%CI: 0.60 - 37.27), and 7.14 (95%CI: 3.71 -90.43), respectively.
Conclusion: Topical TXA is an appropriate treatment option in bleeding cessation, and reducing re-bleeding and duration of hospital stay in patients with epistaxis who take antiplatelet agents.
- Tranexamic Acid; phenylephrine, lidocaine drug combination; Epistaxis; Aspirin; Clopidogrel; Emergency Medical Services
How to Cite
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