مقاله مروری

Human Cloning from the Viewpoint of Figh and Ethics

Seyyed Mostafa Mohaghegh Damad

مجله اخلاق پزشکی - علمی پژوهشی, دوره 2 شماره 5 (1387), 28 تیر 2016, صفحه 11-24

Muslim Scholars and Islamic official Institutions consider human cloning as opposing religious doctrine, and forbidden. Their Ideas are based upon some theological and juridical arguments, including: posing a challenge to the creative power of God, breaking the tradition of marriage, breaking the tradition of diversity in creatures or species, making changes in divine creatures, game with creatures and so on. They as well refer to some verses of holy Quran,and take consequences against the permission of human cloning . The author is going to say that the above mentioned arguments are not coincided with the traditional method of Islamic juridical reasoning (Al-Ijtehad). The author offers some general solutions for formulating Islamic doctrines in the field of human cloning.

Defining the Pedagogical Parameters of Islamic Bioethics

Abdulaziz Sachedina

مجله اخلاق پزشکی - علمی پژوهشی, دوره 2 شماره 5 (1387), 28 تیر 2016, صفحه 25-44

Secular bioethics has only recently begun to take religious perspectives seriously. Religion and Medicine courses in a number of universities across North America have incorporated Christian and Jewish perspectives for some time now, but Islamic, Buddhist and Hindu perspectives are only now gaining recognition. This late inclusion of Islamic perspectives can be partially attributed to the lack of materials in English on Islamic bioethics. Moreover, those materials that have been published actually deal with juridical-religious opinions rather than ethical deliberations based on principles and rules as developed in Islamic legal sciences. Here and there in these writings one reads references to the principle of “public interest” (maslaha), without any elucidation about its function, either as a principle in legal theory or as a rule of utility or beneficence that promotes the good in ethical decision-making. Instead, we have a plethora of juridical opinions (fatawa, plural of fatwa) deduced from the revealed texts on issues in biomedicine like abortion, end of life decisions, and more recently, genetic engineering or stem cell research, without any ethical discussion on the rightness or wrongness of the act in its medical scientific and clinical practical settings.

The Role of Medical Ethics In Comprehensive Healthcare System

Alireza Zali

مجله اخلاق پزشکی - علمی پژوهشی, دوره 2 شماره 5 (1387), 28 تیر 2016, صفحه 45-64

Daily development of the human knowledge, promotion of biomedical technologies and improvement of physicians' ability in diagnosis and treatment of different types of diseases have always accompanied plenty of discussions and challengeable subjects, especially from the view point of ethical issues.

Obtaining deep and accurate recognition of these subjects, the attention of the physicians and the scholars of different fields, especially of the ethics has been drawn to medical ethics as a new solution in the comprehensive Healthcare System. Despite the great changes in medical technologies, there are still some concerns about the physicians' abilities in decision makings that may directly or indirectly affect the health or life of the people.

Therefore these concerns have leaded to the appearance of new movements all calling for the patients' rights and the rights of society to participate in medical decision-makings. On the other hand we should notice about some other cases that play effective roles in policy makings of the comprehensive healthcare system. Fore instance, the required resources will vary following the changes in technology; the population especially of the elderly is increasing; moreover the time needed for the new work forces to be entered into the labor market has typically increased. Consequently, a higher number of people are waiting to benefit from the recourses and lower number of them is involved in producing the recourses.

Thus, to work on the important topics like the requirements of human societies, ethical considerations of biotechnology and medical researches, Allocation of limited and immense resources, important ethical criteria of decision makings, representation of fundamental solutions and medical ethics trainings is considered as one of the most basic necessities of comprehensive healthcare system among others.

Wittgenstein and Ethical Supervenience

Soroush Dabbagh

مجله اخلاق پزشکی - علمی پژوهشی, دوره 2 شماره 5 (1387), 28 تیر 2016, صفحه 65-75

In this, paper, I am going to present an argument in favour of generalism and criticise the particularistic position in moral reasoning... According to generalism which is associated with supervenience, the way in which a morlly relevant feature contributes to the moral evaluation of different contexts is patternable. However, a particularist like Dancy utilizes the very idea of resultance  instead of supervenience to give an account of how a non-moral feature behaves in different contexts. An account drawn from Wittgenstein with regard to the nature of concepts is presented here to criticise the particulristic position while endorsing the very idea of supervenience and the generilistic position with regard to the extent of the patternability of the reason-giving behaviour of a morally relevant feature in different contexts.

In Quest of Wisdom; Missing Segment of Current Medicine

Mahmoud Abbasi

مجله اخلاق پزشکی - علمی پژوهشی, دوره 2 شماره 5 (1387), 28 تیر 2016, صفحه 77-98

Search for the cup of Jamshid from me, years my heart made. And for what it possessed, from a stranger, entreaty made.  A jewel that is beyond the shell of existence and of time, From those lost on the shore of the sea, search it made. Last night, I took my difficulty to the Pir of the Magians. Who, by strengthening of sight, the solving of sublety made. Him, happy, laughing, wine-goblet in hand, I saw: And in the mirror, a hundred kinds of views he made. I said: ‘When gave the All-wise this cup world-viewing to thee?” He said: ‘On that day, when the azure dome He made.” Unknowingly, He was with me everywhere. I couldn’t see and my soul seekest Him, made.  His magic that He all made here, Sameri had the cane but the white hands of Moses, seekest made. He said: “That friend, by whom lofty became the head of the gibbet. “His crime was this that clear, the mysteries of the sky, hemade.”If, again, the bounty of the Holy Spirit gives aid, others also may make those, which the Jesus made. I said to him: “the chain-like tress of idols is for the sake of what’?” He said: “Of his own distraught heart. Hafez complaint made.”

Ethics in Biotechnology

Jalal K.C.A, Irwandi Jaswir

مجله اخلاق پزشکی - علمی پژوهشی, دوره 2 شماره 5 (1387), 28 تیر 2016, صفحه 99-134

The most modern techniques in biotechnology owe their existence to the discovery of DNA cloning and the genetic manipulation of organisms. However Biotechnology is not new science In fact, many applications represent old practices with new methodologies. Human have been used organisms for their benefit in many processes for several thousand years. Therefore, one way of thinking about biotechnology is to consider two categories of activities: those that are traditional and familiar and those that are relatively new. Study of ethical and social concern in these categories makes this clear that there are many unanswered questions in this fields that requires caution regarding to public using of this technologies.

Genetic manipulation (GM) especially cloning is a wonderful advancement in technology and knowledge. However, Professional and scientific societies should make clear that any attempt to create a child by somatic cell nuclear transfer and implantation into a woman's body would be at this time an irresponsible, unethical, and unprofessional act. The environmental safety aspects of GM crops vary considerably according to local conditions. Different GM organisms include different genes inserted in different ways. This means that individual GM foods and their safety should be assessed on a case-by-case basis and that it is not possible to make general statements on the safety of all GM foods.

Living unrelated kidney donor transplantation in Iran

Ali Nobakht Haghighi, Nasrollah Ghahramani

مجله اخلاق پزشکی - علمی پژوهشی, دوره 2 شماره 5 (1387), 28 تیر 2016, صفحه 135-142

In the September and November 2006 issues of Nature Clinical Practice Nephrology, two articles regarding living unrelated kidney donor transplantation alluded to the practices in Iran. Having served in the planning, supervision and implementation of various aspects of health care in Iran, including organ transplantation (ANH), and as transplant nephrologists who have actively participated in the care of transplanted patients in Iran (ANH and NG), we feel obligated to elucidate the realities surrounding organ transplantation in Iran. So that unbiased researchers are provided with information to judge for themselves.

Usage Ethics in Medical Education in Islamic Countries

Seyyed Reza Mousavi

مجله اخلاق پزشکی - علمی پژوهشی, دوره 2 شماره 5 (1387), 28 تیر 2016, صفحه 143-154

The Medical education exists to maintain and regulate the standards of medical practice, protect the interests of the patients, supervise medical students, and give guidelines on ethical issues. The educational Ethics provide general guidelines, and any disciplinary designated and will judge each case on its merits. This is not a comprehensive document and interpretation will depend upon circumstances. Medical students will be given opportunity to justify their actions to apply ethics.

HALY ‘ABBAS, Iranian Celebrated Physician who wrote an excellently organized Medical compendium

Naser Pūyan

مجله اخلاق پزشکی - علمی پژوهشی, دوره 2 شماره 5 (1387), 28 تیر 2016, صفحه 155-177

One of the greatest physicians and encyclopedists in middle Ages in Europe was born in al-Ahwaz (c.930) from Old Persian stock. ‘Alī was moved to Shīrāz at an early age and made his medical studies under a physician of this city, Abū Mahir Mūsā ibn Sayyar. He practised medicine in Baghdad in mid – tenth century and served as physician to ‘Adud al-Dawla, to whom he dedicated his only composition, “Kāmil al- Sina‘a / Kitāb al- Malikī (The Complete Book of the Medical Art / The Royal Book).

His principal work Kāmil al-Sinā ‘a was divided into two sections of theoretical and practical medicine, and each section contained 10 tracts on specialized topics. This compendium was deliberately written to fall midway between the lengthly al- Hāwī and brief al-Mansurī, the famous works of Rhazes. The Medieval Latin translators named the above mentioned magnum opus the “Liber Regius”. It covers the entire spectrum of Arabic (Islamic) medicine, including one chapter on diseases of the teeth.

Haly ‘Abbas’ exact date of death is not known precisely, but according to some sources, he died between A.D.982 and 995.

سخن سردبیر

سخن سردبیر

محمود عباسی

مجله اخلاق پزشکی - علمی پژوهشی, دوره 2 شماره 5 (1387), 28 تیر 2016, صفحه 7-10

Medical ethics is actually a four- way science. Since the 1970s, many different branches of science like philosophy, history, law, medicine and psychology have paid a great deal of attention to it.

Developments in medical technology and science, along with plenty of other human technical advances have led to new approaches in moral Issues. Nowadays, in respect of the relation ship between physicians and patients, some new notions such as human autonomy, value and quality of life, the right to life and safety besides human dignity have had a considerable influence. Hence, many medical ethics jurists belong to different subject areas....