Archives of Academic Emergency Medicine 2023-06-03T20:04:18+00:00 Somayeh Saghaei Dehkordi Open Journal Systems <p><strong>Welcome to "Archives of Academic Emergency Medicine (AAEM)"</strong></p> <p>This journal was published under the title <strong>"Emergency"</strong> from 2013 to 2018. From the beginning of 2019, the journal is published on this website. Archives of Academic Emergency Medicine (AAEM) is an international, peer-reviewed, and open access journal. The journal publishes articles on critical care, disaster and trauma management, environmental diseases, toxicology, pediatric emergencies, emergency medical services, emergency nursing, and other related topics.</p> Extracting the Factors Affecting the Survival Rate of Trauma Patients Using Data Mining Techniques on a National Trauma Registry 2023-05-20T08:34:40+00:00 Mehdi Nasr Isfahani Mohammad Sattari Nahid tavakoli Hossein Bagherian Neda Al Sadat Fatemi Peyman Salamati <p><strong>Introduction</strong>: Thousands of people die due to trauma all over the world every day, which leaves adverse effects on families and the society. The main objective of this study was to identify the factors affecting the mortality of trauma patients using data mining techniques.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: The present study includes six parts: data gathering, data preparation, target attributes specification, data balancing, evaluation criteria, and applied techniques. The techniques used in this research are all from the decision tree family. The output of these techniques are patterns extracted from the trauma patients dataset (National Trauma Registry of Iran). The dataset includes information on 25,986 trauma patients from all over the country. The techniques that were used include random forest, CHAID, and ID3.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: Random forest performs better than the other two techniques in terms of accuracy. The ID3 technique performs better than the other two techniques in terms of the dead class. The random forest technique has performed better than other techniques in the living class. The rules with the most support, state that if the Injury Severity Score (ISS) is minor and vital signs are normal, 98% of people will survive. The second rule, in terms of support, states that if ISS is minor and vital signs are abnormal, 93% will survive. Also, by increasing the threshold of the patient's arrival time from 10 to 15 minutes, no noticeable difference was observed in the death rate of patients.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: Transfer time of less than ten minutes in patietns whose ISS is minor, can increase the chance of survival. Impaired vital signs can decrease the chance of survival in &nbsp;traffic accidents. Also, if the ISS is minor in non-penetrating trauma, regardless of vital signs and if the victim is transported in less than ten minutes, the patient will survive with 99% certainty.</p> 2023-01-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Archives of Academic Emergency Medicine A Clinical Score for Predicting the Paroxysmal Supraventricular Tachycardia’s Recurrence Risk; a Retrospective Cross-sectional Study 2023-05-20T09:04:11+00:00 Chaiyaporn Yuksen Welawat Tienpratarn Rungrawin Promkul Chetsadakon Jenpanitpong Sorawich watcharakitpaisan Jenjira Yaithet Viruji Phonphom <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> Identifying prognostic variables associated with the probability of recurrent paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia (PSVT) would aid decision-making regarding disposition of the patients. This study aims to develop a clinical scoring system to predict PSVT recurrence after adenosine administration in the emergency department (ED).</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>This retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted on patients who were referred to the emergency department of Ramathibodi Hospital, a university-affiliated super-tertiary care hospital in Bangkok, Thailand, with diagnosis of PSVT during a 10-year period from 01 January 2010 until 31 December 2020. The cases were divided into recurrent and non-recurrent PSVT based on the response to standard treatment and the independent predictors of recurrence were studied using multivariable logistic regression analysis.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>264 patients were diagnosed with PSVT and successfully converted by adenosine. 24 (9.1%) had recurrent PSVT, and 240 (90.9%) had no recurrent PSVT in the same ED visit. The risk of PSVT recurrence in ED corresponded with the history of hypertension (p = 0.059), valvular heart disease (p = 0.052), heart rate ≥ 100 (p = 0.012), and systolic blood pressure &lt; 100 after electrocardiogram (ECG) converted to sinus rhythm (p = 0.022) and total dose of adenosine (p = 0.002). We developed a clinical prediction score of PSVT recurrence with an accuracy of 79.5%. A score of 0 (low risk), 1–2 (moderate risk), and &gt; 2 (high risk) had a positive likelihood ratio (LR+) of 0.31, 0.56 and 2.33, respectively.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>It seems that, using the PSVT recurrence score we could screen the high-risk patients for PSVT recurrence (score&gt;2) who need to be observed for at least 6-12 hours and receive cardiologist consultation in ED. In addition, the moderate and low-risk group (score 0-2) need to be observed for 1 hour and can be discharged from ED.</p> 2023-01-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Archives of Academic Emergency Medicine Level of Self-Care and Patient Care Against COVID-19 Among Emergency Medical Services Personnel; a Cross-sectional Study 2023-05-20T09:04:11+00:00 Sirvan Abbasi Ghocham Sina Valiee Naser Kamyari Salam Vatandost <p><strong>Introduction</strong>: Provision of pre-hospital care by emergency medical services (EMS) requires paying attention to self-care and patient care against possible infections. The present study was conducted with the aim of determining the level of self-care and patient care against COVID-19.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> The present correlational, descriptive, analytical study was carried out on 301 EMS personnel in Iran. Data were collected using a demographic information form and questionnaires made by the researcher on the level of self-care and patient care against COVID-19.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The results showed that more than half of the participants (55%) were aged 27 to 34 years. The majority of the participants had an experience of participating in self-care (88.7%) and patient care (83.7%) training courses against COVID-19. The overall score of self-care was 55.96 ± 6.97 out of 72 and that of patient care was 26.86± 3.39 out of 32, both of which revealed a favorable level. However, in some questions, the mean score was lower than the optimal level. The lowest mean score among items related to self-care against COVID-19 was allocated to wearing protective clothing (1.77±1.19). Among items related to patient care against COVID-19, the lowest mean score was related to training the patient about hand hygine after touching contaminated equipment (2.83±1.08 out of 4). There was a positive (r=0.491) and significant correlation between self-care and patient care against COVID-19 (p=0.001) based on our findings.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: Although the general level of self-care and patient care against COVID-19 was favorable, due to the undesired level of some domains, it seems necessary to implement corrective planning through periodical training and monitoring the performance of the personnel.</p> 2023-01-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Archives of Academic Emergency Medicine The Effect of Intravenous Metoclopramide on Gastric Emptying of Opium-dependent Patients based on Ultrasonographic Criteria; a Case-control Study 2023-05-20T07:44:55+00:00 Faramarz Mosaffa Ali Arhami Dolatabadi Masoomeh Raoufi Faezeh Golpour Mahshid Ghasemi Mohammad Javad Yazdipoor Elham Memary <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> Induction of anesthesia for emergency procedures, without prior gastric preparation and incomplete fasting, is associated with the risk of reflux of stomach contents and aspiration. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of intravenous (IV) metoclopramide administration on gastric emptying in opium users, candidate for procedural sedation and analgesia (PSA).</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> In the present case-control study, opium-dependent (case) and non-dependent (control) patients in need of PSA were administered with 10 mg IV metoclopramide after undergoing gastric ultrasonography for determination of its area and contents. Then, 30 minutes after the administration of metoclopramide, the area and contents of the stomach were measured again and compared with the measures obtained before the intervention.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> 135 patients were evaluated in three groups of 45, including the case, control, and placebo groups. The three groups were similar regarding mean age (p = 0.068), sex (p = 0.067), weight (p = 0.596), height (p = 0.671), body mass index (BMI) (p = 0.877), duration of fasting (p = 0.596), and type of gastric contents (p = 0.124). Mean antral cross-sectional area (CSA) of the study participants in the case, control, and placebo groups before the administration of the drug was 8.49 ± 1.40, 8.31 ± 2.56, and 6.56 ± 1.72 cm<sup>2</sup>, respectively. Mean gastric area in the case (p &lt; 0.001) and control (p &lt; 0.001) groups had significantly decreased after the intervention. Mean antral gastric grade of gastric contents in the case (p &lt; 0.001) and control (p &lt; 0.001) groups had significantly decreased after the intervention.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> It seems that metoclopramide administration in opium users in need of PSA leads to a significant decrease in mean gastric area and increases gastric emptying.</p> 2023-01-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Archives of Academic Emergency Medicine The Effect of L-Citrulline Supplementation on Outcomes of Critically Ill Patients under Mechanical Ventilation; a Double-Blind Randomized Controlled Trial 2023-05-20T09:04:11+00:00 Mohammadreza Asgary Mohammadreza.askary1994@GMAIL.COM Sayid Mahdi Mirghazanfari Ebrahim Hazrati Vahid Hadi Mojgan Mehri Ardestani Faeze bani Yaghoobi Saeid Hadi <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> Effective parenteral and enteral amino acid replacement is crucial for critically ill patients with altered amino acid metabolism. This study aimed to assess the effects of l-citrulline supplementation on the clinical and laboratory outcomes in critically patients.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> This was a double-blind placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial. 82 critically ill patients who were expected to receive mechanical ventilation for more than 72 hours were selected. The patients were assigned to either a placebo or an intervention group. The patients in the placebo group received 10 gr of microcrystalline cellulose and the ones in the intervention group were given l-citrulline daily for 7 days. &nbsp;Serum levels of fasting blood sugar (FBS), lipid profile, hepatic enzymes, serum electrolytes, urea nitrogen, creatinine, and C-reactive protein (CRP) were evaluated before and after the intervention. Duration of invasive ventilation, intensive care unit (ICU) length of stay, ventilator-free days, and 28-day mortality rate were recorded and compared between groups.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Eighty-two patients completed the trial. No statistically significant differences were observed between the two groups in terms of age (p = 0.46), sex (p = 0.49), body mass index (BMI) (p = 0.41), Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) Score (p = 0.08), Clinical Pulmonary Infection Score (CPIS) score (p = 0.76), Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE II) score (p = 0.58), risk factors (p = 0.13), ICU stay before randomization (p = 0.32), and reason of admission (p = 0.50) before the intervention. Citrulline group had a notable reduction in FBS (p = 0.04), total cholesterol (TC) (p = 0.02), low density lipoprotein (LDL-C) (p &lt;0.001) and high-sensitivity CRP (hs-CRP) (p &lt;0.001). Also, a significant increase in lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) concentration (p &lt;0.001) was observed in the intervention group at the end of the trial. Total duration of invasive ventilation and the mean SOFA score on 7th day were significantly lower in the citrulline group compared to the control group. Moreover, a significant increase in days alive and ventilator-free days within 28 days after admission was found in the citrulline group at the end of the trial. Also, there were no significant differences between the groups in terms of mortality rate during intervention, serious adverse events, endotracheal intubation, the use of tracheotomy or non-invasive ventilation after extubation, length of ICU stay, ICU-free days at 28 days, and CPIS and APACHE II scores.</p> <p>For mortality, in the citrulline group, there was two deaths compared to eight deaths in the control group. This resulted in an absolute risk reduction (ARR) of 14.05% (95% CI: 0.39–27.71%) and a number needed to treat (NNT) of 7.1 (95% CI: 3.6–29.5), regarding mortality.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> The results of the present study demonstrated the probable positive effects of citrulline supplementation on lipid profile, hs-CRP levels, duration of invasive ventilation, and SOFA score. Also, l-citrulline consumption may increase the probability of survival without mechanical ventilation.</p> 2023-01-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Archives of Academic Emergency Medicine Dizziness Evaluation and Characterisation of Patients with Posterior Circulation Stroke in the Emergency Department; a Case Series Study 2023-05-20T08:34:40+00:00 Miguel Saro- Buendía Lidia Torres García Natalia Jaramillo Angel Raul Mellidez Acosta Javier Cabrera Guijo Catalina Bancalari Díaz Alfonso García Piñero Vanesa Pérez Guillén Miguel Armengot Carceller <p><strong>Introduction</strong>: &nbsp;Dizziness is a common scenario in the Emergency Departments (EDs). Among dizziness underlying causes, the posterior circulation stroke is especially relevant due to its mobimortality and concerning misdiagnosis rates. Therefore, we conducted this study to assess dizziness evaluation and baseline characteristics of patients with PS in the ED.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: We conducted a 3-year retrospective observational study on PS cases confirmed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Concretely, we analysed the demographic profile of these patients, the initial PS clinical presentation, and diagnostic workup (with emphasis on dizziness evaluation) performed at the ED.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: During the study period, 85 cases were registered. Risk factors for cardiovascular disease were present in 85.5% and previous visits to the ED due to dizziness were recorded in 16.5%. The main clinical presentation was dizziness, concretely as an acute vestibular syndrome (38.8%) with additional neurological signs or symptoms (80%). Evaluation by the otolaryngologist on call was requested in less than 10% of the cases and included the HINTS protocol use with a sensitivity of 100% for central nervous system underlying causality. A brain CT study was always performed with a sensitivity of 27%. However, 96.47% of patients were primarily admitted to the Neurology hospitalization ward and MRI was always performed in a mean time of 3.21 days confirming the diagnosis.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions</strong>: Dizziness is the most frequent symptom of PS. Patients usually present an AVS (associated with additional N-SS or not) and HINTS bedside examination is the most adequate protocol to differentiate a PS from other AVS causes until the diagnostic confirmation via MRI. Interestingly, mainly otolaryngologists seem to use HINTS. However, the use of CT is widespread despite its poor value.</p> 2023-01-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Archives of Academic Emergency Medicine Comparing the Emergency Medicine Residency Programs in Iran and around the World; a Descriptive Study 2023-05-20T08:37:20+00:00 Mahdi Talebi Morteza Talebi Doluee Mohamadali Jafari Hamid Zamani Moghaddam Mojtaba Moazzami Mahdi Foroughian Hassan Gholami Hamidreza Reihani <p><strong>Introduction: </strong>To identify the strengths and weaknesses of emergency medicine residency curriculum in Iran, and to benefit from the experiences of successful universities, comparative studies are crucial. This study compared the components of the national curriculum of emergency medicine in the United States, Canada, the European Union, Australia, and Saudi Arabia with Iran.</p> <p><strong>Method: </strong>Data for this research was collected by searching the&nbsp;websites of different universities and&nbsp;also&nbsp;contacting them for requesting curriculums. The leading countries in emergency medicine and one of the countries in the Middle East region&nbsp;(Saudi Arabia) along with the World Federation of Emergency Medicine&nbsp;were selected as the sample. The model used in this field is a range model that identifies four stages of description, interpretation, proximity, and comparison in comparative studies.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> In the curriculum of the United States, Canada, the European Union, Australia, and Saudi Arabia, there were lots of similarities in expressing the general characteristics of the curriculum, mission elements, vision, values, and ​beliefs of the discipline, educational strategy, techniques, expected competencies, rotation programs, and evaluation method, which were also similar to the Iranian curriculum.&nbsp;However, the duration of residency for emergency medicine in Iran is three years, which is shorter than other countries. As expected, the number and duration of rotations are less than other countries. Also, the process of entering into this field is different in Iran and is based on an exam for entrance, while most other countries use self-requested residency program.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Considering the results of comparing the Iranian curriculum with the curriculums of the United States, Canada, the European Union, Australia, and Saudi Arabia, it seems that Iran's program is comprehensive and complete; but, a reappraisal of the course duration and entering options are necessary to eliminate or improve the inadequacies.</p> 2023-01-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Archives of Academic Emergency Medicine Effect of Ticagrelor Compared to Clopidogrel on Short-term Outcomes of COVID-19 Patients with Acute Coronary Syndrome Undergoing Percutaneous Coronary Intervention; a Randomized Clinical Trial 2023-05-20T08:36:55+00:00 Reza Arefizadeh Seyed Hossein Moosavi Sayied Towfiqie Seyed Abolfazl Mohsenizadeh Mehdi Pishgahi <p><strong>Introduction: </strong>Acute COVID-19 infection is associated with increased adverse clinical outcomes in patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS). Given that some studies suggested improved pulmonary function with Ticagrelor, this clinical trial aimed to compare the effects of Ticagrelor versus Clopidogrel on the short-term outcomes of these patients.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>In this multicenter clinical trial, 180 COVID-19 patients with ACS who underwent urgent percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) were randomized to receive Ticagrelor (180mg loading dose followed by 90mg twice daily, n=90) or Clopidogrel (600mg loading dose with 75mg daily, n=90), and then followed for one month after their procedure. The primary composite endpoint was a combination of all-cause mortality, myocardial infarction, and early stent thrombosis within the first month after stent implantation.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>After thirty days of follow-up, the primary composite endpoint was non-significantly lower in the Ticagrelor compared to the Clopidogrel group (18.5% vs 23.5% respectively, p = 0.254). Based on the time-to-event analysis, the mean survival rate was 26.8 ±7.7 and 24.7 ±9.9 days, respectively, for the Ticagrelor and the Clopidogrel arms (Log-rank p = 0.275). Secondary endpoints were similar in the two trial arms, except for the mean oxygen saturation, which was higher in the Ticagrelor group (95.28 ±2.68 % vs. 94.15 ± 3.55 %, respectively; p = 0.021).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Among COVID-19 patients with concomitant ACS, who were treated with urgent PCI, the composite outcome of death, myocardial infarction, and early stent thrombosis was not different between Ticagrelor and Clopidogrel groups. However, administration of Ticagrelor was associated with a slight but statistically significant increase in oxygen saturation compared to Clopidogrel, but this difference wasn’t clinically important.</p> 2023-01-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Archives of Academic Emergency Medicine Clinical Risk Factors of Need for Intensive Care Unit Admission of COVID-19 Patients; a Cross-sectional Study 2023-05-20T09:01:59+00:00 Farshid Sharifi Mohammad Hossain Mehrolhassani Milad Ahmadi Gohari Ali Karamoozian Yunes Jahani <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> It could be beneficial to accelerate the hospitalization of patients with the identified clinical risk factors of intensive care unit (ICU) admission, in order to control and reduce COVID-19-related mortality. This study aimed to determine the clinical risk factors associated with ICU hospitalization of COVID-19 patients.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>The current research was a cross-sectional study. The study recruited 7182 patients who had positive PCR tests between February 23, 2020, and September 7, 2021 and were admitted to Afzalipour Hospital in Kerman, Iran, for at least 24 hours. Their demographic characteristics, underlying diseases, and clinical parameters were collected. In order to analyze the relationship between the studied variables and ICU admission, multiple logistic regression model, classification tree, and support vector machine were used.&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>It was found that 14.7 percent (1056 patients) of the study participants were admitted to ICU. The patients’ average age was 51.25±21 years, and 52.8% of them were male. In the study, some factors such as decreasing oxygen saturation level (OR=0.954, 95%CI: 0.944-0.964), age (OR=1.007, 95%CI: 1.004-1.011), respiratory distress (OR=1.658, 95%CI: 1.410-1.951), reduced level of consciousness (OR=2.487, 95%CI: 1.721-3.596), hypertension (OR=1.249, 95%CI: 1.042-1.496), chronic pulmonary disease (OR=1.250, 95%CI: 1.006-1.554), heart diseases (OR=1.250, 95%CI: 1.009-1.548), chronic kidney disease (OR=1.515, 95%CI: 1.111-2.066), cancer (OR=1.682, 95%CI: 1.130-2.505), seizures (OR=3.428, 95%CI: 1.615-7.274), and gender (OR=1.179, 95%CI: 1.028-1.352) were found to significantly affect ICU admissions.</p> <p>C<strong>onclusions: </strong>As evidenced by the obtained results, blood oxygen saturation level, the patient's age, and their level of consciousness are crucial for ICU admission.</p> 2023-01-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Archives of Academic Emergency Medicine Associated Factors of In-hospital Mortality among Intubated Older Adults in Emergency Department; a Cross-sectional Study 2023-05-20T07:48:38+00:00 Mohd Idzwan Zakaria Norhadila Che Manshor Maw Pin Tan <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> A decision-making guideline on when to intubate an older person based on predictors of intubation outcome would be extremely beneficial. This study aimed to identify the associated factors that could predict the outcomes of endotracheal intubation among older adults in the Emergency Department (ED).</p> <p><em><strong>Methods:</strong></em> In this retrospective cross-sectional study, patients aged ≥65 years intubated at the ED of University of Malaya Medical Centre, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, from 2015 to 2019 were studied. The association between age, gender, place of inhabitation, Identification of Seniors at Risk (ISAR) score for frailty, Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI), Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation-II (APACHE-II) score, indication for intubation, and diagnosis on admission with in-hospital mortality (primary outcome) and duration of ventilation, and length of stay (secondary outcomes) were evaluated using univariate analysis and Cox’s regression survival analysis.</p> <p><em><strong>Results:</strong></em> 889 cases aged 65 years and above were studied (61.5% male). The rate of in-hospital mortality was 71.4%. There was a significant association between age (p &lt; 0.001), nursing home residency (p = 0.008), CCI≥ 5 (p = 0.001), APACHE-II (p &lt; 0.001), pre-intubation Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) (p &lt; 0.001), cardiac arrest as indication of intubation (p &lt; 0.001), diagnosis on admission (p &lt; 0.001), length of stay (p &lt; 0.001), and length of ventilation (p = 0.003) and in-hospital mortality. &nbsp;Age ≥ 85 years (HR= 1.270; 95%CI=1.074 to 1.502) and 75 to 84 years (HR=1.642; 95%CI=1.167 to 2.076), cardiac arrest as indication of intubation (HR: 1.882; 95% CI: 1.554 – 2.279), and APACHE-II scores 25 – 34 (HR: 1.423; 95% CI: 1.171 - 1.730) and ≥ 35 (HR: 1.789; 95%CI: 1.418 - 2.256) were amongst the independent predictive factors of in-hospital mortality.&nbsp;</p> <p><em><strong>Conclusion:</strong></em> Nearly three out of four individuals aged ≥65 years intubated at the ED died during the same admission. Older age, cardiac arrest as indication of intubation, and APACHE-II score were independent predictors of in-hospital mortality.</p> 2023-01-03T05:47:52+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Archives of Academic Emergency Medicine Long-term Complications of COVID-19 in Nursing Staff; a Retrospective Longitudinal Study 2023-05-20T08:01:10+00:00 Koorosh Etemad Hossein Hatami Mahnaz Nikpeyma Forough Mowla Fatemeh Fallah Atatalab <p><strong>Introduction: </strong>Although the lungs are the main target of coronavirus disease (COVID-19), infection is also associated with a high rate of extra-pulmonary complications. This study aimed to evaluate the one-year incidence of long-term COVID-19 complications among the nursing staff.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>This study is a retrospective longitudinal study. All nursing staff working in public hospitals affiliated with Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences who had been affected with COVID-19 were included in the study via convenience sampling method. The patients were recruited from 20<sub>th</sub> February 2020 to 20<sub>th</sub> March 2021.</p> <p><strong>Result: </strong>1762 nursing staff with a mean age of 35.08 ± 8.02 (Range: 22-66) years were studied (73.5% female). The results showed that among those who reported at least one type of complication, the duration of complications was significantly longer than 1 week and the median was 8 weeks.</p> <p>The findings demonstrated that complications occurred in 65% of infected females. For men, this rate was 62.3%. Generalized pain, anxiety disorders, and skin complications were among the complications that were significantly more common in women than in men. Additionally, the incidence of anosmia, ageusia, anxiety disorders, and skin complications was significantly higher in younger people than in older people. &nbsp;The comparison of complications revealed that nurses were significantly more likely than other occupations to experience respiratory complications, anosmia and ageusia, generalized pain, and skin complications and that outpatients experienced significantly more complications than hospitalized patients.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>The one-year cumulative incidence of long-term complications in nursing staff with COVID-19 was 64.3%. The most common complications were respiratory complications, generalized pain, anosmia, and ageusia, respectively.</p> 2023-01-09T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Archives of Academic Emergency Medicine Pattern of Neurological Disorders among Patients Evaluated in the Emergency Department; Cross–Sectional Study 2023-05-20T08:31:10+00:00 Mohamed Sheikh Hassan Nor Osman Sidow Alper GÖKGÜL Bakar Ali Adam Mohamed Farah Osman Hussein Hassan Mohamed Ismail Gedi Ibrahim Ishak Ahmed Abdi <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Introduction:</strong> Neurologic disorders are common reasons for emergency consultations. Most neurologic disorders seen in the emergency department (ED) are life-threatening and require urgent treatment. The goal of this study is to investigate the pattern of neurological disorders among patients evaluated in the ED.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Methods:</strong> This is a cross-sectional study conducted in the ED of Mogadishu Somali Turkish&nbsp;Training and Research Hospital, from July 2021 to February 2022. &nbsp;The clinical and epidemiological characteristics of adult patients with neurologic manifestations in the ED were evaluated. Age, gender, distribution of neurological disease manifestations, neurological examination findings, and neurological diagnoses made by consultant neurologists were assessed.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Results:</strong> During the study period, 321 patients were assessed (3.7% of all ED admissions). The majority of the patients in the study were above 50 years of age (62.6% male). Hypertension was the most common comorbidity among these patients with 122 (38%) cases, followed by diabetes mellitus with 65 (20.2%), and heart diseases with 26 (8.1%) cases. The main reasons for neurology consultations were altered mental status with 141 (44%) cases, motor weakness with 102 (31.8%), seizures with 33 (10%), headache with 17 (5.3%), and vertigo with 9 (2.8%) cases. 196 (61%) had hemiplegia, 60 (18.7%) had consciousness impairment, and 38 (11.8%) had normal neurological examination. The most frequent neurological diagnoses were ischemic strokes with 125 (39%) cases, hemorrhagic strokes with 65 (20.2%), epileptic seizures with 28 (8.7%), and metabolic encephalopathies with 13 (4%) cases. The median duration of the neurology consultations was 20 minutes. 251 (78%) of the patients were admitted to the hospital, while 70 (22%) were discharged from the emergency department. After neurology consultation, the neurology department made the most admissions with 226 (90%) cases, while 25 (10%) were admitted by other departments. Of those admitted, 186 (74.2%) were admitted to the neurology ward, and 65 (25.8%) were admitted to the intensive care unit.</p> <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Conclusion:</strong> In our study, neurologic emergencies accounted for 3.7% of all emergency admissions. Stroke, epileptic seizures, cerebral venous thrombosis, encephalopathies, and acute spinal cord diseases were the most common neurological disorders.&nbsp; The admission rate was very high following neurologic assessment by neurologists.</p> 2023-01-21T10:42:35+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Archives of Academic Emergency Medicine Effect of Out-Of-Hour Admission on Fluid Treatment of Emergency Department Patients with Suspected Infection; a Multicenter Post-Hoc Analysis 2023-05-20T07:51:30+00:00 Marie Kristine Jessen Anna Drescher Petersen Hans Kirkegaard <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> Sepsis is a life-threatening and common cause of Emergency department (ED) referrals. Out-of-hour staffing is limited in ED, which may potentially affect fluid administration. This study aimed to investigate fluid volume variation in out-of-hour vs. routine-hour admissions.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> The present study is a post-hoc analysis of a multicentre, prospective, observational study investigating fluid administration in ED patients with suspected infection, from Jan 20<sup>th </sup>- March 2<sup>nd, </sup>2020. Patient groups were “routine-hours” (RH): weekdays 07:00-18:59 or “out-of-hours” (OOH): weekdays 19:00-06:59 or Friday 19:00-Monday 06:59. Primary outcome was 24-hour total fluid volumes (oral + intravenous (IV)). Secondary outcomes were total fluids 0-6 hours, oral fluids 0-6 and 0-24 hours, and IV fluids 0-6 and 0-24 hours. Linear regression adjusted for site and illness severity was used.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> 734 patients had suspected infection; 449 were admitted during RH and 287 during OOH. Mean (95% CI) total 24-hour fluid volumes were equal in simple infection and sepsis regardless of admission time: Simple infection RH: 3640 (3410 - 3871) ml and OOH: 3681 (3451 - 3913) ml. Sepsis RH: 3671 (3443;3898) ml and OOH: 3896 (3542;4250) ml. Oral fluids 0-6h were reduced in simple infection and sepsis among OOH vs. RH. Sepsis patients received more 0-6-hour IV fluid when admitted OOH vs. RH. There were no associations between admission time and 0-24-hour oral or IV volumes in simple infection or sepsis.&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Admission time did not have an association with 24-hour total fluid volumes. Sepsis patients admitted during OOH received more 0-6-hour IV fluids than RH patients, and simple infection and sepsis patients received less oral fluid in 0-6 hours if admitted during OOH vs. RH.</p> 2023-01-31T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Archives of Academic Emergency Medicine Short-term Side Effects of mRNA-based COVID-19 Vaccine Among Jordanian Population; a Cross-sectional Study 2023-05-20T07:54:05+00:00 Razan Nassar <p><strong>Introduction: </strong>One type of the developed COVID-19 vaccines that received emergency permission and was approved by the food and drug administration (FDA) is the mRNA-based vaccine. The aim of this study is to gather information on the Jordanian population's experience with the vaccine's side effects.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> The study objectives were addressed through a cross-sectional study, which collected information regarding the short-term side effects experienced by the vaccinated individuals within one month following the injection of an mRNA-based COVID-19 vaccine. Data collection was carried out in August 2021. Participants were invited to take part in a self-administered web-based survey created using Google Forms.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Among the study’s participants (n= 533), about 56% experienced side effects after the first dose of the mRNA-based COVID-19 vaccine. The most commonly reported side effects after the first dose were sore arm at the injection site (91.6%), and fatigue (83.06%). The female gender was significantly associated with experiencing fatigue, discomfort, chills, and hair loss. Being over 30 years old was significantly associated with experiencing cough. Being a smoker was significantly associated with experiencing shortness of breath and gastrointestinal symptoms.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The mRNA-based COVID-19 vaccine side effects were common, yet, mild, local, and self-limited. The local pain at the injection site was the most commonly reported side effect. Hopefully, the study's findings will aid in lowering resistance to vaccination.</p> 2023-02-12T06:48:46+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Archives of Academic Emergency Medicine Two-Stage Clinical Model for Screening the Suspected Cases of Acute Ischemic Stroke in Need of Imaging in Emergency Department; a Cross-sectional Study 2023-05-20T07:51:14+00:00 Somayeh Karimi Lorraine Martins Dutra e Oliva Hosein Rafiemanesh Melissa Mendez Capitaine Sarah Jabre Alireza Baratloo <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> Just as failure to diagnose an acute ischemic stroke (AIS) in a timely manner affects the patient's outcome; an inaccurate and misplaced impression of the AIS diagnosis is not without its drawbacks. Here, we introduce a two-stage clinical tool to aid in the screening of AIS cases in need of imaging in the emergency department (ED).</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> This was a multicenter cross-sectional study, in which suspected AIS patients who underwent a brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were included. The 18 variables from nine existing AIS screening tools were extracted and a two-stage screening tool was developed based on expert opinion (stage-one or rule in stage) and multivariate logistic regression analysis (stage-two or rule out stage). Then, the screening performance characteristics of the two-stage mode was evaluated.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Data from 803 patients with suspected AIS were analyzed. Among them, 57.4 % were male, and their overall mean age was 66.9 ± 13.9 years. There were 561 (69.9%) cases with a final confirmed diagnosis of AIS. The total sensitivity and specificity of the two-stage screening model were 99.11% (95% CI: 98.33 to 99.89) and 35.95% (95% CI: 29.90 to 42.0), respectively. Also, the positive and negative predictive values of two-stage screening model were 78.20% (95% CI: 75.17 to 81.24) and 94.57% (95% CI: 89.93 to 81.24), respectively. The area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve of the two-stage screening model for AIS was 67.53% (95% CI: 64.48 to 70.58). Overall, using the two-stage screening model presented in this study, more than 11% of suspected AIS patients were not referred for MRI, and the error of this model is about 5%.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Here, we proposed a 2-step model for approaching suspected AIS patients in ED for an attempt to safely exclude patients with the least probability of having an AIS as a diagnosis. However, further surveys are required to assess its accuracy and it may even need some modifications.</p> 2023-02-20T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Archives of Academic Emergency Medicine Association Between Neutrophil Density and Survival in Trauma Patients Admitted to the Intensive Care Unit; a Retrospective Cohort Study 2023-05-20T07:59:01+00:00 Mohebat Vali Shahram Paydar Mozhgan Seif Maryam Hosseini Pardis Basiri Golnar Sabetian Haleh Ghaem <p><strong>Introduction: </strong>Altered immune responses, in particular neutrophil changes, are perceived to play a key role in immune responses to trauma. This study aimed to evaluate the association of neutrophil changes with patients’ survival in severe multiple trauma cases.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong><strong>:</strong> The current retrospective cohort study was conducted using data from patients admitted in the intensive care unit (ICU) of a trauma center in Shiraz, Iran, between 2016 and 2021. Patients were divided into three groups (i.e., normal, neutropenia, and neutrophilia) based on neutrophil count at the time of ICU admission, and the association of neutrophil count with in-hospital mortality was analyzed.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> 2176 patients with the mean age of 37.90 ± 18.57 years were evaluated (84.04% male). The median trauma severity based on injury severity score (ISS) in this series was 9 (4 -17). Patients were divided in to three groups of neutrophilia (n = 1805), normal (n = 357), and neutropenia (n = 14) There were not any significant differences between groups regarding age distribution (p = 0.634), gender (p = 0.544), and trauma severity (p = 0.197). The median survival times for the normal, neutropenia, and neutrophilia groups were 49 (IQR: 33 -47) days, 51 (IQR: 8- 51) days, and 38 (IQR: 26 - 52) days, respectively (p = 0.346). The log-rank test showed a statistically significant difference between the three groups adjustment for ISS (p ≤ 0.001). For each unit increase in ISS, the hazard ratio increased by 2%. In ISS 9-17, the hazard ratio increased by 11% compared to ISS&lt;4. Also, in ISS&gt;17, the hazard ratio increased by 76% compared to ISS&lt;4 in ICU-hospitalized patients.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions</strong><strong>:</strong> In general, the findings of the present study showed that the survival rate of patients in the normal group after ISS adjustment was higher than the other two groups. Also, the Cox model showed that the mortality risk ratio in the neutropenia group was 15 times higher than the normal group.</p> 2023-04-03T14:28:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Archives of Academic Emergency Medicine Ottawa Risk Scale in Predicting the Outcome of Chorionic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Exacerbation in Emergency Department; a Diagnostic Accuracy Study 2023-05-20T07:43:10+00:00 Mostafa Alavi-Moghaddam Hossein Partovinezhad Shayan Dasdar Maryam Farjad <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> The disposition decision is a great challenge for clinicians in managing patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exacerbation. This study aimed to evaluate the accuracy of Ottawa COPD Risk Scale (OCRS) in predicting the short-term adverse events in the mentioned patients.</p> <p><strong>Methods:&nbsp; </strong>This prospective diagnostic accuracy study was conducted on COPD exacerbation cases who were referred to the emergency department (ED). Patients were followed up for 30 consecutive days for adverse events including the need for intubation, non-invasive ventilation, myocardial infarction, readmission, and death from any cause, and finally the accuracy of OCRS in predicting the outcome was evaluated.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>362 patients with the mean age of 65.55 ± 10.65 (6- 95) years were evaluated (58.0% male). Among the patients, 164 (45.3%) cases were discharged from ED, and 198 (54.7%) were admitted to the hospital. 136 (37.6%) cases experienced at least one of the studied short-term adverse events. The mean OCSD score of this series was 1.96 ± 2.39 (0 – 10). The area under the curve of OCRS in predicting the outcome of COPD patients was 0.814 (95%CI: 0.766 – 0.862). The best cut-off point of the scale in predicting the outcome was 1.5. The sensitivity and specificity of the scale were 75.75% (95%CI: 69.6% – 81.42%) and 89.63% (95%CI: 83.67% – 93.66%), respectively. By employing this threshold, 48 (13.25%) cases would have unnecessary hospitalization, and 17 (0.04%) would be discharged incorrectly.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> The OCRS has acceptable level of prediction accuracy in predicting the short-term adverse event of COPD patients. The use of this scoring in the routine practice of ED clinicians can lead to a reduction in unnecessary admissions and unsafe discharge for these patients.</p> 2023-04-09T07:24:49+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Archives of Academic Emergency Medicine Sustained Return of Spontaneous Circulation Following Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest; Developing a Predictive Model Based on Multivariate Analysis 2023-05-20T07:30:12+00:00 Thongpitak Huabbangyang Agasak Silakoon Pramote Papukdee Rossakorn Klaiangthong Chaleamlap Thongpean Wannakorn Pralomcharoensuk Weerawan Khaokaen Sunisa Bumrongchai Ratree Chaisorn Chomkamol Saumok <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> Identifying the predictive factors of sustained return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) following out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) will be helpful in management of these patients. This study aimed to develop a predictive model in this regard.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> In a retrospective observational study, data of adult patients with OHCA, were collected from Vajira emergency medical services patient care report. Multiple logistic regression analysis with a regression coefficient was used to develop a predictive score for a sustained ROSC at the scene. Area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC) was used to validate the accuracy of the predictive score for a sustained ROSC.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Independent factors associated with a sustained ROSC included cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) duration &lt; 30 min (adjusted odds ratio (AOR)= 5.05, 95% confidence interval (CI): 3.34–7.65; p &lt; 0.001); advanced airway management with an endotracheal&nbsp;tube (AOR= 3.06, 95% CI: 1.77–5.31; p &lt; 0.001); advanced airway management with laryngeal mask airway (AOR= 3.42, 95% CI: 1.02–11.46; p = 0.046); defibrillation (AOR = 2.05, 95% CI: 1.31–3.2; p = 0.002); Capillary blood glucose (CBG) level &lt; 150 mg% (AOR= 1.95, 95% CI: 1.05–3.65; p = 0.035); CBG at least 150 mg% (AOR= 2.87, 95% CI: 1.56–5.29; p = 0.001); pupil reflex (AOR = 2.96, 95% CI: 1.1–7.96; p = 0.032); and response time at most 8 min (AOR= 1.66, 95% CI: 1.07–2.57; p = 0.023). These were developed into the <strong>p</strong>upil reflex, <strong>r</strong>esponse time, <strong>a</strong>dvanced airway management, <strong>d</strong>efibrillation, <strong>C</strong>BG, and <strong>CPR</strong> duration (<strong>PRAD-CCPR</strong>) score. The most accurate cutoff point of score using Youden’s index was ≥ 6 with AUC of 0.759 (95% CI: 0.715–0.802; p &lt; 0.001), sensitivity of 62.0% (95% CI: 51.2–71.9%), specificity of 75.7% (95% CI: 69.4–81.2%), positive predictive value of 51.8% (95% CI: 40.9–62.3%), and negative predictive value of 79.5% (95% CI: 73.5–84.6%).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> An optimal PRAD-CCPR score of ≥ 6 provides an acceptable accuracy of 0.759 with sensitivity of 62.0% and specificity of 75.7% in prediction of sustained ROSC following OHCA. This predictive score might help CPR commanders to prognosticate the outcome of patients with OHCA at the scene.</p> 2023-04-27T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Archives of Academic Emergency Medicine Modified Shock Index as a Predictor of Admission and In-hospital Mortality in Emergency Departments; an Analysis of a US National Database 2023-05-20T07:30:12+00:00 Bachar Hamade Jamil D Bayram Yu-Hsiang Hsieh Basem Khishfe Nour Al Jalbout <p><strong>Introduction: </strong>The modified shock index (MSI) is the ratio of heart rate to mean arterial pressure. It is used as a predictive and prognostic marker in a variety of disease states.&nbsp;This study aimed to derive the optimal MSI cut-off that is associated with increased likelihood (likelihood ratio, LR) of admission and in-hospital mortality in patients presenting to emergency department (ED).</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>We retrospectively reviewed data from the National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey between 2005 and 2010. Adults&gt;18 years of age were included regardless of chief complaint. Basic patient demographics, initial vital signs, and outcomes were recorded for each patient. Then the optimal MSI cut-off for prediction of admission and in-hospital mortality in ED was calculated. LR ≥ 5 was considered clinically significant.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>567,994,402 distinct weighted adult ED patient visits were included in the analysis. 15.7% and 2.4% resulted in admissions and in-hospital mortality, respectively. MSI &gt; 1.7 was associated with a moderate increase in the likelihood of both admission (Positive LR (+LR) = 6.29) and in-hospital mortality (+LR = 5.12). +LR for hospital admission at MSI &gt;1.7 was higher for men (7.13; 95% CI 7.11-7.15) compared to women (5.49; 95% CI 5.47-5.50) and for non-white (7.92; 95% CI 7.88-7.95) compared to white patients (5.85; 95% CI 5.84-5.86). &nbsp;For MSI &lt;0.7, the +LRs were not clinically significant for admission (+LR = 1.07) or in-hospital mortality (LR = 0.75).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>In this largest retrospective study, to date, on MSI in the undifferentiated ED population, we demonstrated that an MSI &gt;1.7 on presentation is predictive of admission and in-hospital mortality. The use of MSI could help guide accurate acuity designation, resource allocation, and disposition.</p> 2023-04-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Archives of Academic Emergency Medicine Dental Students' Perceptions Regarding Bioterrorism; a Cross-Sectional Study 2023-05-31T08:25:05+00:00 Lina Bahanan Maha Alsharif Omar Al Qhtani Ahmad Al Juhani Meyassara Samman <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> During the COVID-19 outbreak, dental professionals have demonstrated their importance in combating mass casualty incidents. This study aimed to understand dental students’ perceptions of their potential roles in a bioterrorism attack.&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> This cross-sectional study used a self-administered anonymous questionnaire, which was sent to all dental students and interns at King Abdulaziz University, Saudi Arabia. Bivariate and multiple linear regression analyses were conducted to assess dental students’ willingness to provide care during a bioterrorism attack, knowledge regarding bioterrorism and total number of roles a dentist should play during an attack.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> This study included 472 dental students and interns. The mean knowledge score regarding bioterrorism was 3.3 ± 1.9 out of 5. A large majority of the respondents (83.8%) were willing to provide care during a bioterrorism attack. Students with a cumulative grade point average (GPA) of 4.5–5 were more likely to indicate that a dental professional should take on more roles during a bioterrorism attack than those with a GPA of 2.5–2.99. Fourth- and fifth-year dental students had lower knowledge scores regarding bioterrorism than dental interns (B: -0.71; SE: 0.30; 95% CI: -1.3–-0.1 and B: -0.68; SE: 0.30; 95% CI: -1.3– -0.1, respectively).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Despite the fact that dental curricula do not cover topics related to bioterrorism, most students would be willing to provide care under bioterrorism conditions. There is wide agreement among the students regarding the need to add bioterrorism-related educations to dental curricula.</p> 2023-05-22T07:03:42+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Archives of Academic Emergency Medicine Using Sodium Bicarbonate During Prolonged Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation in Prehospital Setting; a Retrospective Cross-sectional Study 2023-05-31T08:25:05+00:00 Thongpitak Huabbangyang Chunlanee Sangketchon Gotchagorn Noimo Korawee Pinthong Ketvipa Saungun Kaiwit Bunta Chomkamol Saumok <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> Although the 2020 American Heart Association (AHA) guidelines recommend that sodium bicarbonate (SB) be avoided during routine cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) a limited number of studies have examined the effects of SB injection during prolonged CPR (&gt;15 min) in prehospital setting. The present study aimed to examine the effects of prehospital SB use during prolonged CPR on patients’ outcome.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: In this retrospective cross-sectional study adult patients aged &gt;18 years who experienced a non-traumatic, out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) were compared regarding three outcomes, namely return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC), ROSC &gt; 20 minute, and survival to discharge, based on receiving or not-receiving SB during CPR.</p> <p><strong>Results</strong>: 330 patients were divided into two equal groups of 165. The two groups had similar conditions regarding gender distribution (p = 0.729); mean age (p = 0.741); underlying diseases (p = 0.027); etiology of arrest (p = 0.135); the initial rhythm (p = 0.324); receiving normal saline solution (p = 1.000), epinephrine (p = 0.848), and atropine during CPR (p = 0.054); and using defibrillation (p = 0.324). Those who received SB had 0.80 times greater likelihood for sustained ROSC (adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 0.80, 95% CI: 0.47–1.37, p = 0.415), 0.93 times greater likelihood for ROSC at the scene (adjusted OR = 0.93, 95% CI: 0.55–1.59, p = 0.798), and 0.34 times greater likelihood for survival to discharge (adjusted OR = 0.34, 95% CI: 0.10–1.17, p = 0.087).</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> The present study demonstrated that prehospital SB use by EMS during prolonged CPR did not improve ROSC rate at the scene, sustained ROSC, and survival to discharge.</p> 2023-05-25T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Archives of Academic Emergency Medicine The Value of Complete Blood Count Parameters in Predicting Complicated Acute Appendicitis; a Prognostic Accuracy Study 2023-06-03T20:04:18+00:00 Natchanok Mekrugsakit Thawatchai Tullavardhana <p><strong>Introduction</strong><strong>:</strong> Low accuracy of clinical variables can result in delayed diagnosis and increase the incidence of complicated appendicitis in some cases. This study aimed to determine the value of simple complete blood count (CBC) biomarkers in predicting complicated appendicitis.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong><strong>:</strong> This is a single-center retrospective cross-sectional study, which was conducted on cases referred to emergency department following acute appendicitis who underwent appendectomy, to evaluate the accuracy of some cell blood count variables (white blood cell count (WBC), neutrophil percent, neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR), platelet to lymphocyte ratio (PLR), mean platelet volume (MPV)) in predicting complicated cases (gangrenous and ruptured appendicitis).</p> <p><strong>Results</strong><strong>:</strong> There were 252 (68.3%) patients in the uncomplicated appendicitis group and 117 (31.7%) patients in the complicated appendicitis group. The mean age of patients was 34.1 ± 1.09 (Range: 18 -79) years (55.3% male). There were no differences between groups regarding the mean age (p = 0.053), gender distribution (p=0.07), Alvarado score (p = 0.055), platelet count (p =0.204), PLR (p = 0.115), and MPV (p = 0.205). The complicated appendicitis cases had longer onset of symptoms (p &lt;0.001), higher WBC count (p = 0.011), higher neutrophil count (p &lt; 0.001), and higher NLR (p &lt; 0.001).</p> <p>Neutrophil count (area under the curve (AUC) = 0.61, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.56-0.66; p = 0.001) and NLR (AUC = 0.65, 95% CI = 0.60-0.69; p = 0.001) had higher level of accuracy in this regard. In contrast, the area under the curve of WBC count (AUC = 0.57, 95% CI = 0.52-0.63; p = 0.22), platelet count (AUC = 0.44, 95% CI = 0.38-0.49; p = 0.049), PLR (AUC = 0.57, 95% CI = 0.52-0.62; p = 0.026), and MPV (AUC = 0.54, 95% CI = 0.49-0.60; p = 0.193) showed low accuracy in predicting complicated acute appendicitis.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Based on the findings of present study it seems that WBC, neutrophil percent, NLR, PLR, and MPV have failed to poor accuracy in predicting cases with complicated appendicitis in emergency department.</p> 2023-06-03T05:19:58+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Archives of Academic Emergency Medicine Canadian C-spine Rule versus NEXUS in Screening of Clinically Important Traumatic Cervical Spine Injuries; a systematic review and meta-analysis 2023-05-20T09:04:11+00:00 Mohammadhossein Vazirizadeh-mahabadi1 Mobina Yarahmadi <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> The Canadian C-spine Rule (CCR) and the National Emergency X-Radiography Utilization Study (NEXUS) are two criteria designed to rule-out clinically important traumatic cervical Spinal Cord Injury (SCI). In this systematic review and meta-analysis, we reviewed the articles comparing the performance of these two models.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>Search was done in Medline, Embase, Scopus and Web of Science until June 2022. Observational studies with direct comparison of CCR and NEXUS criteria in detection of clinically important cervical SCI were included. Two independent reviewers screened the relevant articles and summarized the data. Certainty of evidence was assessed based on QUADAS-2. Data were recorded as true positive, true negative, false positive, and false negative. Then, using “<em>diagma</em>” package and applying weighted random effect model, area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC), sensitivity, specificity, negative likelihood ratio, positive likelihood ratio, and diagnostic odds ratio (DOR) were calculated with 95% confidence interval (95% CI).</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>We included 5 studies with direct comparison. Area under the ROC curve of NEXUS in screening of patients with clinically important cervical SCI was 0.708 (95% CI: 0.647 to 0.762). Pooled sensitivity and specificity of NEXUS criteria in screening of patients with clinically important cervical SCI were 0.899 (95% CI: 0.845 to 0.936) and 0.398 (95% CI: 0.315 to 0.488). The positive and negative likelihood ratios of NEXUS were 1.494 (95% CI: 1.146 to 1.949) and 0.254 (95% CI: 1.155 to 1.414), respectively. Diagnostic odds ratio of NEXUS was 5.894 (95% CI: 3.372 to 10.305). Furthermore, area under the ROC curve of CCR in screening of clinically important cervical SCI was 0.793 (95% CI: 0.657 to 0.884). Meta-analysis results showed that pooled sensitivity of CCR criteria in screening of patients with clinically important cervical SCI was 0.987 (95% CI: 0.957 to 0.996) and specificity was 0.167 (95% CI: 0.073 to 0.336). The positive and negative likelihood ratios of CCR were 1.184 (95% CI: 0.837 to 1.675) and 0.081 (95% CI: 0.021 to 0.308), respectively. Diagnostic odds ratio of CCR was 14.647 (95% CI: 3.678 to 58.336).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Based on studies, both CCR and NEXUS were sensitive rules that have the potential to reduce unnecessary imaging in cervical spine trauma patients. However, the low specificity and false-positive results of both of these tools indicate that many people will continue to undergo unnecessary imaging after screening of cervical SCI using these tools. In this meta-analysis, CCR appeared to have better screening accuracy.</p> 2023-01-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Archives of Academic Emergency Medicine Value of N-Terminal Pro-Brain Natriuretic Peptide for Embolic Events Risk Prediction in Patients with Atrial Fibrillation; a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis 2023-05-20T09:04:11+00:00 Koohyar Ahmadzadeh Amirali Hajebi Hamzah Adel Ramawad Yaser Azizi Mahmoud Yousefifard <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> A comprehensive conclusion has yet to be made about the predictive value of serum N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) for stroke/systemic embolic events (SEE) in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). This study aims to review the evidence for evaluating the value of NT-proBNP in predicting the risk of stroke/SEE in patients with AF through a systematic review and meta-analysis.</p> <p><strong>Method:</strong> Two independent reviewers screened all relevant studies that were retrieved from the database of Medline, Embase, Scopus, and Web of Science until December 7th, 2021. The predictive value of NT-proBNP in the prediction of stroke/SEE was recorded as hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval (95% CI).</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Nine articles (38,093 patients, 3.10% stroke/SEE) were included in our analysis. There was no publication bias in these studies (P=0.320). Our analysis showed that NT-proBNP can be a good predictor of stroke/SEE risk in AF patients, even at different cut-off values (HR=1.76; 95% CI: 1.51, 2.02; P &lt; 0.001). Subgroup analysis showed that diabetes could have a possible effect on the predictive value of NT-proBNP (meta-regression coefficient = 0.042; P = 0.037).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Measurement of NT-proBNP during the first admission could be used to assess the short- or long-term risk of stroke/SEE in patients with AF. Further studies are needed to evaluate the possible applicability of serum NT-proBNP measurement in the settings in which stroke is the sole outcome of the investigation.</p> 2023-01-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Archives of Academic Emergency Medicine Serum Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein in Detecting Intracranial Injuries Following Minor Head Trauma; a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis 2023-05-20T08:34:40+00:00 Sajjad Ahmadi Shayan Roshdi Dizaji Asrin Babahajian Mohammadreza Alizadeh Arash Sarveazad Mahmoud Yousefifard <p><strong>Introduction: </strong>Developing novel diagnostic and screening tools for exploring intracranial injuries following minor head trauma is a necessity. This study aimed to evaluate the diagnostic value of serum glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) in detecting intracranial injuries following minor head trauma.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>An extensive search was performed in Medline, Embase, Scopus, and Web of Science databases up to the end of April 2022. Human observational studies were chosen, regardless of sex and ethnicity of their participants. Pediatrics studies, report of diagnostic value of GFAP combined with other biomarkers (without reporting the GFAP alone), articles including patients with all trauma severity, defining minor head trauma without intracranial lesions as the outcome of the study, not reporting sensitivity/specificity or any other values essential for computation of true positive, true negative, false positive and false-negative, being performed in the prehospital setting, assessing the prognostic value of GFAP, duplicated reports, preclinical studies, retracted articles, and review papers were excluded. The result was provided as pooled sensitivity, specificity, diagnostic score and diagnostic odds ratio, and area under the summary receiver operating characteristic (SROC) curve with a 95% confidence interval (95% CI).</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Eventually, 11 related articles were introduced into the meta-analysis. The pooled analysis implies that the area under the SROC curve for serum GFAP level in minor traumatic brain injuries (TBI) was 0.75 (95% CI: 0.71 to 0.78). Sensitivity and specificity of this biomarker in below 100 pg/ml cut-off were 0.83 (95% CI: 0.78 to 0.89) and 0.39 (95% CI: 0.24 to 0.53), respectively. The diagnostic score and diagnostic odds ratio of GFAP in detection of minor TBI were 1.13 (95% CI: 0.53 to 1.74) and 3.11 (95% CI: 1.69 to 5.72), respectively. The level of evidence for the presented results were moderate.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>The present study's findings demonstrate that serum GFAP can detect intracranial lesions in mild TBI patients. The optimum cut-off of GFAP in detection of TBI was below 100 pg/ml. As a result, implementing serum GFAP may be beneficial in mild TBI diagnosis for preventing unnecessary computed tomography (CT) scans and their related side effects.</p> 2023-01-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Archives of Academic Emergency Medicine Monkeypox Disease with a Focus on the 2022 Outbreak; a Narrative Review 2023-05-20T07:50:23+00:00 Zohreh Tehranchinia Reza M Robati Hamideh Moravvej Mojtaba Memariani Hamed Memariani <p>Monkeypox is a zoonotic disease caused by a double-stranded DNA virus belonging to the genus <em>Orthopoxvirus</em>. Despite being endemic in Central and West Africa, the disease has received relatively little research attention until recent times. As the Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic continues to affect the world, the rising number of monkeypox cases in non-endemic countries has further stoked global public health concerns about another pandemic. Unlike previous outbreaks outside Africa, most patients in the present outbreak had no history of travel to the endemic regions. The overwhelming majority of patients were initially identified amongst homosexual men, who had attended large gatherings. Mutations in the coding regions of the viral genome may have resulted in fitness adaptation, enhancement of immune evasion mechanisms, and more efficient transmissibility of the 2022 monkeypox virus. Multiple factors such as diminished cross-protective herd immunity (cessation of smallpox vaccination), deforestation, civil war, refugee displacement, farming, enhanced global interconnectedness, and even climate change may facilitate the unexpected emergence of the disease. In light of the increasing number of cases reported in the present outbreak, healthcare professionals should update their knowledge about monkeypox disease, including its diagnosis, prevention, and clinical management. Herein, we provide an overview of monkeypox, with a focus on the 2022 outbreak, to serve as a primer for clinical practitioners who may encounter the disease in their practice.</p> 2023-01-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Archives of Academic Emergency Medicine Diagnostic Accuracy of Ultrasonography for Detection of Intussusception in Children; a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis 2023-05-20T07:53:32+00:00 Erfan Rahmani Reza Amani-Beni Yasaman Hekmatnia Amirhossein Fakhre Yaseri Seyed-Amirabbas Ahadiat Parham Talebi Boroujeni Moein Kiani Reza Tavakoli Seyyed-Ghavam Shafagh Matin Shirazinia ‏‏Setareh Garousi Mehran Mottahedi Mohammad Reza Arzaghi Sasan Pourbagher Benam Amir Rigi Amir Salmani Zeynab Abdollahi Fateme Karimzade Rokni Tara Nikbakht Saeme Azizi Hassan Abadi Roozbeh Roohinezhad Forough Masheghati Yas Haririan Bahar Darouei Ehsan Fayyazishishavan Niusha Manoochehri-Arash Mehrdad Farrokhi <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> The diagnosis of intussusception can be challenging in children due to the fact that the findings of clinical evaluations are nonspecific and most of the patients present with unclear history. Therefore, in this systematic review and meta-analysis, we aimed to investigate the diagnostic accuracy of ultrasonography for detection of intussusception and also compare the efficacy of point-of-care ultrasound (POCUS) with radiologist-performed ultrasound (RADUS).</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> Two independent reviewers systematically searched different online electronic databases including MEDLINE, Scopus, Web of Science, Google Scholar, Embase, and Cochrane from inception to December 1, 2022 to identify published papers reporting accuracy of ultrasonography for diagnosis of intussusception. The quality assessment of the included studies was investigated using the Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies (QUADAS)-2 tool.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>A total of 1446 records were retrieved in the initial search of databases. After screening the titles, a total of 344 studies were retrieved for the detailed assessment of full-text. Finally, 37 studies were included in qualitative and quantitative analysis. The pooled sensitivity and specificity of ultrasonography for diagnosis of intussusception were 0.96 (95% CI: 0.95-0.97) and 0.97 (95% CI: 0.97-0.98), respectively. The pooled positive likelihood ratio (PLR) and negative likelihood ratio (NLR) were 24.57 (95% CI: 8.26-73.03) and 0.05 (95% CI: 0.04-0.08), respectively. The area under the hierarchical summary receiver operating characteristic (HSROC) curve was 0.989. Mete-regression showed that there is no significant difference between diagnostic performance of POCUS and RADUS (p = 0.06 and rDOR (diagnostic odds ratio) = 4.38 (95% CI: 0.92-20.89)).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> This meta-analysis shows that ultrasonography has excellent sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy for diagnosis of intussusception in pediatric patients. Moreover, we found that diagnostic performance of POCUS is similar to that of RADUS for diagnosis of intussusception.</p> 2023-02-28T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Archives of Academic Emergency Medicine Prognostic Value of The Leuko-Glycemic Index in Acute Myocardial Infarction; a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis 2023-05-20T08:00:27+00:00 Roxana Sadeghi Shayan Roshdi Dizaji Mohammadhossein Vazirizadeh-Mahabadi Arash Sarveazad Seyed Ali Forouzannia <p><strong>Introduction</strong>: In recent years, studies have provided evidence on the prognostic value of the leuko-glycemic index (LGI) in acute myocardial infarction (MI), but there is a lack of consensus. In addition, various reported cut-offs for LGI have raised concern regarding its clinical applicability. So, to conclude, through this systematic review and meta-analysis, we aimed to investigate all available evidence on the prognostic value of LGI in acute MI.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>Two independent researchers summarized records available in the four main databases of Medline (Via PubMed), Embase, Scopus, and Web of Science until 15 Sep 2022. Articles studying the prognostic value of the LGI in acute MI were included. Finally, sensitivity, specificity, prognostic odds ratio, and the area under the curve (AUC) for LGI were analyzed and reported.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Eleven articles were included (3701 patients, 72.1% male). Based on the analyses, AUC, sensitivity, and specificity for LGI in prediction of mortality following acute MI were 0.77 (95% CI: 0.73 to 0.80), 0.75 (95% CI: 0.62 to 0.84), and 0.66 (95% CI: 0.51 to 0.78), respectively. Positive and negative post-test probability of LGI in prediction of mortality were 21% and 5%, respectively. AUC, sensitivity, and specificity for LGI in prediction of major cardiac complications after acute MI were 0.81 (95% CI: 0.77 to 0.84), 0.84 (95% CI: 0.70 to 0.92), and 0.64 (95% CI: 0.49 to 0.84), respectively. Also, the Positive and negative post-test probability of LGI in this regard were 59% and 13%, respectively.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Although the results demonstrated that the LGI could predict mortality and acute cardiac complication after MI, the low post-test probability of LGI in risk stratification of patients raises questions regarding its applicability. Nevertheless, as most of the available studies have been conducted in the Latino/Hispanic population, further evidence is warranted to generalize the validity of this tool to other racial populations.<strong>&nbsp; </strong></p> 2023-03-01T14:45:18+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Archives of Academic Emergency Medicine Clinical Characteristics, Course, and Outcomes of Vertebral Artery Dissections in the Postpartum Period; a Pooled Analysis of Published Case Reports 2023-05-20T07:59:36+00:00 Rehab Adel Diab Nour Shaheen Abdelrahman Mohamed Mahmoud Hefnawy Dilawer Charo Mostafa Meshref <p><strong>Introduction: </strong>Vertebral artery dissection (VAD) is a rare, but life-threatening condition. Compared to the general population, pregnant and postpartum women are more likely to develop VAD. Spontaneous arterial dissections have an ambiguous pathophysiology and may be difficult to manage. This study aimed to pool and analyze the data of published cases in this regard.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>We conducted a literature search on February 24, 2022, using MeSH terms of interest in PubMed, Google Scholar, Ovid, Web of Science, and Scopus databases to find studies on VAD following childbirth.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>A total of 28 studies were included in this review based on a database search. In the studies, 44 postpartum VAD (PPVAD) patients with a mean age of 34.26 ± 3.5 years were included. It took an average of 24.37± 13.7 days from delivery to dissection. 64% of the patients had developed unilateral dissection and 36% had developed bilateral dissection; 70% reported full recovery, and 9% did not achieve full recovery. The most common symptoms were headaches (89%), neck pain (64%), and hypertension (52%). The most common methods of diagnosis were magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) (64%) and computed tomography (CT) angiography (CTA) scan (66%). Only 8 (18%) cases reported the use of electrocardiography (ECG). The recorded outcomes of the patients with unilateral and bilateral postpartum VAD showed no statistical difference. Most of the included studies recommend early suspension and management for a better prognosis and prevention of complications.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>PPVAD is a severe medical condition but most cases were fully recovered after an early and proper antithrombotic plan for each case scenario.</p> 2023-03-04T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Archives of Academic Emergency Medicine Prognostic Value of CRASH and IMPACT Models for Predicting Mortality and Unfavorable Outcome in Traumatic Brain Injury; a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis 2023-05-20T07:57:23+00:00 Hamed Zarei Mohammadhossein Vazirizadeh-Mahabadi Hamzah Adel Ramawad Arash Sarveazad Mahmoud Yousefifard <p><strong>Introduction: </strong>The Corticosteroid Randomization After Significant Head injury (CRASH) and the International Mission for Prognosis and Analysis of Clinical Trials (IMPACT) are two prognostic models frequently used in predicting the outcome of patients with traumatic brain injury. There are ongoing debates about which of the two models has a better prognostic value. This study aims to compare the CRASH and IMPACT in predicting mortality and unfavorable outcome of patients with traumatic brain injury.</p> <p><strong>Method: </strong>We performed a literature search using Medline (via PubMed), Embase, Scopus, and Web of Science databases until August 17, 2022. After two independent researchers screened the articles, we included all the original articles comparing the prognostic value of IMPACT and CRASH models in patients with traumatic brain injury. The outcomes evaluated were mortality and unfavorable outcome. The data of the included articles were analyzed using STATA 17.0 statistical program, and we reported an odds ratio (OR) with a 95% confidence interval (95% CI) for comparison.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>We included the data from 16 studies. The analysis showed that the areas under the curve of the IMPACT core model and CRASH basic model do not differ in predicting the mortality of patients (OR=0.99; p=0.905) and their six-month unfavorable outcome (OR=1.01; p=0.719). Additionally, the CRASH CT model showed no difference from the IMPACT extended (OR=0.98; p=0.507) and IMPACT Lab (OR=1.00; p=0.298) models in predicting the mortality of patients with traumatic brain injury. We also observed similar findings in the six-month unfavorable outcome, showing that the CRASH CT model does not differ from the IMPACT extended (OR=1.00; p=0.990) and IMPACT Lab (OR=1.00; p=0.570) in predicting the unfavorable outcome in head trauma patients.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Low to very low level of evidence shows that IMPACT and CRASH models have similar values in predicting mortality and unfavorable outcome in patients with traumatic brain injury. Since the discriminative power of the IMPACT Core and CRASH basic models is not different from the IMPACT extended, IMPACT Lab, and CRASH CT models, it may be possible to only use the core and basic models in examining the prognosis of patients with traumatic injuries to the brain.</p> 2023-03-04T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Archives of Academic Emergency Medicine Late Complications of COVID-19; An Umbrella Review on Current Systematic Reviews 2023-05-20T07:58:45+00:00 SeyedAhmad SeyedAlinaghi AmirBehzad Bagheri Armin Razi Paniz Mojdeganlou Hengameh Mojdeganlou Amir Masoud Afsahi Arian Afzalian Parinaz Paranjkhoo Ramin Shahidi Pegah Mirzapour Zahra Pashaei Mohammad Amin Habibi Parmida Shahbazi Sahar Nooralioghli Parikhani Narjes Sadat Farizani Gohari Yusuf Popoola Esmaeil Mehraeen Daniel Hackett <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> Several clinical manifestations have been discovered for COVID-19 since the emergence of SARS-CoV-2, which can be classified into early, medium, and long-term complications. However, late complications can be present after recovery from acute COVID-19 illness. The present study aims to comprehensively review the available evidence of late complications related to COVID-19.</p> <p><strong>Method: </strong>A search was conducted, using keywords, through electronic databases, which included Scopus, Web of Science, PubMed, and Embase up to August 29, 2022. Study selection was performed according to a strict inclusion and exclusion criteria. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) checklist was followed, and studies were appraised using the National Institute of Health (NIH) quality assessment and risk of bias tool.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> In total, 50 studies were included, and nine distinct COVID-19 late complication categories were identified. A review of these studies revealed that neurologic and psychiatric (n=41), respiratory (n=27), musculoskeletal and rheumatologic (n=22), cardiovascular (n=9), and hepatic and gastrointestinal (n=6) complications were the most prevalent complications of long COVID-19.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong><strong>:</strong> Almost all human body systems are affected by late complications of COVID-19 with different severity and prevalence. Fatigue and some other neuropsychiatric symptoms are the most common late complications among long COVID-19 patients. Respiratory symptoms including dyspnea (during exercise), cough, and chest tightness were the next most prevalent long-term complications of COVID-19. Since these complications are persistent and late, being aware of the signs and symptoms is essential for the healthcare providers and patients.</p> 2023-03-12T07:09:14+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Archives of Academic Emergency Medicine Diagnostic Accuracy of Ottawa Knee Rule for Diagnosis of Fracture in Patients with Knee Trauma; a Systematic Review and Meta-analysis 2023-05-20T07:53:31+00:00 Seyyed-Morteza Kazemi Roya Khorram Ehsan Fayyazishishavan Reza Amani-Beni Yas Haririan Seyed Mehdi Hosseini Khameneh Erfan Rahmani Reza Minaei Noshahr Mahshad Sarikhani Rana Rahimi Sara Saeidi Diba Saeidi Mehrdad Farrokhi <p><strong>Introduction: </strong>In order to improve the efficacy of requesting knee radiography and reduce unnecessary radiation exposure, some clinical decision rules have been proposed for the assessment of knee injuries. Among them, the Ottawa Knee Rule (OKR) was considered as one of the best guidelines with several validation studies. Therefore, in this meta-analysis, we aimed to investigate the accuracy of OKR for diagnosis of fracture in patients presenting with knee trauma.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>A systematic search was conducted in PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, Google Scholar, and EBSCO from inception to September 2022. Quality assessment of the included studies was performed using QUADAS-2 tool. Diagnostic accuracy parameters were analyzed using random-effects model. Statistical analysis was performed using Meta-Disc and Stata softwares.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>The meta-analysis of the 18 included studies (6702 patients) showed that the pooled sensitivity and specificity of OKR for diagnosis of fractures were 0.98 (95% CI: 0.96-0.99) and 0.43 (95% CI: 0.42-0.45), respectively. The pooled positive likelihood ratio (PLR) and negative likelihood ratio (NLR) were 1.56 (95% CI: 1.39-1.75) and 0.12 (95% CI: 0.05-0.26), respectively. The area under curve (AUC) of the hierarchical summary receiver operating characteristic (HSROC) curve was 0.54.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> This meta-analysis indicates that OKR has a high diagnostic performance for diagnosis of fracture, with a pooled sensitivity of 98% and a pooled specificity of 43%. These results propose potential effects of OKR on reduction of unnecessary radiography, time spent in emergency departments, and direct and indirect costs, which should be confirmed using high-quality studies in the future.</p> 2023-04-03T14:53:09+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Archives of Academic Emergency Medicine Effect of Oral Care with Povidone-Iodine in the Prevention of Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia; a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis 2023-05-20T07:52:10+00:00 Amir Emami Zeydi Arman Parvizi Soudabeh Haddadi Samad Karkhah Seyed Javad Hosseini Amirabbas Mollaei Mahbobeh Firooz Shahin Ramezani Joseph Osuji Pooyan Ghorbani Vajargah Shadi Dehghanzadeh <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is one of the most common nosocomial infections affecting one-third of patients with mechanical ventilation. This study aimed to synthesize available evidence regarding the effect of treatment with povidone-iodine (PI) among adult patients admitted to intensive care units (ICUs) for the prevention of VAP.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> An extensive search was conducted in online databases, including PubMed, Web of Science and Scopus, from the earliest records until January 1, 2023. STATA software v14 was used for statistical analysis. Publication bias was assessed via funnel plot, Begg's and Egger's tests. A P-value less than 0.1 was considered statistically significant for publication bias value.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Four studies were included in the meta-analysis. Three studies showed rhat PI decreased&nbsp; VAP compared to the placebo group, but it was not statistically significant (RR: 0.61, 95%CI: 0.25 to 1.47, Z=1.10, P=0.27, I2:71.5%). One study compared the effect of PI with chlorhexidine on the rate of VAP, the difference between which was not statistically significant (RR: 1.50, 95%CI: 0.46 to 4.87, Z=0.67, P=0.50, I2:0). Two studies demonstrated that the use of PI intervention compared to placebo decreased the average length of stay in ICU; however, it was not statistically significant (WMD: -0.35, 95%CI:-3.90 to 3.20, Z=0.19, P=0.85, I2:0). Also, three studies showed that using PI had almost no effect on mortality rate compared to placebo (RR: 1.05, 95%CI: 0.66 to 1.53, Z=0.8, P=0.27, I2:29.0%).<strong>Conclusion:</strong> More rigorously designed randomized clinical trials and further evidence are required to make a better decision/comparison about using PI as a suitable choice for preventing VAP among adult patients admitted to the ICU.</p> 2023-04-04T07:58:56+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Archives of Academic Emergency Medicine The Aspects of Running Artificial Intelligence in Emergency Care; a Scoping Review 2023-05-20T07:06:20+00:00 Mohsen Masoumian Hosseini Seyedeh Toktam Masoumian Hosseini Karim Qayumi Soleiman Ahmady Hamid Reza Koohestani <p><strong>Introduction: </strong>Artificial Inteligence (AI) application in emergency medicine is subject to ethical and legal inconsistencies. The purposes of this study were to map the extent of AI applications in emergency medicine, to identify ethical issues related to the use of AI, and to propose an ethical framework for its use.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>A comprehensive literature collection was compiled through electronic databases/internet search engines (PubMed, Web of Science Platform, MEDLINE, Scopus, Google Scholar/Academia, and ERIC) and reference lists. We considered studies published between 1 January 2014 and 6 October 2022. Articles that did not self-classify as studies of an AI intervention, those that were not relevant to Emergency Departments (EDs), and articles that did not report outcomes or evaluations were excluded. Descriptive and thematic analyses of data extracted from the included articles were conducted.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>A total of 137 out of the 2175 citations in the original database were eligible for full-text evaluation. Of these articles, 47 were included in the scoping review and considered for theme extraction. This review covers seven main areas of AI techniques in emergency medicine: Machine Learning (ML) Algorithms (10.64%), prehospital emergency management (12.76%), triage, patient acuity and disposition of patients (19.15%), disease and condition prediction (23.40%), emergency department management (17.03%), the future impact of AI on Emergency Medical Services (EMS) (8.51%), and ethical issues (8.51%).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>There has been a rapid increase in AI research in emergency medicine in recent years. Several studies have demonstrated the potential of AI in diverse contexts, particularly when improving patient outcomes through predictive modelling. According to the synthesis of studies in our review, AI-based decision-making lacks transparency. This feature makes AI decision-making opaque.</p> 2023-05-11T06:17:47+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Archives of Academic Emergency Medicine Needle Direction and Distance of Arteriovenous Fistula Cannulation in Hemodialysis Adequacy; a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis 2023-05-20T18:50:08+00:00 Samad Karkhah Majid Pourshaikhian Pooyan Ghorbani Vajargah Morteza Zaboli Mahdiabadi Amirabbas Mollaei Saman Maroufizadeh Seyed Javad Hosseini Joseph Osuji Mohammad Taghi Moghadamnia <p><strong>Introduction:</strong> This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to summarize the evidence regarding the impact of needle direction and distance of arteriovenous fistula (AVF) cannulation on KT/V (where k is the dialyzer urea clearance, t, the duration of dialysis, and V, the volume of distribution of urea) and access recirculation (AR) as hemodialysis (HD) adequacy criteria.</p> <p><strong>Methods:</strong> A comprehensive systematic search was performed on international and domestic electronic databases from the earliest to June 4, 2022 using keywords. Analysis was performed in STATA software v.14.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Three randomized control trials (RCTs) and four non-RCT articles were included in the final review. Six studies reported the effects of direction, while four mentioned the effects of distances of AVF cannulation on outcomes of HD adequacy based on KT/V or AR. Results of three non-RCT studies showed that retrograde direction decreased KT/V more than antegrade direction (ES: 0.44, 95% CI: -0.38 to 1.27). Two non-RCT studies showed that antegrade decreased AR compared to the retrograde direction (ES: -0.64, 95%CI: -1.94 to 0.67). However, the results of two RCTs indicated uncertainty about this issue. Two of the four studies suggested that a distance of 5 cm or more in arterial and venous needles had greater adequacy than a distance of less than 5 cm. However, other studies did not confirm this finding.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Overall comparison of the results qualitatively and quantitatively indicated uncertainty about the effects of direction and distance of AVF cannulation on HD adequacy outcomes. More studies with high-quality designs, such as RCTs, are required to better understand and adjudicate the effects of needle direction and distance of AVF cannulation on HD adequacy outcomes.</p> 2023-05-20T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Archives of Academic Emergency Medicine Posterior Lingual Abscess; Report of Two Cases 2023-05-20T07:50:06+00:00 Miguel Saro- Buendía Pedro Suárez Urquiza Judit Amigo González Maria José Lesmas Navarro Miguel Mazón Miguel Armengot Carceller <p>The lingual abscess is rare due to several protective mechanisms against infection in this location. Concretely, the abscess in the base of the tongue (posterior lingual abscess) is even more exceptional. Its prompt detection is crucial to avoid potentially fatal airway complications. To familiarize physicians with this condition, we report 2 cases of posterior lingual abscess. Both were referred to our emergency department due to minor oropharyngeal complaints. Finally, both were diagnosed and required surgical drainage. The clinical evolution was successful: both were discharged in less than 72 hours and follow-up one week later confirmed clinical recovery.</p> 2023-01-14T09:08:57+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Archives of Academic Emergency Medicine Acute Hepatitis Associated with Intake of Pistacia Vera L. Bud Tea; a Case Report 2023-05-20T07:29:50+00:00 Kazım Ersin Altınsoy Mehmet Murat Oktay <p>In this study, a patient who developed acute hepatitis due to drinking Pistacia vera L. bud tea is presented. A twenty-eight-year-old woman who had just come out of the postpartum period applied to our clinic with complaints of nausea, vomiting, loss of appetite and weakness. Blood serum alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase levels were increased. All serological tests were negative for viral hepatitis and autoimmune diseases. She had been drinking an herbal tea containing Pistacia vera L. bud every day for four weeks to increase milk production. Three weeks after discontinuation of herbal tea, liver enzymes returned to normal. Based on our knowledge, this is probably the first hepatitis report due to the use of an herbal tea containing Pistacia vera L. bud.</p> 2023-04-29T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Archives of Academic Emergency Medicine An Adult Female with Periumbilical Pain and Intractable Vomiting; a Photo quiz 2023-05-20T08:38:14+00:00 Hamzah Adel Ramawad Amirmohammad Toloui Adelaide Viguri <p>A 25-year-old female with no significant past medical history presented to the emergency room with complaints of worsening, sharp, periumbilical pain for two days, with an intensity of 8 out of 10 based on the visual analogue scale. &nbsp;She complained of fever, nausea, anorexia, and multiple episodes of non-bloody, non-bilious emesis. &nbsp;The patient appeared unwell and diaphoretic. &nbsp;Her vital signs were as follows, blood pressure of 108/66 mmHg, heart rate of 106 beats/minute and body temperature of 39.3<sup>°</sup>C. Physical examination showed a distended abdomen with localized tenderness and guarding in the periumbilical region. &nbsp;A point-of-care ultrasound (POCUS) of the abdomen did not reveal any free fluid. Laboratory testing, which included electrolytes, complete blood count, and renal and liver function revealed no significant abnormalities. Pregnancy test was negative, and urinalysis was unremarkable. The findings of oral and intravenous contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) scan of the abdomen and pelvis are shown in figures 1a and 1b.</p> 2023-01-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Archives of Academic Emergency Medicine An 85-Year-Old Man with Gradual Decrease in the Level of Consciousness and Vomiting; a Photo Quiz 2023-05-20T07:07:52+00:00 Talayeh Mirkarimi Mohammad Salek <p>An 85-year-old male was brought to emergency department (ED) from a skill nursing facility with gradual onset of lethargy and vomiting from a week ago. No clear history of head trauma and coagulopathy or using of anticoagulant agents. His past medical history included mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and diabetes mellitus which treated by oral agent. On general examination the patient looked underweight with body mass index (BMI) about 17. Neither specific stationary position of the limbs nor any spontaneous motor behavior was detected. The patient’s vital signs at admission to ED were: Blood pressure: 140/60 mmHg, pulse rate: 82 beats/minute, oxygen saturation: 95%, Respiratory Rate: 16/minute, bedside blood-glucose measurement: 268 mg/dl. The patient was afebrile. On neurologic examination in ED Glasgow coma scale (GCS) was 10/15 (eye: 3, motor: 5, verbal: 2). Mucosal membranes were dry and patient seemed to be dehydrated. Pupils were equal but had poor reaction to light. Oculocephalic maneuver, corneal reflex and gag reflex were intact. There was slight decrease in muscle tones in lower limbs. Plantar reflex in both sides seems upright. Arm and Leg dropping test showed equal motor response and deep tendon reflexes (DTR) seemed diminished in both sides. Laboratory tests included: leukocyte count: 12800/mm<sup>3</sup> with 85% segmented neutrophils, hemoglobin: 14.1 g/dl, platelet: 268000/microliter, glucose: 234 mg/dl, sodium: 141 mEq/L, potassium: 5.1 mEq/L, Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN): 36 mg/dl, serum creatinine: 1.3 mg/dl and international normalized ratio (INR) of 1.24. The patient underwent brain computed tomography (CT) scan without contrast materials which is showed in figure 1. <strong>What is your diagnosis?</strong></p> 2023-05-07T05:38:47+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Archives of Academic Emergency Medicine Analysis of articles in the Journal of Archives of Academic Emergency Medicine in 2022 2023-05-20T08:36:30+00:00 Somayeh Saghaei Dehkordi Mehrnoosh Yazdanbakhsh <p>In 2022, <strong><em>Archives of Academic Emergency Medicine (AAEM)</em></strong> has published 90 articles, all of which are indexed by SCOPUS, Web of Sciences, PubMed and some other databases. They have been authored by more than four hundred researchers from various countries, including but not limited to the United States, Japan, Korea, Canada, Ghana, France, Norway, India, China, Thailand, Malaysia, Pakistan, Greece, Viet Nam and Iran. In this editorial, we intend to&nbsp;provide an overview of the journal’s flow in 2022, like we did in 2021 (1), so that we can identify our strengths and weaknesses and provide a brief report on our performance to readers and authors, which they might find useful in becoming more familiar with the journal. This article could help the authors who are interested in publishing with us to become more familiar with the journal’s aim and scope, and also the editorial priorities and preferences.</p> 2023-01-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Archives of Academic Emergency Medicine Piperonylbutoxide as a Dubious Cause of Cardiac Manifestations in Pyrethroid Insecticide Poisoning; a Letter to Editor 2023-05-20T09:04:11+00:00 Foroozan Faress Maryam Ameri Maryam Vasheghani Farahani Sayed Mahdi Marashi <p>There is little evidence regarding pyrethroid poisoning manifesting with cardiac problems in the literature. Many authors, however, adopted that pyrethroids have a direct effect on heart tissue and can cause cardiotoxicity. Interestingly, no experimental studies have yet determined its mechanism of toxicity on cardiac muscle cells. This letter aims to describe the probable cause of clinical manifestations attributed to piperonylbutoxide, an ignored ingredient in pesticide poisoning, which is added to many pesticide products to increase their insecticidal potency. We think that cardiac manifestations in some cases of pyrethroid poisoning are due to the concomitant piperonylbutoxide toxicity and its possible effect on norepinephrine release from adrenal gland, which might explain changes in cardiac findings. Thus, it is necessary for all clinical toxicologists to determine suspicious ingredients when they are facing a doubtful manifestation.</p> 2023-01-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2022 Archives of Academic Emergency Medicine Modification of Standard Operating Procedures at the Emergency Department in Brunei During the Second-Wave Outbreak of COVID-19; a Letter to Editor 2023-05-20T08:00:49+00:00 Shehryar Orakzai Linawati Jumat Faiza Alam <p>Following 457 days without local transmission, the second wave of COVID-19 hit Brunei Darussalam in August 2021. This warranted the Emergency Department (ED) at Raja-Isteri-Pengiran-Anak-Saleha Hospital to revise standard operating procedures (SOPs). Emergency Department Operations Centre was re-activated, managing ED operations, logistics, personal protective equipment (PPE) provisions, and communication with other Health Facility operation centers.&nbsp;</p> 2023-04-29T17:29:22+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Archives of Academic Emergency Medicine