شاپا: 2345-2455

دوره 1 شماره 3 (1392)

پژوهشی/ اصیل پژوهشی


Effect of Geometric Design Parameters to Improve Safety and Accidents Reduction (Case Study: Sari – Kiasar Corridor)

MR Ahadi, SR Etemadzadeh

ارتقای ایمنی و پیشگیری از مصدومیت ها, دوره 1 شماره 3 (1392), 17 December 2013 , صفحه 102-115
https://doi.org/10.22037/meipm.v1i3.5440

Background and Aim: Traffic accident is one of the main causes of mortality in Iran. The damage and injury caused by these accidents threatens human societies severely. Rural accidents are often more severe and show harsher consequences because the operational speed is higher on rural roads and highways. World statistics presented by World Health Organization (WHO) reveal that about 25 percent of all injuries in the world are caused by traffic accidents. Appropriate diagnoses and treatments of traffic black spots, prioritization, defining proper safety countermeasures and geometric design improvements are the main objectives of this study.

Materials and Methods: In this study, geometric design parameters are verified in black spots to determine which deficiency is the main cause of safety problem. Sari – Kiasar corridor, which is a rural road, is selected as the case study.

Results: Because of the fact that the general topography of Sari – Kiasar corridor is mountainous, the geometric design parameters are very diverse. Thus, after evaluation of geometric parameters, black spots are determined according to the types of accidents, severity of accidents, rate of accidents and the collision scenario. These items are then verified and studied in detail.

Conclusion: Results of the assessment show that geometric parameters such as horizontal and vertical curves, poor pavement, poor shoulder quality and poor drainage are contributing factors in increasing accident risk.

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The rate of safety belt use and its associated factors in 15 to 44-years old of Kerman in 2012

M Akbari, AR Nabipour, M Hesampour, N Khanjani

ارتقای ایمنی و پیشگیری از مصدومیت ها, دوره 1 شماره 3 (1392), 17 December 2013 , صفحه 116-122
https://doi.org/10.22037/meipm.v1i3.5453

Background and Aim: More than 50% of road fatalities occur in the 15 to 44-years old which are the young and active group of the society. One of the effective ways to reduce road accidents is using safety belts. In this study the rate of seat belt use and its associated factors have been estimated in the 15 to 44-years old of Kerman.

Materials and Methods: This study was a cross-sectional descriptive and analytical study performed in 2012 and on 506, 15 to 44 years old people visiting the pre-marriage consulting center in Kerman. Sampling was done by convenient sampling. Data was analyzed by SPSS 16 and by using logistic regression.

Results: The rate of seat belt use was estimated to be %54.4. People who owned private vehicles used safety belts more than non-owners (P< 0.001). Participants claimed that their own safety and preventing injury was the most important reason (59.1%) for using safety belts and forgetting due to mind occupation (33%) were the most important reasons for not using safety belts.

Conclusion: Despite the high incidence of road accidents in Iran and despite years passed the first compulsory safety belt regulation, the rate of safety belt use among the society and especially the youth (which are a high percent of the population) is still lower than other countries. These results emphasize the importance of implementing initiatives in this regard.

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8.    Shults RA, Beck LF. Self-reported seatbelt use, United States, 2002–2010: Does prevalence vary by state and type of seatbelt law? J Saf Res. 2012;43(5-6): 417-420.

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13.   Borghebani R, Dehahgni L, Khanjani N. (2013). The rate of safety belt use and some of its related factors among Kerman, Iran car drivers. Payesh.2013;12(2):159–65.

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Development and Psychometrics of "Safety Climate Assessment Questionnaire"

MJ Jafari, A Sadighzadeh, v Sarsangi, F Zaeri, E Zarei

ارتقای ایمنی و پیشگیری از مصدومیت ها, دوره 1 شماره 3 (1392), 17 December 2013 , صفحه 123-133
https://doi.org/10.22037/meipm.v1i3.5442

Background and Aims: Eighty five percent of accidents can be attributed to unsafe acts. Eighty five to ninety eight percent of workplace injuries caused by unsafe acts are due to attitude, behavior and culture. Safety climate is a multi-dimensional structure that describes the attitude and the correct priority of the people towards the safety at work. To assess safety climate, a valid and reliable tool is needed. The aim of this study was developing a psychometric questionnaire to assess safety climate in Iran.

Materials and Methods: Using safety literature and other safety climate questionnaire, a 96-item questionnaire was provided. Face validity, content validity ratio and index, construct validity, internal consistency reliability and test-retest reliability were investigated on 550 industrial employees .After validity index survey 43 items questionnaire were obtained. Principal factors were extracted using exploratory factor analysis by Varimax rotation method. To check the reliability of the questionnaire, Cronbach's alpha coefficients and Pearson correlation coefficient was used.

Results: For the face validity, CVR(78.5%) and CVI(0.75) related to safety climate designed questionnaire to be acceptable, eleven factors were extracted that covered 58.85 percent of total variance. Cronbach's alpha for most factors more than 0.7 were calculated and Spearman coefficient showed significant correlation between test and retest results.

Conclusion: The Safety "Climate Assessment Questionnaire" which has been designed for 43 items and 11 factors has appropriate validity and reliability and can be used to assess the safety climate.

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5.     Cavazza N, Serpe A. Effects of safety climate on safety norm violations: exploring the mediating role of attitudinal ambivalence toward personal protective equipment. J Saf Res. 2009;40(4):277-83.

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7.     Cheyne A, Cox S, Oliver A, Tomás JM. Modelling safety climate in the prediction of levels of safety activity. Work & Stress. 1998;12(3):255-71.

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9.     Vinodkumar M, Bhasi M. Safety climate factors and its relationship with accidents and personal attributes in the chemical industry. Saf Sci. 2009;47(5):659-67.

10.   Smith GS, Huang YH, Ho M, Chen PY. The relationship between safety climate and injury rates across industries: The need to adjust for injury hazards. Accid Anal & Prev. 2006;38(3):556-62.

11.   Griffin MA, Neal A. Perceptions of safety at work: a framework for linking safety climate to safety performance, knowledge, and motivation. J Occup Health Psychol. 2000;5(3):347-56.

12.   Cooper MD, Phillips RA. Exploratory analysis of the safety climate and safety behavior relationship. J saf res. 2004;35(5):497-512.

13.   DeJoy DM, Schaffer BS, Wilson MG, Vandenberg RJ, Butts MM. Creating safer workplaces: assessing the determinants and role of safety climate. J Saf Res. 2004;35(1):81-90.

14.   Evans B, Glendon AI, Creed PA. Development and initial validation of an Aviation Safety Climate Scale. J Saf Res. 2007;38(6):675-82.

15.   Flin R, Mearns K, O'Connor P, Bryden R. Measuring safety climate: identifying the common features. Saf sci. 2000;34(1-3):177-92.

16.   Hahn SE, Murphy LR. A short scale for measuring safety climate. Saf Sci. 2008;46(7):1047-66.

17.   Johnson SE. The predictive validity of safety climate. J Saf Res. 2007;38(5):511-21.

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30.   Lu CS, Tsai CL. The effects of safety climate on vessel accidents in the container shipping context. Accid Anal & Prev. 2008;40(2):594-601.

 

Evaluation of Occupational Exposure to Benzene and Toluene among Workers in two Tire Manufacturing Factories

RM Azari, SY Hosseni, R1 Zendehdel, H Soori, MA Musaviuon

ارتقای ایمنی و پیشگیری از مصدومیت ها, دوره 1 شماره 3 (1392), 17 December 2013 , صفحه 134-139
https://doi.org/10.22037/meipm.v1i3.5454

Backgrounds and Aims: Semi automated processes of Iranian tire manufacturing factories lead to significant occupational exposures to benzene and toluene compounds. This study was conducted to evaluate the magnitude and risk of workers exposures.

Materials and Methods: Personal monitoring of 100 workers (10 groups) was performed using NIOSH method No.1501 in two tire manufacturing factories in Tehran city. Workplace atmospheric conditions were measured on sampling days. Semi quantitative risk assessment (COSHH) was carried out using questionnaire and respective matrix. Data were analyzed using t-test, correlation coefficient, linear regression and one-way ANOVA. Quantitative values were reported as mean±standard error.

Results: Age, work experience and atmospheric parameters had no significant statistical difference in two factories. Occupational exposures to benzene and toluene were 1.09±0.18, 1.88±0.19 and 2.07±0.30, 3.20±0.39 ppm in factories A and B that showed significant increase in B factory and inverse significant correlation with air relative humidity. Exposure to high risk of benzene and medium risk of toluene were 10, 14 and 10, 16 percent of workers in factories A and B, respectively. The correlation between occupational exposure and COSHH assessment was significant.

Conclusion: occupational exposure to benzene in tire manufacturing personnel was higher than Iranian standard, therefore, improvement of work conditions using appropriate control measures including automated processes and setting of air relative humidity is recommended. COSHH assessment can be used as a simple, cheap and quick method in workers’ health promotion. Control of personnel exposure through ongoing training is imperative.

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3. Vermeulen R, Bos R, Pertijs L, Kromhout H. Exposure related mutagens in urine of rubber workers associated with inhalable particulate and dermal exposure. Occup Environ Med. 2003;60(2):97-103.

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Evaluation of Parameter Related to Preventative Measures on the Child Injuries at Home

HR Hatamabadi, S Mahfoozpour, MM Forouzanfar, AR Khazaei, Sh Yousefian, S Younesian

ارتقای ایمنی و پیشگیری از مصدومیت ها, دوره 1 شماره 3 (1392), 17 December 2013 , صفحه 140-149
https://doi.org/10.22037/meipm.v1i3.5448

Background and Aims: The harms resulted from home injuries are a major factor in child mortality. The current study aims to evaluate the factors associated with the knowledge and performance level of mothers in terms of adopting preventive behaviors to avoid home injuries.

Materials and Methods: The target population of this descriptive - analytical study is all mothers of preschool children suffering from home injuries referring to Imam Hossein and Haft-E-Tir hospitals. Mothers’ data were collected using a valid and reliable questionnaire.

After dividing the knowledge level and the status of mothers’ preventive behaviors into two groups, the relationship between factors was assessed by using Chi-square and multivariate logistic regression and the status of mothers preventive behaviors were studied as well.

Results: Finally, 230 mothers (mean age 5.2 ± 29.4) were studied. 75.0 of them had good awareness, and 56.0 % also had a good performance. Mother's absence for at least 8 hours per day (0.12 = OR), increase of the number of preschool children (0.03 = OR) and employed mother (0.01 = OR) are the things that hinder preventive behaviors in home injuries. While the history of home injuries during the past 3 weeks (13.3 = OR), mother’s appropriate awareness of preventive behaviors (28.9 = OR) and high-income families (2.4 = OR) lead to the adoption of preventive behaviors by mothers.

Conclusion: Awareness is the only modifiable factor and it can be improved by educational interventions. Support of assistance and social welfare agencies for employed mothers can improve the current status of preventive behaviors in home injuries.

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29.  Vladutiu C, Nansel T, Weaver N, Jacobsen H, Kreuter M. Differential strength of association of child injury prevention attitudes and beliefs on practices: a case for audience segmentation. Injury Prevention. 2006;12(1):35-40.

30.  Vincenten JA, Sector MJ, Rogmans W, Bouter L. Parents' perceptions, attitudes and behaviours towards child safety: a study in 14 European countries. International Journal of Injury Control and Safety Promotion. 2005;12(3):183-9.

31.   Hatamabadi HR, Mahfoozpour S, Alimohammadi H, Younesian S. Evaluation of factors influencing knowledge and attitudes of mothers with preschool children regarding their adoption of preventive measures for home injuries referred to academic emergency centers, Tehran, Iran. International Journal of Injury Control and Safety Promotion. 2013 Jul 26. [Epub ahead of print].

 

Epidemiology of traffic crashes outcomes and related factors

M Bakhtiyari, H Soori

ارتقای ایمنی و پیشگیری از مصدومیت ها, دوره 1 شماره 3 (1392), 17 December 2013 , صفحه 150-159
https://doi.org/10.22037/meipm.v1i3.5449

Background and Aims: Traffic crashes are multi-factorial consequences caused by human factors, technical issues and environmental conditions. The present study aimed to determine epidemiology of urban traffic injuries in Iran and role of some human risk factors in occurrence of such outcomes in 2010.

Materials and Methods: Through a descriptive cross-sectional study, the records of 515205 injured people injured people due to road traffic crashes were used. Odd ratios for traffic events using regression models with appropriate chances and logistic regression were estimated by considering affecting factors on outcomes of traffic injuries such as age and gender.

Results: Data of 515205 drivers including 464401 (90.1%) males were analyzed. From the environmental factors related to road deficiency, the difference between level of the road and its edge line (OR=4.3; 95% CI: 2.8-6.5) and road dropping (OR=2.5; 95%CI: 1.1-6.2) had the most influence on mortalities due to traffic crashes. Sudden change of direction (OR=9.9; 95% CI: 8.2-11.9) and lacking control of vehicle (OR=7.0; 95% CI: 5.8-8.4) had the most effects on either injury or death categories after adjustment for age, gender and lightening.

Conclusions: With respect to increased mortalities due to road traffic crashes in Iran, comprehensive studies about epidemiology and risk factors of traffic accidents could be considered as a giant step to control these risk factors and decrease the death burden of such events.

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The possibility of applying less tracer gas in ASHRAE-110-95 method of hood performance test

MJ Jafari, S Kalantari, R Zendehdel, P Sarbakhsh

ارتقای ایمنی و پیشگیری از مصدومیت ها, دوره 1 شماره 3 (1392), 17 December 2013 , صفحه 160-167
https://doi.org/10.22037/meipm.v1i3.5451

Background and Objective: A considerable amount of sulfur hexafluoride is applied to evaluate the performance of each laboratory hood according to ASHRAE–110-95 method. SF6 is extremely hostile to environment and expensive. In present work, the possibility of conducting this method of hood performance test with less volume of SF6 was investigated.

Material and Methods: The performance of a laboratory hood was evaluated using ASHRAE110-95 standard method at three different ventilation capacity as well as three different volumetric flow rates of injected SF6 while a mannequin was located at the front of hood. Face velocity was measured 180 times using a thermal anemometer TA-2 model. Air flow was visualized through injecting low and high volume of smokes at 18 tests. Sulfur hexafluoride was injected at three different volumetric flow rates of 2, 3 and 4 lit/min. The occupational exposure of a hypothetic hood operator was determined 27 times through direct reading.

Results: The average and standard deviation of face velocity at hood inlet were 0.42±0.04, 0.6±0.07, 0.7±0.11 m/s respectively, ranging from 0.36-1.1 m/s. the studied hood did not have an acceptable performance when tested with high volumes of smoke, but it did have an acceptable performance while it was tested with low volumes of smoke.

Conclusion: The application of ASHRAE 110-95 hood performance test with smaller volume of tracer sulfur hexafluoride gas is not recommended.

REFERENCES:          

1.    Esmaeilzadeh A, Golbabaee F, Shahtaheri S. Evaluation of laboratory fume-hoods performance in a petrochemical industry based on ASHRAE 110 Standard. Journal of School of Public Health and Institute of Public Health Research. 2008;6(3-4):111-7.

2.    Fk.T. Chemical Fume Hood Safety Protecting the Health of Laboratory Workers. eScholarship University of California. 2000:p.8.

3.    Karimi Zare A. Evaluation of laoratory hoods in Tehran Water and Waste water Co. Tehran: Islamic Azad university; 2000.

4.    Rydock JP. Tracer performance testing of installed fume hoods: One European perspective. Chemical Health and Safety. 2002;9(4):7-9.

5.    Ivany RE, First MW, Diberardinis LJ. A new method for quantitative, in-use testing of laboratory fume hoods. The American Industrial Hygiene Association Journal. 1989;50(5):275-80.

6.    Hitchings DT. Laboratory fume hood and exhaust fan penthouse exposure risk analysis using the ANSI/ASHRAE 95 -110 and other tracer gas methods. Transactions-American Society of Heating Refrigerating aqnd Air Conditioning Engineers. 1997;863:72-103.

7.    Guffey EJ. Nitrous oxide as a substitute for sulfur hexafluoride in the ANSI/ASHRAE 110 Method of hood performance evaluation. Massachusetts Institute of Technology. 2011:1-44

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12.  Kalantari S. Ethylene as a Substitute for Sulfur Hexafluoride in the ASHRAE 95-110 Method of Hood Performance Evaluation. Tehran: Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Science; 2013.

13.  Bell G, Sartor D, Mills E. The Berkeley hood: development and commercialization of an innovative high-performance laboratory fume hood Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley. California2003.

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Effect of the mental and physical disorders status of Tehran's public transportation system bus drivers on the occurrence of crashes

S Varmazyar, SB Mortazavi, SH Argham, E Hajizadeh

ارتقای ایمنی و پیشگیری از مصدومیت ها, دوره 1 شماره 3 (1392), 17 December 2013 , صفحه 168-175
https://doi.org/10.22037/meipm.v1i3.5452

Background and objectives: In many studies, chronic diseases are associated with incidence of driving accident. The main objective of the present study is investigation the effect of physical and mental disorders status of bus drivers on the occurrence of crashes.

Materials and Methods: This research is a cross-sectional and descriptive-analytical study that was performed on 665 bus drivers' public transportation system in Tehran. The samples were selected randomly and to the proportion of working population in nine bus systems or areas. In order to investigate physical (disease) and mental (family problems) disorders demographic information and health status questionnaires were used. The relationships between variables analyzed through Univariate analysis of variance (UNIANOVA) and Kendall's tau-b tests by SPSS 16 of software.

Results: The results showed 68.7% of drivers with mental disorders (with family problems) in both groups from healthy and unhealthy (physical diseases) drivers' had average 3.2 crashes in the last three years. Furthermore the tests of Univariate analysis of variance (UNIANOVA) (F=0.43, p<0.05) and Kendall's tau-b (r=0.112, p<0.01) showed significant and positive correlation between family problems and the number of self-reported crashes over the previous three years.

Conclusion: Because of the increased risk of crashes among drivers suffering from mental problems, it is assumed that the removal of economic problems and the use of psychological consultations will reduce family problems including poor emotional relationships of family members which play an important role in increasing attention and concentration of the drivers while driving and consequently reducing traffic crashes.

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2.    Seyyedmehdi S M, Dehghan F, Salari S, Hedayati Mashkale M, Attarchi M. Assessment of frequency of accidents and related factors in professional drivers of heavy vehicles. Journal of Forensic Medicine , 2010;16(3):187-194

3.    Lagarde E, Chastang JF, Lafont S, Coeuret-Pellicer M, Chiron M. Pain and pain treatment were associated with traffic accident involvement in a cohort of middle-aged workers. Journal of clinical epidemiology. 2005;58(5):524-31.

4.  .Hours M, Fort E, Charnay P, Bernard M, Martin JL, Boisson D, et al. Diseases, consumption of medicines and responsibility for a road crash: A case–control study. Accident Analysis & Prevention. 2008;40(5):1789-96.

5.  McGwin G, Sims RV, Pulley LV, Roseman JM. Relations among chronic medical conditions, medications, and automobile crashes in the elderly: a population-based case-control study. American Journal of Epidemiology. 2000;152(5):424-31.

6.  .Stinchcombe A, Gagnon S. Aging and driving in a complex world: Exploring age differences in attentional demand while driving. Transp Res Part F Traffic Psychol Behav.2013;(17):125-33.

7.    Young K, Regan M, Hammer M. Driver distraction: A review of the literature. Distracted driving Sydney, NSW: Australasian College of Road Safety. 2007:379-405.

8.    Marino M, de Belvis A, Basso D, Avolio M, Pelone F, Tanzariello M, et al. Interventions to evaluate fitness to drive among people with chronic conditions: Systematic review of literature. Accid Anal & Prev. 2013;50:377-96.

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11.  Roca J, Lupiáñez J, López-Ramón M-F, Castro C. Are drivers’ attentional lapses associated with the functioning of the neurocognitive attentional networks and with cognitive failure in everyday life? Transp Res Part F Traffic Psychol Behav. 2013;17:98-113.

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13.  Hwang G-S, Choi J-W, Choi S-H, Lee S-G, Kim K-H, Cho Y-M, et al. Effects of a Tailored Health Promotion Program to Reduce Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors Among Middle-Aged and Advanced-Age Bus Drivers. Asia-Pacific Journal of Public Health. 2012;24(1):117-127.

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16.  Sagberg F. Driver health and crash involvement: A case-control study. Accident Analysis & Prevention. 2006;38(1):28-34.

17.  Özdemir L, Turgut OO, Candan F, Arslan S. Prevalence of arrhythmias in heavy vehicle drivers. World. 2013;3:58-63.

18.  Habibpour K, Safari R. Comprehensive manual for using SPSS in survey researches. 4, editor. Tehran: Motefakeran poblications; 2012.

19.  Chan M, Singhal A. The emotional side of cognitive distraction: Implications for road safety. Accid Anal Prev. 2013;50):147-54.

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