Fentanyl versus Methadone in Management of Withdrawal Syndrome in Opioid Addicted Patients; a Pilot Clinical Trial
Archives of Academic Emergency Medicine,
Vol. 9 No. 1 (2021),
1 January 2021
Introduction: The most effective treatment for withdrawal syndrome in Opioid-dependent patients admitted to intensive care units (ICUs) remains unknown. This study aimed to compare fentanyl and methadone in this regard.
Methods: This prospective, single-blinded, controlled pilot study was conducted on opioid-dependent intubated patients admitted to the toxicology ICU of Loghman Hakim Hospital, Tehran, Iran, between August 2019 and August 2020. Patients were alternately assigned to either fentanyl or methadone group after the initiation of their withdrawal syndrome. Duration and alleviation of the withdrawal signs and symptoms, ICU and hospital stay, development of complications, development of later signs/symptoms of withdrawal syndrome, and need for further administration of sedatives to treat agitation were then compared between these two groups.
Results: Median age of the patients was 42 [interquartile range (IQR): 26, 56]. The two groups were similar in terms of the patients’ age (p = 0.92), sex (p = 0.632), primary Simplified Acute Physiology Score (SAPS) II (p = 0.861), and Clinical Opiate Withdrawal Score (COWS) before (p = 0.537) and 120 minutes after treatment (p = 0.136) with either methadone or fentanyl. The duration of intubation (p = 0.120), and ICU stay (p = 0.572), were also similar between the two groups. The only factor that was significantly different between the two groups was the time needed for alleviation of the withdrawal signs and symptoms after the administration of the medication, which was significantly shorter in the methadone group (30 vs. 120 minutes, p = 0.007).
Conclusion: It seems that methadone treats the withdrawal signs and symptoms faster in dependent patients. However, these drugs are similarly powerful in controlling the withdrawal signs in these patients.
- Substance withdrawal syndrome
- Drug therapy
- Intensive care units
How to Cite
Heslin KC, Elixhauser A, Steiner CA. Hospitalizations involving mental and substance use disorders among adults, 2012: statistical brief# 191. 2015.
Organization WH. Training manual for clinical guidelines for withdrawal management and treatment of drug dependence in closed settings: Manila: WHO Regional Office for the Western Pacific; 2009.
Donroe JH, Tetrault JM. Substance use, intoxication, and withdrawal in the critical care setting. Critical care clinics. 2017;33(3):543-58.
Nelson KL, Stenehjem D, Driscoll M, Gilcrease GW. Fatal statin-induced rhabdomyolysis by possible interaction with palbociclib. Frontiers in Oncology. 2017;7:150.
Jenkins DH. Substance abuse and withdrawal in the intensive care unit: Contemporary issues. Surgical Clinics of North America. 2000;80(3):1033-53.
Payen J-F, Chanques G, Mantz J, Hercule C, Auriant I, Leguillou J-L, et al. Current practices in sedation and analgesia for mechanically ventilated critically ill patients: a prospective multicenter patient-based study. The Journal of the American Society of Anesthesiologists. 2007;106(4):687-95.
Salluh JI, Dal-Pizzol F, Mello PV, Friedman G, Silva E, Teles JMM, et al. Delirium recognition and sedation practices in critically ill patients: a survey on the attitudes of 1015 Brazilian critical care physicians. Journal of Critical Care. 2009;24(4):556-62.
Wanzuita R, Poli-de-Figueiredo LF, Pfuetzenreiter F, Cavalcanti AB, Westphal GA. Replacement of fentanyl infusion by enteral methadone decreases the weaning time from mechanical ventilation: a randomized controlled trial. Critical Care. 2012;16(2):1-9.
Kollef MH, Levy NT, Ahrens TS, Schaiff R, Prentice D, Sherman G. The use of continuous iv sedation is associated with prolongation of mechanical ventilation. Chest. 1998;114(2):541-8.
Leshner AI. Science-based views of drug addiction and its treatment. Jama. 1999;282(14):1314-6.
Sohrevardi SM, Pournamdari M, Salimi R, Sarrafzadeh F, Ahmadinejad M. Comparing the Efficacy of Methadone and Tincture of Opium in Controlling Agitation Caused by Withdrawal Syndrome in Opium-Addicted Patients in the Intensive Care Unit: A Randomized Trial Study. Addiction & Health. 2020;12(2):69.
- Abstract Viewed: 338 times
- pdf Downloaded: 128 times