Original/Research Article

National Early Warning Score in Predicting Adverse Outcomes for Patients Admitted to Emergency Department; a Prognostic Accuracy Study

Setareh Asgarzadeh, Abbas Ebadi, Ali Saberi Shahrbabaki, Saeed Safari, Seyed Hadi Aghili, Mehri Farhang Ranjbar, Shayan Sadeghi (Author)

Archives of Academic Emergency Medicine, Vol. 12 No. 1 (2024), 1 January 2024, Page e1

Introduction: Overcrowding in emergency departments (ED) is a global concern, emphasizing the need for effective resource allocation. Triage plays a crucial role in prioritizing patients based on medical needs. This study aimed to evaluate the accuracy of National Early Warning Score (NEWS) in predicting the ED patients’ outcomes.

Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in two tertiary hospitals in Tehran, Iran, from June to July 2023. Adult patients presenting to ED were included. Data for calculating the NEWs and emergency severity index (ESI), as well as outcomes were recorded by trained nurses, and then the accuracy of each score in predicting the outcomes was evaluated.

Results: A total of 2,085 patients were analyzed. The majority were male (57%) with a mean age of 54.4 years. The primary outcome, cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) within 24 hours of admission, occurred in 1.9% of patients, while the need for intensive care unit (ICU) care and/or mechanical ventilation happened in 3.4%, and CPR or need for ICU care and/or mechanical ventilation was observed in 4.3% of studied cases. Each one-point increase in NEWS was associated with a 52% higher likelihood of CPR (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.41 to 1.65, p<0.001). Receiver operating characteristic curve analyses for the NEWS yielded the optimum cut-off value to be 6 for all three outcomes, with an overall area under the curve (AUC) of 0.856 (95% CI: 0.840 to 0.871), 0.834 (95% CI: 0.817 to 0.850), and 0.854 (95% CI: 0.838 to 0.869) for the primary, secondary, and tertiary outcomes, respectively.

Conclusion: NEWS ≥ 6 was associated with a higher incidence of adverse outcomes, including ICU admission and need for CPR. The good predictive validity of NEWS highlights its value in identifying patients at higher risk of adverse outcomes.

Characteristics of Hospitalized Pediatric Patients Following Traumatic Open Globe Injuries; a Cross-sectional Study

Alireza Peyman, Alireza Dehghani, Alireza Hoghooghi, Kazhaal Sheykhi, Mehri Khoshhali, Mahdi Abounoori, Hajar Khosrropour, Mohsen Pourazizi (Author)

Archives of Academic Emergency Medicine, Vol. 12 No. 1 (2024), 1 January 2024, Page e28

Introduction: One of the main causes of acquired blindness and impairment in children is ocular trauma. This study aimed to evaluate the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of pediatric patients hospitalized with open globe injuries (OGI).

Methods: A retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted on children diagnosed with OGI at a referral Hospital affiliated with Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran, from 2014 to 2018.

Results: 375 OGI medical records were detected during the study period. The common culprits for OGI in boys were knives (21.3%), wood (19.7%), metal bodies (12.2%), and glass (11.8%). In girls, the common causes were knives (28.7%), glass (24.3%), pencils (11.3%), and wood (10.4%). Boys had a greater rate of Intraocular foreign body (IOFB) (p= 0.052but had lower odds of blindness compared to girls (OR=0.48; 95% CI: (0.24, 0.98); p = 0.04). Patients with corneal lacerations had lower chances of long-term admission than those with corneal and scleral lacerations (OR= 0.35, 95% CI: (0.17, 0.69); p = 0.02).

Conclusion: Most pediatric OGIs occur in boys. knives were the principal culprit for OGI, followed by glass and wood. Boys had a greater IOFB rate but lower blindness odds than girls.

Incidence and Outcomes of Aortic Dissection in Tabriz, Iran; a Longitudinal Study of 150 Cases

Gholamreza Faridaalaee, Nima Fathi, Kavous Shahsavarinia, Hamed Zarei, Mahmoud Yousefifard (Author)

Archives of Academic Emergency Medicine, Vol. 12 No. 1 (2024), 1 January 2024, Page e40

Introduction: A comprehensive analysis of the epidemiological features of aortic dissections in Azerbaijan Province, Iran, and their influence on patient survival remains unexplored. This study aimed to determine the incidence of aortic dissection and identify the associated factors of mortality in these patients.

Methods: A retrospective longitudinal study was conducted using hospital records of patients diagnosed with aortic dissection in Tabriz, Iran, between 2017 and 2021. The 3-month mortality was followed up via telephone calls using the contact numbers provided in the patients’ records. Then, independently associated factors of mortality were identified using a multivariate stepwise logistic regression analysis.

Results: Among the 150 cases of aortic dissection identified, 74% (n = 111) were classified as type A, and 26% (n = 39) were classified as type B. The overall incidence proportion of aortic dissections was 2.35 per 100000 population. In type A dissections, 64% (71 out of 111) of patients received surgical treatment, while 21.6% (24 out of 111) received medical treatment. Among type B dissections, only 23.1% (9 out of 39) underwent surgery. The all-cause mortality rate at 3 months was 52.5% (73 out of 139 patients with complete follow-up), 47 male (54%) and 26 female (50%). Multivariate analysis showed that higher age was independently associated with increased mortality (odds ratio [OR] = 1.03; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.00-1.06, p = 0.027). In contrast, patients with DeBakey Type III classification (OR = 0.29; 95% CI: 0.01-0.87, p = 0.027), hypothyroidism (OR = 0.12; 95% CI: 0.01-0.99, p = 0.049), and those who received either surgical treatment (OR = 0.19; 95% CI: 0.05-0.76, p = 0.019) or medical treatment (OR = 0.18; 95% CI: 0.04-0.80, p = 0.024) had a lower chance of mortality. Gender was not found to be associated with the outcome.

Conclusion: The study revealed an annual incidence rate of aortic dissection as 2.35 per 100000 population. Aortic dissection, regardless of type, remains a highly fatal condition, with over half of patients dying within 3 months of the initial event. To reduce the high mortality rates associated with aortic dissections, it is crucial to implement specific measures for the early identification of patients and ensure prompt and appropriate care.

11-Year Trend of Mortality from Fatal Road Traffic Injuries in The Center of Iran; a Cross-sectional Study

Maziyar Mollaei Pardeh, Mohammad Hosain Yarmohammadian, Golrokh Atighechian, Afshin Ebrahimi, Mohamad Reza Maracy (Author)

Archives of Academic Emergency Medicine, Vol. 12 No. 1 (2024), 1 January 2024, Page e27

Introduction: Road traffic injuries (RTIs) are one of the major health problems in developed and developing countries. In Iran, RTIs are the first leading cause of years of life lost (YLL). So, the present study investigated the 11-year trend of RTI-

related mortalities in Iran.

Methods: This study was a population-based cross-sectional study. All-cause deaths as well as RTI-related mortalities’ data were collected from the Civil Registration Organization (CRO) and Legal medical organization (LMO) of Isfahan during 2011-2021. The mid-year population, number of deaths due to RTIs, the crude and age-standardized mortality (per 100,000) of RTIs, and the percentage of proportional mortality by sex and year of accident during the study period were calculated and reported. Also, trend analysis was done using join point regression program.

Results: During the study period, 11,248 deaths occurred due to RTIs in Isfahan province. 8,894 cases were male (79.03%), the highest number of deaths in both male and female cases was reported in those aged 15-39 years. Among the males, trend of standardized mortality in 2011-2015 was decreasing (annual percentage changes = -6.76(CI 95%: -2.53, -15.03)), while in 2015-2021 it was increasing (annual percentage changes = 3.00 (CI 95%: 0.63, 9.87)). However, no significant trend was observed among females.

Conclusion: The findings of the present study showed that the number and standardized mortality rate of RTIs decreased during the 11-year period. It seems that applying stricter policies, improving the quality of the roads of the province, improving the quality of cars, and increasing the number of hospital and pre-hospital medical facilities can play an effective role in reducing RTIs.

Acute Serum Calcium Level Changes Following Non-Massive Blood and Blood Product Transfusion in Emergency Department; a Cross-sectional Study

Halil Emre Koyuncuoglu, Basak Yuksek, Sırma Karamercan, Mehmet Akif Karamercan (Author)

Archives of Academic Emergency Medicine, Vol. 12 No. 1 (2024), 1 January 2024, Page e19

Introduction: The specific impact on calcium dynamics after non-massive blood transfusions remains relatively unexplored. This study aimed to compare pre- and post-transfusion calcium levels in patients receiving blood and blood product in the emergency department.

Methods: This is a single-center, prospective, cross-sectional study conducted at the Emergency Department of Gazi University Health Research and Application Center Hospital in Ankara, Turkey, from January 1, 2020, to August 31, 2020. The study included adult patients who underwent blood and blood product transfusions, and serum calcium levels were measured and compared from samples taken before and after transfusion.

Results: A total of 292 participants were enrolled in the study, with 242 participants included in the final analysis. The mean total calcium level was 8.41 ± 0.76 mg/dL before transfusion and 8.34 ± 0.71 mg/dL after transfusion (p=0.012). When examining the corrected calcium values after receiving blood products based on the type of blood products, participants who received apheresis platelets had a post-transfusion corrected calcium value of 8.26 ±0.41 mg/dL, with a pre-transfusion value of 9.09 ±0.49 mg/dL (p<0.01). The post-transfusion ionized calcium value for participants receiving apheresis was 1.04 ±0.08 mg/dL, compared to 1.15 ±0.09 mg/dL for those who did not receive apheresis (p=0.049). There was a significant relationship between receiving fresh frozen plasma and post-transfusion ionized calcium values (p=0.024).

Conclusion: This study demonstrated that transfusion-associated hypocalcemia can occur even at mild levels in patients receiving blood and blood product transfusions in the emergency department. However, it is suggested that the clinical effects of hypocalcemia, even when occurring based on the type and quantity of blood products, are minimal and negligible.

Prevalence, Complications, and Risk Factors of Falls and Fear of Falling Among Older Adults; Based on Ardakan Cohort Study on Aging (ACSA)

Ahmad Delbari, Amirali Azimi, Morvarid Najafi, Mohammad Saatchi, Mohammad Bidkhori, Mohammad Bidkhori, Mohammad Ebrahim Mousavi, Fatemeh-sadat Tabatabaei, Elham Hooshmand (Author)

Archives of Academic Emergency Medicine, Vol. 12 No. 1 (2024), 1 January 2024, Page e9

Introduction: The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence of falls, fear of falling (FOF), complications arising from falls, and identify possible sociodemographic and health-related factors associated with these outcomes among older adults.

Methods: This cross-sectional study was based on the first wave of the Ardakan Cohort Study on Aging (ACSA), which includes participants over 50 years of age residing in Ardakan, Iran. Fall history, number of fall events, FOF, hospitalizations, and fractures in the past 12 months were assessed through a face-to-face interview. Health-related factors were recorded on a self-expressed basis. Associations were assessed using multiple logistic regression.

Results: Among the 4,990 participants, fall history in the past 12 months was prevalent in 19.9%, with 10.1% reporting more than two fall events. Women (p < 0.001) and older participants (p< 0.001) had a higher prevalence. In females, 28.8% reported moderate to severe FOF, while 21% experienced disruptions in their daily activities as a result of this fear. The prevalence of fractures following falls was 5.1% in males and 8.6% in females. After adjusting for confounding factors, FOF (OR: 1.59, 95% CI: 1.33-1.91, p<0.001), imbalance (OR: 2.45, 95% CI: 1.68-3.58, p<0.001), urinary incontinence (OR: 1.44, 95% CI: 1.04-1.9, p=0.025), cognitive impairment (OR: 1.21, 95% CI: 1.01-1.46, p=0.049), vertigo or dizziness (OR: 1.39, 95% CI: 1.15-1.68, p<0.001), osteoporosis (OR: 1.24, 95% CI: 1.03-1.50, p=0.023), osteoarthritis (OR: 1.33, 95% CI: 1.13-1.56, p=0.001), depression (OR: 1.30, 95% CI: 1.06-1.60, p=0.010), and Central Nervous System (CNS)-affecting diseases (OR: 1.99, 95% CI: 1.33-2.97, p=0.001) were found to have positive associations with falls.

Conclusion: This study showed that about one-fifth of those over 50 in Iran have experienced at least one fall within a year. Self-expressed imbalance, FOF, and urinary incontinence were the most prominent risk factors. Due to resulting in hospitalization and fractures, falls also lead to fear of falling and the associated limitation of activities.

Introduction: Low back pain (LBP) represents the leading cause of disability worldwide and is a major economic and welfare problem. This study aimed to report incidence, prevalence, and disability-adjusted life years (DALY) rates of LBP in Iran by gender and different sociodemographic index (SDI) countries from 1990 to 2019.

Methods: The age-standardized LBP and incidence, prevalence, and DALY were extracted based on the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) 2019 in Iran for males and females, and low- and high-SDI countries during 1990- 2019.

Results: GBD 2019 data for LBP in Iran indicate a significant downward trend of incidence and prevalence from 1993 to 2019 in males, females, and both, except during the 1999-2002 period for females. A sharp reduction is seen in LBP incidence and prevalence from 1996 to 1999. Gender is not a determining factor in the LBP prevalence in Iran. Regarding the SDI categories, Iran had the highest incidence rate compared to countries with low- and high SDIs. High-SDI countries had the highest prevalence and DALY compared with Iran and low-SDI countries.

Conclusion: The age-standardized incidence and prevalence of LBP in Iran showed a downward trend, from 1993 to 2019, especially from 1996 to 1999. Comparing Iran with low- and high-SDI countries, a heavier incidence of LBP was observed in Iran and heavier prevalence and DALY were seen in high-SDI countries. Therefore, more therapeutic healthcare interventions are required to reduce the LBP burden more effectively.

Patients’ Knowledge and Pharmacists’ Practice Regarding the Long-Term Side Effects of Proton Pump Inhibitors; a Cross-sectional Study

Aisha Juma Alblooshi, Mirza R. Baig, Hanan S. Anbar (Author)

Archives of Academic Emergency Medicine, Vol. 12 No. 1 (2024), 1 January 2024, Page e35

Introduction: Proton pump inhibitors (PPI) are a commonly prescribed medication, but recent evidence suggests that their long-term use may lead to several adverse events. To address this issue, our study aims to assess patient awareness and pharmacist practices in educating patients about the potential risks associated with prolonged PPI use. 

Methods: Two questionnaires were developed by researchers and administered in the United Arab Emirates from June to August 2021 to gather insights from patients and pharmacists about the use of PPIs, their knowledge of potential side effects, and their experiences and attitudes toward receiving education about PPI side effects. The patients' knowledge was evaluated based on their cumulative correct answers to questions related to PPI’s long-term adverse effects including increased fracture risk and hypocalcemia, vitamin B12 deficiency, hypomagnesemia, and the caution of abrupt withdrawal. All statistical analyses were conducted using SPSS 25.0 software.

Results: Overall, 348 participants with a median age of 40 years participated in the survey, among them, 91 (26.14%) used various forms of PPI with 38% of users taking PPI as over-the-counter drugs. Patients had low knowledge about PPI side effects and their proper discontinuation with a median knowledge score of 0 (Interquartile range: 0-2) and only 22.2% of patients were familiar with at least three out of five asked harms. Those with lower knowledge were more likely to be Emirati compared to other nations (p=0.004) and aged over 30 years compared to their younger counterparts (p = 0.016). Few patients have obtained the relevant information from their physicians (25%) or pharmacists (7%). Inquiring 136 pharmacists, it was shown that the most common education was concerning vitamin B12 deficiency (62.5%) followed by fracture risk (58.09%) yet less than half (48%) of pharmacists instructed patients about the potential risk of hypomagnesemia. Almost all pharmacists (99%) agreed that there is a requirement for additional education on the possible harmful consequences of PPIs.

Conclusion: The present study has established that a considerable proportion of PPI users in the UAE lack the necessary awareness about the potential adverse effects of PPI despite their extensive use in this country. The current pharmacist practice is inefficient for inculcating the potential harms of chronic PPI use and they are required to optimize their efforts to educate patients and bridge the knowledge gaps.

RAMA-WeRA Risk Score in Predicting the Ruptured Appendicitis in Emergency Department; a Multicenter Study for External Validation

Welawat Tienpratarn, Guyphol Kasemlawan, Chaiyaporn Yuksen, Wanchalerm Kongchok, Nitchakarn Boonyok, Piyanuch Lowanitchai, Jeeranun Boriboon, Thidarat Rattananikom, Yuranun Phootothum, Sutap Jaiboon (Author)

Archives of Academic Emergency Medicine, Vol. 12 No. 1 (2024), 1 January 2024, Page e44

Introduction: Distinguishing between ruptured and non-ruptured acute appendicitis presents a significant challenge. This study aimed to validate the accuracy of RAMA-WeRA Risk Score in predicting ruptured appendicitis (RA) in emergency department.

Methods:  This study was a multicenter diagnostic accuracy study conducted across six hospitals in Thailand from February 1, 2022, to January 20, 2023. The eligibility criteria included individuals aged >15 years suspected of acute appendicitis, presenting to the ED, and having an available pathology report following appendectomy or intraoperative diagnosis by the surgeon. We assessed the screening performance characteristics of RAMA-WeRA Risk Score, in detecting the ruptured appendicitis (RA) cases.

Results:  860 patients met the study criteria. 168 (19.38%) had RA and 692 (80.62%) patients had non-RA. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AuROC) of RAMA-WeRA Risk Score was 75.11% (95% CI: 71.10, 79.11). The RAMA-WeRA Risk Score > 6 points (high-risk group) demonstrated a positive likelihood ratio (LR) of 3.22 in detecting the ruptured cases. The sensitivity and specificity of score in > 6 cutoff point was 43.8% (95%CI: 36.2, 51.6) and 86.4% (95%CI: 83.6, 88.9), respectively.

Conclusions: The RAMA-WeRA Risk Score can predict rupture in patients presenting with suspected acute appendicitis in the emergency department with total accuracy of 75% for high-risk cases.

Early Discharge versus 6-hour Observation in Mild Traumatic Brain Injury with Normal Brain CT Scan; a Comparative Pilot study of Outcomes

Piramon Chairattanawan, Chuenruthai Angkoontassaneeyarat, Chaiyaporn Yuksen, Chetsadakon Jenpanitpong, Malivan Phontabtim, Thanakorn Laksanamapune (Author)

Archives of Academic Emergency Medicine, Vol. 12 No. 1 (2024), 1 January 2024, Page e50

Introduction: Early discharge from the emergency department (ED) or a 6-hour observation in the ED are two methods for management of patients with mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) with normal brain computed tomography (CT) scan. This study aimed to compare the outcomes of the two management options.

Methods: This study is a single-center, open-label, pilot randomized case control study conducted in the ED of Ramathibodi Hospital from June 2022 to September 2023. Eligible participants included all individuals with mTBI who had negative findings on Brain CT scans. They were randomly assigned to either the early ED discharge or 6-hour ED observation group and compared regarding the outcomes (rate of 48-hour ED revisits; occurrence of post-concussion syndrome (PCS) 1 day, 1 month, and 3 months after the initial injury; and 3-month mortality).

Results: 122 patients with the mean age of 74.62 ± 14.96 (range: 25-99) years were consecutively enrolled (57.37% female). No significant differences were observed between the early discharge and observation groups regarding the severity of TBI (p=0.853), age (p=0.334), gender (p=0.588), triage level (p=0.456), Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score (p=0.806), comorbidities (p=0.768), medication usage (p=0.548), mechanism of injury (p=0.920), indication for brain CT scan (p=0.593), time from TBI onset to ED arrival (p=0.886), and time from ED triage to brain CT scan (p=0.333). Within 48 hours after randomization, the incidence of revisits was similar between the two groups (1.57% vs. 3.23%; p = 1.000). There were no statistically significant differences in the incidence of PCS between the early discharge and observation groups at 1 day (33.90% vs. 35.48%, p = 0.503), at 1 month (12.07% vs. 13.11%, p = 0.542), and at 3 months (1.92% vs. 5.56%, p = 0.323) after randomization. After a three-month follow-up period, four patients in the early discharge group, had expired (none of the deaths were associated with TBI).

Conclusion: It seems that, in mTBI patients with normal initial brain CT scan and the absence of other injuries or neurological abnormalities, early discharge from the ED without requiring observation could be considered safe.

Comparison of qSOFA, SIRS, NEWS and REWS Scores in Predicting Severity and 28-day Mortality of older Suspected Sepsis Cases; a Prognostic Accuracy Study

Pitsucha Sanguanwit, Warunchana Thudsaringkarnsakul, Chuenruthai Angkoontassaneeyarat, Sorawich Watcharakitpaisan (Author)

Archives of Academic Emergency Medicine, Vol. 12 No. 1 (2024), 1 January 2024, Page e3

Introduction: Various scores have been developed to predict sepsis mortality. This Study aimed to evaluate the accuracy of the quick Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (qSOFA), Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome (SIRS), National Early Warning Score (NEWS) and Ramathibodi Early Warning Score (REWS) for predicting severity and 28-day mortality of elderly suspected sepsis cases in emergency department (ED).

Methods: This prognostic accuracy study was performed using data obtained from patients aged ≥ 60 years with suspected sepsis who visited the Ramathibodi Hospital ED between May and December 2019. The accuracy of NEWS, SIRS, REWS, and qSOFA in predicting the studied outcomes were evaluated using the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis.

Results: A total of 531 cases with the mean age of 77.6 ± 9.39 (range: 60-101) years were evaluated (45% male). The overall 28-day mortality was 11.6%. The area under ROC curve of qSOFA scores ≥2 showed moderate discrimination (0.66, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.59–0.73) in predicting mortality, which was significantly higher than SIRS ≥2 (ROC: 0.56, 95% CI: 0.50–0.63; p=0.04), NEWS ≥5 (ROC: 0.56, 95% CI: 0.50–0.63; p=0.01), and REWS ≥4 (ROC: 0.56, 95% CI: 0.50–0.63; p<0.01).

Conclusions: qSOFA score ≥2 was superior to SIRS ≥2, NEWS ≥5, and REWS ≥4 in predicting 28-day mortality and septic shock in elderly patients with suspected sepsis in the ED. However, the predictive performance of qSOFA ≥2 was only moderate (AUC<0.8). Therefore, to reduce mortality and improve outcomes, we suggest the use of qSOFA ≥2 combined with clinical or other early warning scores, or the development of new prediction scores for screening, triage, and prediction of mortality and of severity of sepsis in elderly patients with suspected sepsis in the ED.

MONTH Score in Predicting Difficult Intubations in Emergency Department; a Prognostic Accuracy Study

Nitis Hongthong, Sorravit Savatmongkorngul, Chaiyaporn Yuksen, Thanakorn Laksanamapune (Author)

Archives of Academic Emergency Medicine, Vol. 12 No. 1 (2024), 1 January 2024, Page e17

Introduction: MONTH Difficult Laryngoscopy Score was developed for effectively identifying difficult intubations in the emergency department (ED). This study aimed to evaluate the accuracy of MONTH Score in predicting difficult intubations in ED.

Methods: We prospectively collected data on all patients undergoing intubation in the ED of Ramathibodi Hospital, Bangkok, Thailand. The screening performance characteristics of the MONTH score in identifying the difficult intubation in ED were analyzed. All data were analyzed using STATA software version 18.0.

Results:  324 intubated patients with the median age of 73 (63-82) years were studied (63.58% male). The proportion of difficult intubations was 19.44%. The sensitivity and specificity of MONTH in predicting difficult intubations were 74.6% (95% CI: 61.6%-85.0%) and 92.8% (95% CI: 89.0%-95.6%), respectively. These measures in subgroup of patients with Intubation Difficulty Scale (IDS) score ≥ 6 were 44.1% (95%CI: 31.2-57.6) and 98.5% (95% CI: 96.2%- 99.6%), respectively. The area under the receiver operation characteristic (ROC) curve of MONTH in predicting difficult intubations was 0.895 (95% CI: 0.856- 0.926).

Conclusions: It seems that the MONTH Difficult Laryngoscopy Score could be considered as a tool with high specificity and positive predictive values in identifying cases with difficult intubations in ED.

Introduction: There is an evidence–practice gap in the optimal timing and volume of intravenous fluid as well as vasopressor administration in managing patients with sepsis. This study aimed to explore current hemodynamic resuscitation practice in emergency department (ED) for patients with sepsis and hypotension.

Methods: This is a sub-analysis of the prospective multicentre ARISE FLUIDS observational study, which was conducted in 70 EDs across Australia and New Zealand. Baseline characteristics, as well as ED management and outcome of sepsis patients were compared between patients who were and were not admitted to intensive care unit (ICU) or high dependency unit (HDU).

Results: A total of 587 patients with a median age of 65 years and even sex distribution (49% female) were available for analysis. Almost two-thirds of patients with sepsis (63.2%, n=371) were not admitted to ICU/HDU and were given lower intravenous (IV) fluid volumes over 24-hours, compared to those receiving critical care (4077ml vs. 5421ml, p<0.001). Patients not admitted to an ICU/HDU had a lower Acute Physiology And Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II score (median 14 vs. 18, P<0.001) and serum lactate level (1.8 vs. 2.8 mmol/L, P<0.001) compared to those admitted to ICU/HDU and 5.9% received a vasopressor infusion in the first 24-hours. Females, patients aged <65 years, and those with urosepsis or sepsis of non-respiratory origin received a greater volume of IV fluids.

Conclusion: Almost two-thirds of patients were not admitted to ICU/HDU. In patients not admitted to ICU/HDU, 1 in 17 received a vasopressor infusion during their ED or early hospital stay. Patients not admitted to ICU/HDU received less fluid in the first 24 hours than those who were. Greater resuscitation fluid volumes were independently associated with female sex, age <65 years, higher lactate levels, and urinary or non-respiratory source of sepsis.

Associated Factors of Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Outcomes; a Cohort Study on an Adult In-hospital Cardiac Arrest Registry

Parin Rattananon, Welawat Tienpratarn, Chaiyaporn Yuksen, Supassorn Aussavanodom, Natthaphong Thiamdao, Phatcha Termkijwanich, Suraphong Phongsawad, Parama Kaninworapan, Kanda Tantasirin (Author)

Archives of Academic Emergency Medicine, Vol. 12 No. 1 (2024), 1 January 2024, Page e30

Introduction: In-hospital cardiac arrest (IHCA) remains a substantial cause of morbidity and mortality for hospitalized patients worldwide. This study aimed to identify associated factors of return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) and survival with favorable neurological outcomes of IHCA patients.

Method: A two-year retrospective cohort study was conducted at a university-based tertiary care hospital in Bangkok, Thailand, studying adult patients aged ≥ 18 years with IHCA from January 2021 to December 2022. The primary endpoint was sustained ROSC, and the secondary endpoint was survival with favorable neurological outcomes defined as Cerebral Performance Categories (CPC) Scale of 1 or 2 at discharge. Pre-arrest and intra-arrest variables were collected and analyzed using multivariable logistic regression to identify independent factors associated with the outcomes.

Results: During the study period, 156 patients were included in the study. 105 (67.3%) patients achieved sustained ROSC after the CPR, 28 patients (18.0%) were discharged alive, and 15 patients (9.6%) survived with a favorable neurological outcome at hospital discharge. Overall, sustained ROSC was higher in patients who had IHCA during the day shift (odds ratio (OR): 4.11; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.05-16.06) and electrocardiogram (ECG) monitoring prior to arrest (OR: 6.38; 95% CI: 1.18-34.54). In contrast, higher adrenaline doses administrated, and increased CPR duration reduced the odds of sustained ROSC (OR: 0.72; 95% CI: 0.54-0.94 and OR: 0.92; 95% CI: 0.85-0.98, respectively). Arrest due to cardiac etiology was associated with increased discharged survival with favorable neurological outcomes (OR: 13.43; 95% CI: 2.00-89.80), while a higher Good Outcome Following Attempted Resuscitation (GO-FAR) score reduced the odds of the secondary outcome (OR: 0.89; 95% CI: 0.81-0.98).


The sustained ROSC was higher in IHCA during the daytime shift and under prior ECG monitoring. The administration of higher doses of adrenaline and prolonged CPR durations decreased the likelihood of achieving sustained ROSC. Furthermore, patients with cardiac-related causes of cardiac arrest exhibited a higher rate of survival to hospital discharge with favorable neurological outcomes.

Health Data Sharing with the Goal of Value Creation; Trying to Develop a Framework Using Qualitative Content Analysis

Mojtaba Zonoobi, Shaban Elahi, Mohammad Khansari, Alireza Hassanzadeh, Tahereh Saheb (Author)

Archives of Academic Emergency Medicine, Vol. 12 No. 1 (2024), 1 January 2024, Page e6

Introduction: Within the field of data sharing, discussions surrounding privacy concerns and big data management are extensive. This study aimed to provide a comprehensive framework for health data sharing with the objective of creating value.

Methods: This study is a qualitative content analysis, which was conducted using a combination of written sources through a systematic review method, in conjunction with content derived from interviews with experts in information technology and healthcare within hospital and emergency settings. Grounded theory serves as the qualitative methodology, involving three coding phases: open, axial, and selective, facilitated by MAXQDA software.

Results: Qualitative content analysis of the interviews revealed seven main (core) categories and 44 subcategories as driving factors in promoting healthcare data sharing. Simultaneously, inhibiting factors resulted in six main categories and 36 subcategories. The driving factors encompassed technology, education, patient management improvement, data utilization for various purposes, data-related considerations, legal and regulatory aspects, and health-related factors. Conversely, inhibiting factors encompassed security and privacy concerns, legal issues, external organizational influences, monitoring and control activities, financial considerations, and inter-organizational challenges.

Conclusion: This study has identified key driving and inhibiting factors that influence the sharing of healthcare data. These factors contribute to a more comprehensive understanding of the dynamics surrounding data sharing within the healthcare information system.

Clinical Associated Factors of Tile B/C Type of Pelvic Ring Fractures; a Retrospective Cross-sectional study

Welawat Tienpratarn , Nucha Nakpipat, Chaiyaporn Yuksen, Sirote Wongwaisayawan, Yuranun Phootothum, Sutap Jaiboon (Author)

Archives of Academic Emergency Medicine, Vol. 12 No. 1 (2024), 1 January 2024, Page e49

Introduction: Pelvic ring fractures categorized under Tile Categories B and C denote partially and fully unstable fractures, respectively. This study aimed to identify the clinically associated factors of Tile B/C pelvic ring fractures.

Methods: This retrospective cross-sectional study reviewed medical records from the Emergency Medicine department at Ramathibodi Hospital in Bangkok, Thailand. The study included individuals aged ≥ 15 who experienced accidents from 2012 to 2021. To investigate the associations between the clinical variables and three critical outcomes, including Tile B/C pelvic ring fractures, major vascular injuries, and the necessity for surgical or radiological interventions, multivariable logistic regression analysis was employed.

Results: A total of 198 patients were included in the study, among whom 34.8% were diagnosed with Tile B/C pelvic ring fractures. The analysis revealed several significant predictors of Tile B/C fractures, including the presence of pelvic tenderness (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 15.25, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 5.86-39.66, p < 0.001), and a shock index (SI) ≥1 (aOR = 4.2, 95% CI = 1.24-14.22, p = 0.021). Moreover, Tile B/C pelvic ring fractures were associated with an increased incidence of major vascular events and the imperative requirement for surgical or radiological interventions.

Conclusion: Clinical findings of pelvic tenderness and an SI ≥1 are strong predictive clinical factors associated with Tile B/C pelvic fractures. Early diagnosis, application of an pelvic binder, provision of initial resuscitation, and prompt transportation to a definitive care facility are crucial components of management.

Persian Translation of the Sport Concussion Assessment Tool 6 (SCAT6); a Cross-Cultural Adaptation and Validation Study

Farzin Halabchi, Mohammad Mahdi Tavana, Reyhaneh Khazaei, Mohammad Jalili (Author)

Archives of Academic Emergency Medicine, Vol. 12 No. 1 (2024), 1 January 2024, Page e42

Introduction: Sport Concussion Assessment Tool (SCAT) aids the physicians in early management of concussion among suspected athletes and its 6th version was published in 2023 in English. This study aimed to describe the translation and validation process of SCAT6 from English to Persian.

Methods: The Persian translation of SCAT6 and its evaluation has been done in seven stages: initial translation, appraisal of the initial translation, back translation, appraisal of the back-translation, validation (face and content validities), final reconciliation and testing by simulation.

Results: Initial translation, was done by two bilingual translators followed by an initial appraisal, which was made by both translators and one general physician. Back translation was done by two naïve translators who were unfamiliar with SCAT6, followed by its appraisal by initial translators. Face and content validity of the translation were surveyed by medical professionals and athletes and the results of the validation process were provided to the reconciliation committee and this committee made the modifications needed. Finally, the use of Persian SCAT6 was simulated and the mean time needed to complete the Persian SCAT6 was roughly a little more than 10 minutes.

Conclusions: The present study provides the readers with the translation and cross-cultural adaptation process of SCAT6 from English to Persian. This translated version will be distributed among the Iranian sports community for assessing concussions among athletes.

Hypo-attenuating Berry Sign as a Novel Imaging Marker of Ruptured Aneurysm in Patients with Subarachnoid Hemorrhage; a Diagnostic Accuracy Study

Xin-Wei zhou, Shu-Feng Cai, De-Qing Zhang, Gang Xiao, Jing Liu, Wen-Jie Yang, Yi Li, Si-Yu Chen, Hao-Chen Liu, zhong-qing huang (Author)

Archives of Academic Emergency Medicine, Vol. 12 No. 1 (2024), 1 January 2024, Page e31

Introduction: Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) constitutes a life-threatening condition, and identifying the ruptured aneurysm is essential for further therapy. This study aimed to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of hypo-attenuating berry sign (HBS) observed on computed tomography (CT) scan in distinguishing ruptured aneurysms.

Methods: In this diagnostic accuracy study, patients who had SAH and underwent non-enhanced brain CT scan were recruited. The HBS was defined as a hypo-attenuating area with an identifiable border in the blood-filled hyper-dense subarachnoid space. The screening performance characteristics of HBS in identifying ruptured aneurysms were calculated considering the digital subtraction angiography (DSA) as the gold standard.

Results: A total of 129 aneurysms in 131 patients were analyzed. The overall sensitivity and specificity of HBS in the diagnosis of aneurysms were determined to be 78.7% (95%CI: 73.1% - 83.4%) and 70.7% (95%CI: 54.3% - 83.4%), respectively. Notably, the sensitivity increased to 90.9% (95%CI: 84.3% - 95.0%) for aneurysms larger than 5mm. The level of inter-observer agreement for assessing the presence of HBS was found to be substantial (kappa=0.734). The diagnostic accuracy of HBS in individuals exhibited enhanced specificity, sensitivity, and reliability when evaluating patients with a solitary aneurysm or assessing ruptured aneurysms. The multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed a statistically significant relationship between aneurysm size and the presence of HBS (odds ratios of 1.667 (95%CI: 1.238 - 2.244; p < 0.001) and 1.696 (95%CI: 1.231 - 2.335; p = 0.001) for reader 1 and reader 2, respectively).

Conclusions: The HBS can serve as a simple and easy-to-use indicator for identifying a ruptured aneurysm and estimating its size in SAH patients.   

A Clinical Score for Predicting Successful Weaning from Noninvasive Positive Pressure Ventilation in Emergency Department; a Retrospective Cohort Study

Natthapat Kattinanon, wijittra liengswangwong, Chaiyaporn yuksen, Malivan Phontabtim, Siriporn Damdin, Khunpol Jermsiri (Author)

Archives of Academic Emergency Medicine, Vol. 12 No. 1 (2024), 1 January 2024, Page e15

Introduction: Noninvasive positive pressure ventilation (NIPPV) is recognized as an efficient treatment for patients with acute respiratory failure (ARF) in emergency department (ED). This study aimed to develop a scoring system for predicting successful weaning from NIPPV in patients with ARF.

Methods: In this retrospective cohort study patients with ARF who received NIPPV in the ED of Ramathibodi Hospital, Thailand, between January 2020 and March 2022 were evaluated. Factors associated with weaning from NIPPV were recorded and compared between cases with and without successful weaning from NIPPV. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to develop a predictive model for weaning from NIPPV in ED.

Results: A total of 494 eligible patients were treated with NIPPV of whom 203(41.1%) were successfully weaned during the study period. Based on the multivariate analysis the successful NIPPV weaning (SNOW) score was designed with six factors before discontinuation: respiratory rate, heart rate ≤ 100 bpm, systolic blood pressure ≥ 100 mmHg, arterial pH≥ 7.35, arterial PaCO2, and arterial lactate. The scores were classified into three groups: low, moderate, and high. A score of >14.5 points suggested a high probability of successful weaning from NIPPV with a positive likelihood ratio of 3.58 (95%CI: 2.56-4.99; p < 0.001). The area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve of the model in predicting successful weaning was 0.79 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.75-0.83).

Conclusion: It seems that the SNOW score could be considered as a helpful tool for predicting successful weaning from NIPPV in ED patients with ARF. A high predictive score, particularly one that exceeds 14.5, strongly suggests a high likelihood of successful weaning from NIPPV.

Knowledge, Attitude and Perceptions of Healthcare Workers in Arab Countries Regarding Basic Life Support; a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Mohammed Alsabri Hussein Alsabri, Sarah Makram Elsayed, Alaa Ahmed Elshanbary, Mohamed Sayed Zaazouee, Basel F. Alqeeq, Syeda Alishah Zehra, Khaled Mohammed Al-Sayaghi, Sameer A. Alkubati, Gamil Ghaleb Alrubaiee (Author)

Archives of Academic Emergency Medicine, Vol. 12 No. 1 (2024), 1 January 2024, Page e32

Introduction: Effective Basic Life Support (BLS) interventions, including cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), are essential for enhancing survival rates. This review aimed to evaluate the knowledge, attitudes, and perceptions (KAP) of healthcare professionals regarding BLS in Arab countries.

Methods: We conducted a systematic search on PubMed, Cochrane, Scopus, Web of Science, and EMBASE, to identify relevant studies. We included studies performed in Arab countries that included healthcare workers' KAP assessment towards BLS. The meta-analysis was carried out utilizing the OpenMeta Analyst Software, and a subgroup analysis was performed for Nursing staff category. The quality of the included cross-sectional studies was assessed through Newcastle-Ottawa quality assessment scale.

Results: A total of 18 studies were included in our study, and eight of them entered the analysis. The study showed that 61.3% (95% confidence interval (CI): 48.9%, 73.7%, p<0.001) of health care workers were knowledgeable about the correct CPR ratio, and 62.1% (95% CI: 51.7%, 72.5%, p<0.001) answered the location of chest compression correctly. While, only 36.5% (95% CI: 23.5%, 49.6%, p<0.001) had correct answers regarding the compression rate, 48.1% (95% CI: 38.1%, 58.0%, p<0.001) were aware of the compression depth, and 34.8% (95% CI: 22.9%, 46.7%, p<0.001) answered the sequence correctly.

Conclusion: The study revealed a gap regarding the BLS KAP of healthcare workers in different Arab countries, which crucially requires taking actions, in terms of frequent certified training sessions, assessments, and clear protocols.

Zero-Inflated Count Regression Models in Solving Challenges Posed by Outlier-Prone Data; an Application to Length of Hospital Stay

Saeed Shahsavari, Abbas Moghimbeigi, Rohollah Kalhor, Ali Moghadas Jafari, Mehrdad Bagherpour-kalo, Mehdi Yaseri, Mostafa Hosseini (Author)

Archives of Academic Emergency Medicine, Vol. 12 No. 1 (2024), 1 January 2024, Page e13

Introduction: Ignoring outliers in data may lead to misleading results. Length of stay (LOS) is often considered a count variable with a high frequency of outliers. This study exemplifies the potential of robust methodologies in enhancing the accuracy and reliability of analyses conducted on skewed and outlier-prone count data of LOS.

Methods: The application of Zero-Inflated Poisson (ZIP) and robust Zero-Inflated Poisson (RZIP) models in solving challenges posed by outlier LOS data were evaluated. The ZIP model incorporates two components, tackling excess zeros with a zero-inflation component and modeling positive counts with a Poisson component. The RZIP model introduces the Robust Expectation-Solution (RES) algorithm to enhance parameter estimation and address the impact of outliers on the model's performance.

Results: Data from 254 intensive care unit patients were analyzed (62.2% male). Patients aged 65 or older accounted for 58.3% of the sample. Notably, 38.6% of patients exhibited zero LOS. The overall mean LOS was 5.89 (± 9.81) days, and 9.45% of cases displayed outliers. Our analysis using the RZIP model revealed significant predictors of LOS, including age, underlying comorbidities (p<0.001), and insurance status (p=0.013). Model comparison demonstrated the RZIP model's superiority over ZIP, as evidenced by lower Akaike information criteria (AIC) and Bayesians information criteria (BIC) values.

Conclusions: The application of the RZIP model allowed us to uncover meaningful insights into the factors influencing LOS, paving the way for more informed decision-making in hospital management.

Associated Factors of Leaked Repair Following Omentopexy for Perforated Peptic Ulcer Disease; a Cross-sectional Study

Aloysius Ugwu-Olisa Ogbuanya, Uche Emmanuel Eni, Daniel A Umezurike, Akputa A Obasi, Somadina Ikpeze (Author)

Archives of Academic Emergency Medicine, Vol. 12 No. 1 (2024), 1 January 2024, Page e18

Introduction: Previous studies have reported numerous clinico-pathologic risk factors associated with increased risk of leaked repair following omental patch for perforated peptic ulcer disease (PPUD). This study aimed to analyze the risk factors associated with leaked repair of omental patch and document the management and outcome of established cases of leaked repair in a resource-poor setting.

Methods: This is a multicenter cross-sectional study of leaked repair after omental patch of PPUD between January 2016 to December 2022. Following primary repair of PPUD with omental pedicle reinforcement, associated factors of leaked repair were evaluated using univariate and multivariate analyses.

Results: Overall, 360 cases were evaluated (62.8% male). Leaked repair rate was 11.7% (42 cases). Those without immunosuppression were 3 times less likely to have leaked repair (aOR= 0.34; 95% CI: 0.16 - 0.72; p = 0.003) while those with sepsis were 4 times more likely to have leaked repair (aOR=4.16; 95% CI: 1.06 - 12.36; p = 0.018). Patients with delayed presentation (>48 hours) were 2.5 times more likely to have leaked repair than those who presented in 0 - 24 hours (aOR=2.51; 95% CI: 3.62 - 10.57; p = 0.044). Those with Perforation diameter 2.1-3.0 cm were 8 times (aOR=7.98; 95% CI: 2.63-24.21; p<0.0001), and those with perforation diameter > 3.0cm were 33 times (aOR=33.04; 95% CI: 10.98-100.25; p<0.0001) more likely to have leaked repair than those with perforation diameter of 0-1.0 cm. Similarly, in those with no perioperative shock, leaked repair was 4 times less likely to develop than those with perioperative shock (aOR= 0.42; 95% CI: 0.41-0.92; p = 0.041). There was significant statistical difference in morbidity (p = 0.003) and mortality (p < 0.0001) rates for cases of leaked repairs and successful repairs.

Conclusion: Leaked repair following omentopexy for peptic ulcer perforation was significantly associated with large perforation diameter, delayed presentation, sepsis, immunosuppressive therapy, and perioperative shock.

Associated Factors of Patients’ Survival in Out of Hospital Cardiac Arrest; a Cross-sectional Study

Liang KE, Pui I IEONG, Kaye E Brock, Elias Mpofu, Cheng Yin, Xiuhua Feng, Pou Kuan Kou, Chi Kun Mok, Wai Seng Lei (Author)

Archives of Academic Emergency Medicine, Vol. 12 No. 1 (2024), 1 January 2024, Page e48

Introduction: Chinese populations have an increasingly high prevalence of cardiac arrest. This study aimed to investigate the prehospital associated factors of survival to hospital admission and discharge among out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) adult cases in Macao Special Administrative Region (SAR), China.

Methods: Baseline characteristics as well as prehospital factors of OHCA patients were collected from publicly accessible medical records and Macao Fire Services Bureau, China. Demographic and other prehospital OHCA characteristics of patients who survived to hospital admission and discharge were analyzed using multivariate logistic regression analysis.

Results: A total of 904 cases with a mean age of 74.2±17.3 (range: 18-106) years were included (78%>65 years, 62% male). Initial shockable cardiac rhythm was the strongest predictor for survival to both hospital admission (OR=3.57, 95% CI: 2.26-5.63; p<0.001) and discharge (OR=12.40, 95% CI: 5.70-26.96; p<0.001). Being male (OR=1.63, 95% CI:1.08-2.46; p =0.021) and the lower emergency medical service (EMS) response time (OR=1.62, 95% CI: 1.12-2.34; p =0.010) were also associated with a 2-fold association with survival to hospital admission. In addition, access to prehospital defibrillation (OR=4.25, 95% CI: 1.78-10.12; p <0.001) had a 4-fold association with survival to hospital discharge. None of these associations substantively increased with age. 

Conclusion: The major OHCA predictors of survival were initial shockable cardiac rhythm, being male, lower EMS response time, and access to prehospital defibrillation. These findings indicate a need for increased public awareness and more education.

Therapeutic Impact of Tocilizumab in the Setting of Severe COVID-19; an Updated and Comprehensive Review on Current Evidence

Aysa Rezabakhsh, Fatemeh Mojtahedi, Sepideh Tahsini Tekantapeh, Ata Mahmoodpoor , Alireza Ala, Hassan Soleimanpour (Author)

Archives of Academic Emergency Medicine, Vol. 12 No. 1 (2024), 1 January 2024, Page e47

Introduction/aim: The COVID-19 pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2 has been the major health concern in 2019 globally. Considering the severity and phase of the disease, various pharmacotherapy schedules were proposed. Here, we set out to provide close-up insights on the clinical utility of Tocilizumab (TCZ), a biologic monoclonal antibody in this regard.

Methods: In this comprehensive review, various databases, including Scopus, PubMed Central, Medline, Embase, Google Scholar, and preprint publishers (med/bioRxiv) were searched until January 30, 2024, according to the keywords and search criteria.

Results: Besides the pros and cons, compelling evidence purported the safety and efficacy of TCZ and indicated that it exhibits great potential to reduce short-term and all-cause (28-30-day) mortality. TCZ significantly drops the adverse events if administered in the right time course (in the inflammatory phase) during critical/severe COVID-19 pneumonia. Despite contradictory results, the benefits of TCZ appear significant, especially in combination with add-on therapies, such as corticosteroids. Although the safety of TCZ is acceptable, solid data is lacking as to its benefits during pregnancy. There are limited data on TCZ combination therapies, such as hemoperfusion, intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG), simple O2 therapy, vasopressor support, convalescent plasma therapy, and even in vaccinated patients and COVID-19 reinfection, especially in elderly persons. In addition, the impact of TCZ therapy on the long-lasting COVID-19 is unclear.

Conclusion: Personalized medicine based on individual characteristics and pertinent clinical conditions must be considered in the clinicians’ decision-making policy. Finally, to mitigate the risk-to-benefit ratio of TCZ, a treatment algorithm, based on available literature and updated national institute of health (NIH) and Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) guidelines, is also proposed.

Safety and Efficacy of Incentive Spirometer in Covid-19 Pneumonia; a Randomized Clinical Trial

Mohammad Bargahi, Mostafa Alavi-Moghaddam, Mehdi Karimi, Zahra Azizan, Fateme Jafarzadeh, Mohammad Javaherian, Hussein Soleimantabar, Seyed Hamidreza Mirbehbahani (Author)

Archives of Academic Emergency Medicine, Vol. 12 No. 1 (2024), 1 January 2024, Page e51

Introduction: Various treatment protocols have been recommended since the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic and have gradually evolved. This study aimed to assess the effectiveness and safety of incentive spirometer exercise (ISE) in outcomes of hospitalized patients with moderate-to-severe COVID-19 pneumonia.

Methods: A 3-month single-blind, two parallel-armed randomized controlled trial was conducted at Imam Hossein Hospital, Tehran, Iran. Participants aged >18 years with documented COVID-19 pneumonia were randomly allocated to 2 groups of IS (ISE in addition to the usual treatment) and control (usual care alone). The IS group was also asked to perform ISE after discharge for three months. The primary outcomes were peripheral O2 saturation (SpO2), VBG parameters (pCO2, PH, HCO3), dyspnea level measured by Modified Borg Scale (MBS), length of hospital stay (LOS), and respiratory rate (RR). Secondary outcomes included mortality rate, intubation rate (IR), and ICU admission rate.

Results: A total of 160 eligible patients were randomly assigned to either the IS (n = 80) or control (n=80) groups. Although there were no significant differences in primary and secondary outcomes between the groups post-intervention, adjusted analysis showed that participants allocated to the IS group had significantly higher SpO2 levels and lower RR, MBS levels, and LOS. Also, the adjusted model analysis showed a marginal statistically significant difference between groups in secondary outcomes, such as IR, the 1-month mortality rate, and the 3-month mortality rate.

Conclusion: It seems that adding the ISE to usual care in the early treatment setting of COVID-19 patients resulted in a relatively significant increase in SpO2 levels, improved respiratory status, and marginally decreased LOS. Additionally, ISE minimally reduced ICU admissions and intubation rates, with no significant impact on in-hospital or long-term mortality in patients with COVID-19 pneumonia.

Carnitine in Alleviation of Complications Caused by Acute Valproic Acid Toxicity; an Exprimental Study on Mice

Akram Jamshidzadeh, Reza Heidari, Mahdie Shams, Melika Ebrahimi-sharghi, Sayed Mahdi Marashi (Author)

Archives of Academic Emergency Medicine, Vol. 12 No. 1 (2024), 1 January 2024, Page e20

Introduction: Hyperammonemia and hepatotoxicity are well-known complications of valproic acid (VPA) poisoning. The objective of this study is to evaluate the potential role of carnitine in mitigating the adverse effects of acute VPA toxicity in mice.

Methods: 54 male mice (25-30 g) were randomly assigned to one of three categories, including acute, sub-acute, and chronic poisoning. Each category contained 3 groups, each consisting of 6 mice (Group 1: control, Group 2: VPA treated, and Group 3: VPA + carnitine treated). The animals were sacrificed 24 hours after the initial injection, and their blood, liver, and brain samples were compared between groups of each category regarding liver function biomarkers, oxidative stress markers, ammonia level, and liver histopathologic changes using one-way ANOVA followed by Tukey’s multiple comparison test.

Results: The administration of VPA increased the serum level of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) (p=0.003) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) (p=0.001), as well as serum, and brain level of ammonia (p=0.0001 for both) in the intervention group. Elevated levels of lipid peroxidation and oxidative stress (p=0.0001 for both) in the liver tissue, decreased liver glutathione (p=0.0001) and ferric ion-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) (p=0.0001), and histopathologic changes in the form of moderate to severe inflammation were observed. Administration of VPA + carnitine reduced AST (p=0.05) and ALT (p=0.01), increased the FRAP, reduced free oxygen radicals and liver lipid peroxidation (p=0.0001 for all), and decreased tissue damage in the form of moderate inflammation. The administration of carnitine was ineffective in reducing brain or plasma ammonia levels in acute VPA-treated animals (p = 0.0115).

Conclusions: Although the administration of carnitine has been suggested as a protective remedy in cases of VPA toxicity, according to the present study, it did not have an antidotal effect and did not prevent encephalopathy or liver injury in acute VPA toxicity.

Traditional Spinal Immobilization versus Spinal Motion Restriction in Cervical Spine Movement; a Randomized Crossover Trial

Promphet Nuanprom, Chaiyaporn Yuksen, Welawat Tienpratarn, Parunchaya Jamkrajang (Author)

Archives of Academic Emergency Medicine, Vol. 12 No. 1 (2024), 1 January 2024, Page e36

Introduction: Proper cervical spine immobilization is essential to prevent further injury following trauma. This study aimed to compare the cervical range of motion (ROM) and the immobilization time between traditional spinal immobilization (TSI) and spinal motion restriction (SMR).

Methods: This study was a randomized 2x2 crossover design in healthy volunteers. Participants were randomly assigned by Sequential numbered, opaque, sealed envelopes (SNOSE) with permuted block-of-four randomization to TSI or SMR. We used an inertial measurement unit (IMU) sensor to measure the cervical ROM in three dimensions focusing on flexion-extension, rotation, and lateral bending. The immobilization time was recorded by the investigator.

Results: A total of 35 healthy volunteers were enrolled in the study. The SMR method had cervical spine movement lower than the TSI method about 3.18 degrees on ROM in flexion-extension (p < 0.001). The SMR method had cervical spine movement lower than the TSI method about 2.01 degrees on ROM in lateral bending (p = 0.022). The immobilization time for the SMR method was 11.88 seconds longer than for the TSI method (p < 0.001) but not clinically significant.

Conclusion: SMR that used scoop stretcher resulted in significantly less cervical spine movement than immobilization with a TSI that used long spinal board. We recommend implementing the SMR protocol for transporting trauma patients, as minimizing cervical motion may enhance patient outcomes.

Review Article

Quality Indicators for Pediatric Bronchiolitis and Croup Care in the Emergency Department; a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Islam E. Alkhazali, Ahmad Alrawashdeh, Mohd Hashairi Fauzi, Nik Hisamuddin Nik Ab Rahman (Author)

Archives of Academic Emergency Medicine, Vol. 12 No. 1 (2024), 1 January 2024, Page e52

Introduction: As the quality of care for respiratory diseases in pediatric patients in emergency departments (EDs) becomes increasingly important, this systematic review aims to evaluate the current quality indicators (QIs) specifically designed for the ED management of pediatric bronchiolitis and croup.

Methods: We conducted searches in four electronic databases (Scopus, Web of Science, CINAHL, and MEDLINE) from their inception up to February 2024. We focused on English-language qualitative and quantitative publications that suggested or described at least one indicator initiative related to ED care for pediatrics with bronchiolitis and croup diseases. These publications were identified by two reviewers, independently. We extracted study characteristics, all relevant QIs reported, and the percentage of compliance with these QIs, where available. All QIs identified from expert panels and observational studies were grouped by definition and categorized by the Institute of Medicine's (IOM) and Donabedian's frameworks for healthcare quality. The percentage of compliance with the identified QIs as reported by observational studies was pooled using a random effect meta-analysis, when appropriate.

Results: A total of 17 studies were identified, comprising 5 expert panel studies and 12 observational studies. Altogether, these studies reported 126 QIs for potential use in EDs for pediatric bronchiolitis and croup patients. Of these, 55 QIs were reported by expert panel studies, and 71 by observational studies. Specifically, 81 QIs were related to bronchiolitis, while 45 pertained to croup patients. In terms of the Donabedian domain, most indicators (96.5%) measured the process of care while a smaller fraction (3.5%) addressed care outcomes. In the Institute of Medicine (IOM) domain, most indicators focused on effectiveness and safety. Observational studies reported the percentage of compliance for 35 QIs identified in the expert studies. It was noted that compliance with these QIs varied significantly between studies and health sectors.

Conclusions: The findings of this systematic review highlight significant disparities in compliance to the established QIs, which underscores the urgent need for dedicated strategies to enhance the treatment of pediatric bronchiolitis and croup in ED settings.

Cincinnati Prehospital Stroke Scale (CPSS) as a Screening Tool for Early Identification of Cerebral Large Vessel Occlusions; a Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

Yazdan Baser, Hamed Zarei, Pantea Gharin, Hamid Reza Baradaran, Arash Sarveazad, Shayan Roshdi Dizaji, Mahmoud Yousefifard (Author)

Archives of Academic Emergency Medicine, Vol. 12 No. 1 (2024), 1 January 2024, Page e38

Introduction: Large vessel occlusion (LVO) strokes are associated with worse functional outcomes and higher mortality rates. In the present systematic review and meta-analysis, we evaluated the diagnostic yield of the Cincinnati Prehospital Stroke Scale (CPSS) in detecting LVO.

Methods: We performed an extensive systematic search among online databases including Medline, Embase, Web of Science, and Scopus, until July 31st, 2023. We also conducted a manual search on Google and Google scholar, along with citation tracking to supplement the systematic search in retrieving all studies that evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of the CPSS in detecting LVO among patients suspected to stroke.

Results: Fourteen studies were included in the present meta-analysis. CPSS showed the sensitivity of 97% (95% CI: 87%–99%) and the specificity of 17% (95% CI: 4%–54%) at the cut-off point of ≥1. The optimal threshold was determined to be ≥2, with a sensitivity of 82% (95% CI: 74%–88%) and specificity of 62% (95% CI: 48%–74%) in detecting LVO. At the highest cut-off point of ≥3, the CPSS had the lowest sensitivity of 60% (95% CI: 51%–69%) and the highest specificity of 81% (95% CI: 71%–88%). Sensitivity analyses showed the robustness of the results regardless of study population, inclusion of hemorrhagic stroke patients, pre-hospital or in-hospital settings, and the definition of LVO.

Conclusion: A very low level of evidence demonstrated that CPSS, with a threshold set at ≥2, is a useful tool for identifying LVO stroke and directing patients to CSCs, both in prehospital and in-hospital settings.

Introduction: Large vessel occlusion (LVO) strokes are linked to higher mortality rates and a greater risk of long-term disability. This study aimed to evaluate the diagnostic performance of the Rapid Arterial Occlusion Evaluation (RACE) tool in detecting LVO through a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Methods: A comprehensive search was conducted across online databases including PubMed, Embase, Scopus, and Web of Science, up to June 25th, 2023. Additionally, a manual search on Google and Google Scholar was performed to identify studies that assessed the diagnostic accuracy of the RACE scale in detecting LVO among patients with stroke symptoms.

Results: Data extracted from 43 studies were analyzed. The optimal cut-off points were determined to be 3 and 4, with a sensitivity of 0.86 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.78, 0.91) and specificity of 0.57 (95% CI: 0.49, 0.67) for cut-off ≥3, and a sensitivity of 0.78 (95% CI: 0.70, 0.84) and specificity of 0.68 (95% CI: 0.59, 0.75) for cut-off ≥4. Subgroup meta-regression analysis revealed significant variations in sensitivity and specificity. RACE scale’s sensitivity was significantly higher in LVO detection in suspected stroke cases, in pre-hospital settings, prospective design studies, and when considering both anterior and posterior occlusions for LVO definition. RACE scale’s specificity was significantly higher when evaluating confirmed stroke cases, in-hospital settings, and considering only anterior occlusions for LVO definition and retrospective design studies. Notably, RACE exhibited higher sensitivity and specificity when utilized by neurologists and physicians compared to other emergency staff. Despite these variations, our study found comparable diagnostic accuracy across different conditions.

Conclusion: A high level of evidence indicates that the RACE scale lacks promising diagnostic value for detection of LVOs. A sensitivity range of 0.69 to 0.86 is insufficient for a screening tool intended to aid in the diagnosis of strokes, considering the substantial morbidity and mortality associated with this condition.

Prevalence and Related Factors of Rupture among Cases with Ectopic Pregnancy; a Systematic Review and Meta‐Analysis

Chenchen Xu , Zhilei Mao , Mi Tan , Seyed Amirhossein Mazhari , Pooyan Ghorbani Vajargah , Samad Karkhah, Fatemeh Izadi , Parisa Rouhi (Author)

Archives of Academic Emergency Medicine, Vol. 12 No. 1 (2024), 1 January 2024, Page e2

Introduction: In the absence of timely treatment, the risk of rupture in patients with ectopic pregnancy (EP) increases, which is associated with extensive bleeding, complicated surgery, and maternal death. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of rupture and its related factors among EP cases.

Methods: A comprehensive, systematic search was conducted in electronic databases, such as Scopus, PubMed, Web of Science, and Persian electronic databases such as Iranmedex, and Scientific Information Database using keywords extracted from Medical Subject Headings such as "Ectopic pregnancies", "Extrauterine pregnancies", and "Ruptured ectopic pregnancy" from the earliest to the 13th of December 2022. The CMA program, version 3, was utilized for analysis. The overall effect size was calculated using the sample size and the frequency of rupture in each of the studies. Heterogeneity was measured using the I2 statistics.

Results: A total of 5,269 women with EP participated in 17 studies. The pooled prevalence of rupture was 56.4% (95%CI: 44.9% to 67.2%; I2=98.09%; P<0.001). Factors such as number of parties, amount of β-hCG, age, history of ectopic pregnancy, cornual and isthmic pregnancies, gestational age, number of gravidities, history of tubal ligation, tubal diameters, periods of infertility, history of infertility, pregnancy by ovulation induction, extensive hemoperitoneum, ampullar and isthmic pregnancies, ampullar pregnancies, preoperative heart rate (HR), triage, triage shock index (SI), abdominal pain, single marital status, preoperative hemoglobin levels, preoperative hematocrit levels, history of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), and use of contraceptives were associated with the prevalence of rupture in EP cases.

Conclusion: Based on the findings, 56.4% of EP cases experienced rupture and various factors influence its  prevalence. As a result, health managers and policymakers can address and mitigate modifiable factors contributing to rupture in EP cases by implementing regular consultations and screenings.

Diagnostic Indicators of ECG for Coronary Slow Flow Phenomenon; a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

MohammadHossein MozafaryBazargany, Parham Samimisedeh, Niloofar Gholami, Elmira Jafari Afshar, Amirhossein Memari, Shahrooz Yazdani, Hadisth Rastad (Author)

Archives of Academic Emergency Medicine, Vol. 12 No. 1 (2024), 1 January 2024, Page e34

Introduction: Currently, epicardial coronary angiography is still the only diagnostic tool for Coronary Slow Flow Phenomenon (CSFP). This study aimed to systematically review studies that compared Electrocardiogram (ECG) findings between patients with and without CSFP.

Methods: Using relevant key terms, we systematically searched MEDLINE, Scopus, Embase, and Web of Science to find relevant studies up to February 5th, 2023. Effect sizes in each study were calculated as mean differences and crude odds ratio; then, random-effect models using inverse variance and Mantel-Haenszel methods were used to pool standardized mean differences (SMD) and crude odds ratios, respectively.

Results: Thirty-two eligible articles with a total sample size of 3,937 patients (2,069 with CSFP) were included. CSFP patients had higher P-wave maximum (Pmax) (SMD: 1.02 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.29 - 1.76); p=0.006) and P-dispersion (Pd) (SMD: 1.63 (95% CI: 0.99 - 2.27); p<0.001) compared to the control group. CSFP group also showed significantly longer QT wave maximum duration (SMD: 0.69 (95% CI: 0.33 - 1.06); p<0.001), uncorrected QTd (SMD: 1.89(95% CI: 0.67 - 3.11); p=0.002), and corrected dispersion (QTcd) (SMD: 1.63 (95% CI: 1.09 - 2.17), p<0.001). The frontal QRS-T angle was significantly higher in the CSFP group in comparison with the control group (SMD: 1.18 (95% CI: 0.31 - 2.04; p=0.007). While CSFP patients had a significantly higher T-peak to T-end (Tp-e) (SMD:1.71 (95% CI: 0.91, 2.52), p<0.001), no significant difference was noted between groups in terms of Tp-e to QT (p=0.16) and corrected QT ratios (p=0.07).

Conclusion: Our findings suggest several ECG parameters, such as P max, Pd, QT, QTc, QTd, QTcd, Tp-e, and frontal QRS-T angle, may be prolonged in CSFP patients, and they could be employed as diagnostic indicators of CSFP before angiography.

Diagnostic and Prognostic Values of S100B versus Neuron Specific Enolase for Traumatic Brain Injury; a Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

Hamed Zarei, Shayan Roshdi Dizaji, Amirmohammad Toloui, Mahmoud Yousefifard, Alireza Esmaeili (Author)

Archives of Academic Emergency Medicine, Vol. 12 No. 1 (2024), 1 January 2024, Page e29

Introduction: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) represents a significant global health burden. This systematic review delves into the comparison of S100B and Neuron-Specific Enolase (NSE) regarding their diagnostic and prognostic accuracy in TBI within the adult population.

Methods: Conducted on October 21, 2023, the search identified 24 studies encompassing 6454 adult patients. QUADAS-2 and QUAPAS tools were employed to assess the risk of bias. The analyses aimed to evaluate the diagnostic and prognostic performance of S100B and NSE based on sensitivity, specificity, and area under the curve (AUC). The outcomes were detecting intracranial injury, mortality, and unfavorable outcome.

Results: Pooled data analysis tended towards favoring S100B for diagnostic and prognostic purposes. S100B exhibited a diagnostic AUC of 0.74 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.70-0.78), sensitivity of 80% (95% CI: 63%-90%), and specificity of 59% (95% CI: 45%-72%), outperforming NSE with an AUC of 0.66 (95% CI: 0.61–0.70), sensitivity of 74% (95% CI: 53%-88%), and specificity of 46% (95% CI: 24%-69%). Notably, both biomarkers demonstrated enhanced diagnostic value when blood samples were collected within 12 hours post-injury. The analyses also revealed the excellent diagnostic ability of S100B with a sensitivity of 99% (95% CI: 4%-100%) and a specificity of 76% (95% CI: 51%-91%) in mild TBI patients (AUC = 0.89 [0.86–0.91]). In predicting mortality, S100B showed a sensitivity of 90% (95% CI: 65%-98%) and specificity of 61% (95% CI: 39%-79%), slightly surpassing NSE's performance with a sensitivity of 88% (95% CI: 76%-95%) and specificity of 56% (95% CI: 47%-65%). For predicting unfavorable outcomes, S100B exhibited a sensitivity of 83% (95% CI: 74%-90%) and specificity of 51% (95% CI: 30%-72%), while NSE had a sensitivity of 80% (95% CI: 64%-90%) and specificity of 59% (95% CI: 46%-71%).

Conclusion: Although neither biomarker has shown promising diagnostic performance in detecting abnormal computed tomography (CT) findings, they have displayed acceptable outcome prediction capabilities, particularly with regard to mortality.

The Effect of Aromatherapy with Lavender on Pain of Needle Insertion and Severity of Restless Legs Syndrome in Hemodialysis Patients; a Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

Fatemeh Izadi, Seyed Amirhossein Mazhari, Masoomeh Najafi, Mohammad Taghi Ashoobi, Milad Sarafi, Samad Karkhah, Pooyan Ghorbani Vajargah , Poorya Takasi, Mahbobeh Firooz , Seyed Javad Hosseini , Nurten OZEN (Author)

Archives of Academic Emergency Medicine, Vol. 12 No. 1 (2024), 1 January 2024, Page e4

Introduction: Pain experienced during the insertion of a catheter into the arteriovenous fistula (AVF) and restless legs syndrome (RLS) are prevalent issues among Hemodialysis (HD) patients. The primary objective of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to consolidate the findings from randomized clinical trial (RCT) studies examining the impact of aromatherapy with lavender on the pain associated with AVF catheter insertion and RLS in HD patients.

Methods: A systematic search was conducted on PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, Cochrane, Embase, ClinicalTrials.gov, and Google Scholar search engine from inception to August 1, 2022, using keywords extracted from Medical Subject Headings, such as “Aromatherapy”, “Lavender”, “Arteriovenous fistula”, “Pain”, “Restless legs syndrome”, and “Hemodialysis”.

Results: Finally, eleven articles were included in this systematic review and meta-analysis. The results showed that aromatherapy reduced the average pain of catheter insertion in AVF compared to the control group (Standard Mean Difference: -1.60, 95% Confidence Interval: -2.32 to -0.87, Z=4.32, I2:90.3%, P<0.001). Also, aromatherapy massage reduced the average severity of RLS compared to the control group, which was statistically significant (Weighted Mean Difference: -13.21, 95% Confidence Interval: -17.50 to -8.91, Z=6.03, I2:93.0%, P<0.001). Also, the subgroup analysis showed that lavender in the intervention group significantly decreased the pain intensity compared to the "no intervention" group (P<0.001), yet it was not significant compared to the placebo group (P=0.12).

Conclusion: In summary, the findings indicate a notable reduction in catheter insertion pain in AVF and relief from RLS among HD patients through the use of lavender essential oil. As a result, future research is encouraged to include a comparison of lavender's effects with those of a placebo group.

Diagnostic Performance of Ultrasonography for Identification of Small Bowel Obstruction: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

Mehrdad Farrokhi, Mohsen Motavaselian, Parisa Jafari Khouzani, Atousa Moghadam Fard, Fatemeh Daeizadeh, Mahya Pourrahimi, Reyhaneh Mehrabani, Reza Amani-Beni, Masoud Farrokhi, Faezeh Jalayer Sarnaghy, Asal Mir, Reza Tavakoli, Heidar Fadavian, Reza Mehdinezhad, Parisa Masoudikabir, Tohid Karami, Roozbeh Roohinezhad, Yalda Yazdani, Didar Ghasemi, Farideh Rezaeizadeh, Alireza Hadizadeh, Rojin Sarallah, Ashkan Shafigh, Solmaz Aminpour, Amirhossein Esfahani, Seyedsaber Mirabdali, Zahrasadat Hosseini, Farahnaz Saharkhiz, Mehrzad Khodsiani, Fahimeh Ebrahimi Tirtashi, Shabnam Esmailian Dehkordi, Nafise Sadat Amini, Mahsa Aran, Zohreh Abolghasemfard, Nazanin Sanjarinia, Zeynab Abdollahi, Fatemeh Abediankenari, Erfan Ghadirzadeh, Mehran Khodashenas, Ali Jahanshahi (Author)

Archives of Academic Emergency Medicine, Vol. 12 No. 1 (2024), 1 January 2024, Page e33

Introduction: Small bowel obstruction (SBO) is known as a common cause of acute abdominal complaints in the emergency department (ED). The modality of choice for the diagnosis of SBO has not yet been established. This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to investigate the accuracy of ultrasonography for the diagnosis of SBO.

Methods: Systematic search was performed on five electronic databases including Medline, Scopus, Web of Sciences, Embase, and Cochrane Library, and the retrieval period was from the inception of each database to November 2023. The quality of the included studies were investigated using the Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies 2 (QUADAS-2). The pooled values of diagnostic characteristics for ultrasonography were estimated using meta-Disc and Stata statistical software.

Results: Twenty-one studies with a total of 1977 patients were included in the meta-analysis. The pooled estimate for sensitivity, specificity, positive likelihood ratio (PLR), negative likelihood ratio (NLR), diagnostic odds ratio (DOR), and area under the summary ROC curve of ultrasonography for diagnosing SBO were 0.93 (95% CI: 0.91–0.95), 0.8 (95% CI: 0.77–0.83), 5.69 (95% CI: 3.64–8.89), 0.1 (95% CI: 0.07–0.16), 83.51 (95% CI: 18.12–182.91) and 0.96, respectively.

Conclusion: The findings of this meta-analysis showed that the utilization of ultrasonography holds promise as a diagnostic imaging for SBO with high accuracy. However, additional worldwide studies are essential to get more evidence on the value of ultrasonography for the diagnosis of SBO.

The Impact of The COVID-19 Pandemic on Hospital Admissions Due to Road Traffic Crashes; a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Neda Kabiri, Amin Abbasi, Fariba Pashazadeh, Sakineh Hajebrahimi, Hassan Soleimanpour (Author)

Archives of Academic Emergency Medicine, Vol. 12 No. 1 (2024), 1 January 2024, Page e12

Introduction: During the unprecedented COVID-19 lockdowns, road traffic was limited, and a change in the traumatic emergency admission pattern was anticipated. We conducted the current systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on hospital admissions due to road traffic crashes.

Methods: This systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted based on the Joanna Briggs Institute (JBI) instructions. The following databases were searched: PubMed, ISI Web of Knowledge, Scopus, ProQuest, and the Cochrane Library. Two independent reviewers screened articles based on the inclusion criteria for the review and assessed the methodological quality of the included studies using an appropriate appraisal checklist, introduced by the JBI, based on the study type. The meta-analysis was performed using Comprehensive meta-analysis (CMA) software. Considering the heterogeneity among studies, a random effect model was adopted to estimate the pooled effect with 95% confidence interval (CI) for binary outcomes.

Results: A total of 13 studies were included in this systematic review, and all of them were considered for meta-analysis. According to the meta-analysis, differences in hospital admission rates during the COVID-19 pandemic and one year before this pandemic were statistically significant [RR: 0.685 CI 95% (0.578 -0.813) p<0.00001]. The heterogeneity assessment of the included studies in the meta-analysis showed high heterogeneity (I2=78%, p<0.00001).

Conclusion: The results of this systematic review showed that the COVID-19 pandemic dramatically reduced the number of hospital admissions related to road traffic crashes because of both quarantines and lifestyle changes. Health policymakers and top health managers might use the results of this systematic review in similar contexts in the future.

Immature Platelet Fraction and Acute Coronary Syndrome; a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Elmira Jafari Afshar, Vahid Shahnavaz, Hamed Talakoob, Parnaz Kafialqora, Aryan Madady, Shamimeh Pourbahrighesmat, Amirhossein Tayebi , Mohammadhossein MozafaryBazargany , Niloofar Gholami , Aryan Ayati , Parham Samimisedeh, Hadith Rastad , Hossein Karim (Author)

Archives of Academic Emergency Medicine, Vol. 12 No. 1 (2024), 1 January 2024, Page e43

Introduction: Immature Platelet Fraction (IPF) is a measure of the proportion of reticulated platelets (RPs) to all platelets in circulation. IPF may have both prognostic and diagnostic values in patients with Acute Coronary Syndrome (ACS). This study aims to comprehensively summarize the diagnostic utility of IPF levels in patients with ACS, specifically focusing on its ability to differentiate between different subtypes of ACS.

Methods: We conducted a systematic search in online databases including MEDLINE, Scopus, and Google Scholar up to March 4th 2024, to identify relevant studies. The random-effect model, employing inverse variance for mean differences (MD) and Mantel-Haenszel methods for odds ratios (OR) were utilized to combine the data. Joanna Briggs Institute (JBI) appraisal tool was employed to assess the quality of included studies.

Results: Our systematic review contains 15 articles with a total sample size of 2,030 ACS patients. Pooled analysis revealed significant differences in IPF levels of ACS patients compared to healthy controls (MD (95%CI): 2.85 (0.86, 4.85), P-value = 0.004) and stable angina patients (MD (95%CI): 0.58 (0.23, 0.92), P-value < 0.001). Subgroup comparisons within ACS patients demonstrated higher IPF levels in myocardial infarction (MI) vs. unstable angina (UA) (MD (95%CI): 1.81 (0.41, 3.22), P-value = 0.01), ST elevation MI (STEMI) vs. non-ST elevation (NSTEMI) ACS (MD (95%CI): 0.74 (0.31, 1.17), P-value < 0.001), and NSTEMI vs. UA (MD (95% CI): 1.07 (0.24, 1.90), P-value = 0.01).

Conclusion: IPF levels could increase in patients with ACS, particularly during the acute phase of STEMI. This suggests that IPF may be a useful biomarker for early diagnosis of ACS. Additionally, IPF levels may help differentiate between ACS subtypes.

Quality Indicators of Pediatric Asthma Care in the Emergency Department; a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Islam E. Alkhazali, Ahmad Alrawashdeh, Mohd Hashairi Fauzi, Nik Hisamuddin Nik Ab Rahman (Author)

Archives of Academic Emergency Medicine, Vol. 12 No. 1 (2024), 1 January 2024, Page e26

Introduction: The quality of healthcare for pediatric asthma patients in the emergency department (ED) is of growing importance. This systematic review aimed to identify and describe existing quality indicators (QIs) designed for use in the ED for pediatric asthma care. Methods: We systematically searched three main electronic databases in May 2023 for all English-language qualitative and quantitative publications that suggested or described at least one QI related to pediatric asthma care in the ED. Two reviewers independently selected the included studies and extracted data on study characteristics, all relevant QIs reported, and the rates of compliance with these indicators when available. The identified QIs were classified according to Donabedian healthcare quality framework and the Institute of Medicine (IOM) framework. When feasible, we aggregated the compliance rates for the QIs reported in observational studies using random effects models. The quality assessment of the included studies was performed using various Joanna Briggs Institute (JBI) tools.

Results: We identified twenty studies, including six expert panels, 13 observational studies, and one trial. Together, these studies presented 129 QIs for use in EDs managing pediatric asthma. Among these QIs, 66 were pinpointed by expert panel studies, whereas 63 were derived from observational studies. Within the Donabedian framework, most indicators (86.8%) concentrated on the process of care. In contrast, within the Institute of Medicine (IOM) domain, the predominant focus was on indicators related to effectiveness and safety. Observational studies reported varying compliance rates for the 36 QIs identified in the expert studies. The included studies showed a wide range of bias risks, suggesting potential methodological variances.

Conclusions: A significant number of QIs in pediatric asthma care have been proposed or documented in literature. Although most of these indicators prioritize the process of care, there is a conspicuous absence of outcome and structure indicators. This meta-analysis uncovered significant disparities in compliance to the identified QIs, highlighting the urgent necessity for targeted interventions to enhance pediatric asthma care in ED.

Prevalence of Delirium and Its Related Factors in Burn Patients; a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Hamidreza Alizadeh Otaghvar , Ramyar Farzan, Parham Tamimi, Aliasghar Ghaderi, Masoomeh Najafi, Mobina Tohidian, Fatemeh Izadi, Seyed Amirhossein Mazhari (Author)

Archives of Academic Emergency Medicine, Vol. 12 No. 1 (2024), 1 January 2024, Page e7

Introduction: Considering the importance of delirium disorder in burn patients and its complications, the present systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to determine the prevalence of delirium and its related factors in burn patients.

Methods: A comprehensive, systematic search was performed in different international electronic databases, such as Scopus, PubMed, and Web of Science, as well as Persian electronic databases such as Iranmedex, and Scientific Information Database (SID) using keywords extracted from Medical Subject Headings such as "Prevalence", "Delirium", and "Burns" from the earliest to the 17th of July, 2023.

Results: In total, 2,710 burn patients participated in ten original studies. Among the participants, 64.6% were male. In the ten studies, the reported pooled prevalence of delirium among burn patients was 20.5% (95% CI: 10.9% to 35.0%; I2=96.889%; P<0.001). Also, factors such as total body surface area, duration of hospitalization, mortality, days on ventilator, alcoholism, benzodiazepine dose, methadone dose, age, male gender, ICU days, operation days, wound care under anesthesia, and opioid dose had a significant correlation with the prevalence of delirium in burn patients.

Conclusion: Health managers and policymakers can reduce the prevalence of delirium in burn patients by eliminating or reducing factors associated with it.

Infectious Diarrhea Risks as a Public Health Emergency in Floods; a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Mohammad Shirmohammadi Yazdi, Mohammad Afshar Ardalan, Mohsen Hosseini, Mojtaba Yousefi zoshk , Zahra Hami, Reza Heidari, Reza Mosaed, Mohsen Chamanara (Author)

Archives of Academic Emergency Medicine, Vol. 12 No. 1 (2024), 1 January 2024, Page e46

Introduction: Infectious diarrhea, a significant global health challenge, is exacerbated by flooding, a consequence of climate change and environmental disruption. This comprehensive study aims to quantify the association between flooding events and the incidence of infectious diarrhea, considering diverse demographic, environmental, and pathogen-specific factors.

Methods: In this systematic review and meta-analysis, adhering to PROSPERO protocol (CRD42024498899), we evaluated observational studies from January 2000 to December 2023. The analysis incorporated global data from PubMed, Scopus, Embase, Web of Science, and ProQuest, focusing on the relative risk (RR) of diarrhea post-flooding. The study encompassed diverse variables like age, sex, pathogen type, environmental context, and statistical modeling approaches.

Results: The meta-analysis, involving 42 high-quality studies, revealed a substantial increase (RR = 1.40, 95% CI [1.29–1.52]) in the incidence of diarrhea following floods. Notably, bacterial and parasitic diarrheas demonstrated higher RRs (1.82 and 1.35, respectively) compared to viral etiologies (RR = 1.15). A significant sex disparity was observed, with women exhibiting a higher susceptibility (RR = 1.55) than men (RR = 1.35). Adults (over 15 years) faced a greater risk than younger individuals, highlighting age-dependent vulnerability.

Conclusion: This extensive analysis confirms a significant correlation between flood events and increased infectious diarrhea risk, varying across pathogens and demographic groups. The findings highlight an urgent need for tailored public health interventions in flood-prone areas, focusing on enhanced sanitation, disease surveillance, and targeted education to mitigate this elevated risk. Our study underscores the critical importance of integrating flood-related health risks into global public health planning and climate change adaptation strategies.

Life-threatening Carotid Complications Caused by Extraluminal Migration of Ingested Foreign Bodies; a Case Report and Narrative Review of Literature

Rossana Soloperto, Gabriella Festa, Michele Beatrice, Nicola Orsogna, Carmine Francesco Muccio, Pietro Crocco, Davide Razzano, Angelo Tozzi (Author)

Archives of Academic Emergency Medicine, Vol. 12 No. 1 (2024), 1 January 2024, Page e45

Carotid complications resulting from extra-luminal migration of ingested foreign bodies (FB) are rare but potentially life-threatening. Previous data on the topic predominantly comprises isolated case reports, leaving a gap in comprehensive evidence necessary to guide clinical decision-making. In this article, we offer a narrative review alongside a novel case report, aimed at providing a broad, evidence-based perspective on the topic to guide clinical practice.  The search strategy employed keywords related to carotid artery complications from ingested FB across the following electronic databases: PubMed, Scopus, Google Scholar, and Cochrane Central. Screening involved standardized data extraction by two independent reviewers, with a focus on abstracts meeting inclusion criteria and excluding non-English literature and non-relevant studies from further analysis. Moreover, we present a novel case report on the topic that was successfully managed using a unique surgical approach.

Overall, a total of sixteen case reports were finally included, data on clinical presentations, diagnostic strategies and findings, surgical management and outcome were extracted, tabulated, and discussed.

In carotid complications from extra-luminal migration of ingested FB, high clinical suspicion is crucial due to potentially mild symptoms and negative first-level examinations. Computed tomography (CT) scan plays a pivotal role for accurate diagnosis and surgical planning, along with neck ultrasound to detect complications. Tailored surgical strategies based on the severity of carotid involvement, including venous patch grafts in severe vessels involvement, are crucial for optimal patient outcomes. As a novelty, in our case report, carotid shunt was successfully employed instead of prolonged carotid clamping to reduce the risk of associated neurological sequelae. It could be concluded that, diagnosis and managing carotid complications from extra-luminal migration of ingested FB remains challenging and a multidisciplinary approach is warranted.

Artificial Intelligence in Optimizing the Functioning of Emergency Departments; a Systematic Review of Current Solutions

Szymczyk Aleksandra, Krion Robert, Krzyzaniak Klaudia, Lubian Dawid, Sieminski Mariusz (Author)

Archives of Academic Emergency Medicine, Vol. 12 No. 1 (2024), 1 January 2024, Page e22

Introduction: The burgeoning burden on emergency departments is a global challenge that we have been confronting for many years. Emerging artificial intelligence (AI)-based solutions may constitute a critical component in the optimization of these units. This systematic review was conducted to thoroughly examine and summarize the currently available AI solutions, assess potential benefits from their implementation, and identify anticipated directions of further development in this fascinating and rapidly evolving field.

Methods: This systematic review utilized data compiled from three key scientific databases: PubMed (2045 publications), Scopus (877 publications), and Web of Science (2495 publications). After meticulous removal of duplicates, we conducted a detailed analysis of 2052 articles, including 147 full-text papers. From these, we selected 51 of the most pertinent and representative publications for the review.

Results: Overall the present research indicates that due to high accuracy and sensitivity of machine learning (ML) models it's reasonable to use AI in support of doctors as it can show them the potential diagnosis, which could save time and resources. However, AI-generated diagnoses should be verified by a doctor as AI is not infallible

Conclusions: Currently available AI algorithms are capable of analysing complex medical data with unprecedented precision and speed. Despite AI's vast potential, it is still a nascent technology that is often perceived as complicated and challenging to implement. We propose that a pivotal point in effectively harnessing this technology is the close collaboration between medical professionals and AI experts. Future research should focus on further refining AI algorithms, performing comprehensive validation, and introducing suitable legal regulations and standard procedures, thereby fully leveraging the potential of AI to enhance the quality and efficiency of healthcare delivery.

Treatment with Rapamycin in Animal Models of Traumatic Brain Injuries; a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Mohammad Kiah, Amir Azimi, Razieh Hajisoltani, Mahmoud Yousefifard (Author)

Archives of Academic Emergency Medicine, Vol. 12 No. 1 (2024), 1 January 2024, Page e16

Introduction: In light of the potential of enhanced functional and neurological recovery in traumatic brain injury (TBI) with the administration of rapamycin, this systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to investigate the efficacy of rapamycin treatment in animal models of TBI.

Methods: An extensive search was conducted in the electronic databases of Medline, Embase, Scopus, and Web of Science by July 1st, 2023. Two independent researchers performed the screening process by reviewing the titles and abstracts and the full texts of the relevant articles, including those meeting the inclusion criteria. Apoptosis rate, inflammation, locomotion, and neurological status were assessed as outcomes. A standardized mean difference (SMD) with a 95% confidence interval (95%CI) was calculated for each experiment, and a pooled effect size was reported. Statistical analyses were performed using STATA 17.0 software.

Results: Twelve articles were deemed eligible for inclusion in this meta-analysis. Pooled data analysis indicated notable reductions in the number of apoptotic cells (SMD for Tunnel-positive cells = -1.60; 95%CI: -2.21, -0.99, p<0.001), p-mTOR (SMD=-1.41; 95%CI: -2.03, -0.80, p<0.001), and p-S6 (SMD=-2.27; 95%CI: -3.03, -1.50, p<0.001) in TBI post-treatment. Our analysis also indicated substantial IL-1β reductions after rapamycin administration (SMD= -1.91; 95%CI: -2.61, -1.21, p<0.001). Moreover, pooled data analysis found significant neurological severity score (NSS) improvements at 24 hours (SMD= -1.16; 95%CI: -1.69, -0.62, p<0.001; I²=0.00%), 72 hours (SMD= -1.44; 95%CI: -2.00, -0.88, p<0.001; I²=0.00%), and 168 hours post-TBI (SMD= -1.56; 95%CI: -2.44, -0.68, p<0.001; I²=63.37%). No such improvement was observed in the grip test.

Conclusion: Low to moderate-level evidence demonstrated a significant decrease in apoptotic and inflammatory markers and improved neurological status in rodents with TBI. However, no such improvements were observed in locomotion recovery.

Case Report

A Fatal Septic Shock Due to Aeromonas Hydrophila in a Cirrhotic Patient; a Case Report

Hoa Do Thanh, Duc Vu Anh, Ghi Nguyen Hai, Duong Le Xuan, Anh Duong Duc (Author)

Archives of Academic Emergency Medicine, Vol. 12 No. 1 (2024), 1 January 2024, Page e37

Aeromonas hydrophila has been identified as a causative agent of necrotizing fasciitis and myonecrosis, with most reported cases having a connection to aquatic-related trauma. Cases without such trauma history are rare in existing literature. Here, we present the case of a 56-year-old cirrhotic patient who lacked any prior aquatic-related trauma and arrived at the emergency department in a state of septic shock. The suspected route of entry was through necrotizing fasciitis and myonecrosis in his left forearm. Unfortunately, the patient succumbed to multi-organ failure and passed away within 12 hours of admission to the emergency department.

The Autoimmune Hemolytic Anemia following Septic Shock with Escherichia Coli; a Case Report

Duong Le Xuan, Nhi Vo Thuy Tran, Giang Le Duc, Ninh Nguyen Duc, Ghi Nguyen Hai, Hoa Do Thanh (Author)

Archives of Academic Emergency Medicine, Vol. 12 No. 1 (2024), 1 January 2024, Page e5

Sepsis is a severe, life-threatening illness caused when the immune system responds inappropriately to infections, causing organ deterioration and negatively affecting the systems inside the body, one of which is the coagulation system. Most hematologic changes in red blood cells (RBCs) are non-antibody-mediated hemolytic anemia (NAHA). Autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) is a rare condition, challenging in diagnosis, requiring prompt recognition and management. Warm hemolytic anemia has recently been reported in patients with septic shock. This report presents a sepsis-induced autoimmune hemolytic anemia case. A 44-year-old Vietnamese female with no chronic disease came to the emergency department because of sudden periumbilical colicky pain after consuming a fresh garden salad. The abdominal pain appeared nine hours after the meal, following vomiting. Twelve hours later, she developed diarrhea, subsequently a fever, and chills. She was admitted to the emergency department in the fifteenth hour of the first symptom. Septic shock, multiple organ failure, and warm autoimmune hemolysis were all present in the patient. Hemolytic anemia and multiorgan failure made the situation worse, leading to death. Autoimmunity hemolytic anemia in sepsis or septic shock is rare, but treating both emergency hemolytic anemia and potential infectious etiology is crucial in acute situations.

Infected Ruptured Pseudo-aneurysm in Descending Aorta; a Case Report

Morteza Sanei Taheri, Sayyed Mojtaba Nekooghadam, Zahra Sadat Tabatabaei , Sahar Rezaei (Author)

Archives of Academic Emergency Medicine, Vol. 12 No. 1 (2024), 1 January 2024, Page e23

Aortitis is the inflammation of the aortic wall. It can be caused by both infectious and non-infectious etiologies. Mycotic aneurysm is a rare, serious medical condition and typically requires prompt treatment with antibiotics, surgical intervention, or endovascular procedures to prevent rupture and complications. Here we reported, a 66-year-old male patient with a medical history of diabetes and hypertension, who presented to the emergency department (ED) with left-sided hemiplegia. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed infarction in the right parietooccipital and left occipital lobes, demonstrating an embolic pattern. laboratory analysis revealed elevated levels of erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), C-reactive protein (CRP), and white blood cell (WBC). 

Ventricular Septal Defect and Mitral Regurgitation Due to Penetrating Cardiac Trauma; a Case Report and Review of Literature

Hojjat Mortezaeian , Avisa Tabib, Hamidreza Pouraliakbar, Mohsen Anafje, Pouya Ebrahimi, Parnian Soltani (Author)

Archives of Academic Emergency Medicine, Vol. 12 No. 1 (2024), 1 January 2024, Page e25

Penetrating cardiac trauma is a fatal condition and can result in the injury of various parts of the heart. Ventricular Septal Defect (VSD) following these traumas occurs only in 1-5% of cases. The patients' conditions depend on location, size, and concomitant injuries. One of the uncommon coincidences with the VSD is Mitral Regurgitation (MR) due to injury to sub-valvular structures. In this study, we report a case of concomitant traumatic-induced VSD and MR in a 14-year-old boy following a stab wound to his chest. The patient was a teenage boy coming to the Rajaei Cardiology Hospital emergency room following a stab wound to the anterior and left part of his chest. Despite primary urgent surgery, his breathlessness had continued for three more months. Evaluations with Transthoracic Echocardiography (TTE) revealed VSD with concomitant MR, but there was no papillary muscle rupture. Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and angiographic evaluation confirmed the provisional diagnosis. The Amplatzer VSD occluder repaired the VSD, and the patient was discharged following the resolution of his symptoms. Although the MR has been present in the follow-up echocardiography, the patient has been asymptomatic. Since the initial presenting symptoms and signs of VSD and MR might be subtle or delayed, imaging modalities such as TTE and Transesophageal Echocardiogram (TEE) are beneficial in determining the diagnosis and the optimal treatment.

Coincidence of Ascariasis with Appendicitis in a Pediatric Patient with abdominal Pain; a Case Report

Marzieh Aalinezhad, Mohammad Saleh Jafarpishe, Yosra Naderi, Mahdi Shahsavan, Zahra Souri (Author)

Archives of Academic Emergency Medicine, Vol. 12 No. 1 (2024), 1 January 2024, Page e11

The simultaneous occurrence of intestinal ascariasis and appendicitis presents a challenge in diagnosing pediatric abdominal emergencies due to overlapping symptoms. We present the case of an 8-year-old boy who experienced acute abdominal pain, characterized by a severe cramp in the mid and lower right abdomen, with pain rated 7 out of 10, a mild fever, and continuous nausea. The initial evaluation suggested appendicitis, supported by an Alvarado score of 9. However, ultrasonography did not conclusively confirm appendicitis but revealed an Ascaris worm in the ileum. This finding highlights the importance of careful diagnostic processes that combine clinical assessment with imaging techniques, while being mindful of their limitations. Surgical exploration confirmed retrocecal appendicitis coexisting with an Ascaris lumbricoides infection. The treatment involved surgical removal of the affected appendix and pharmacological expulsion of the parasitic worm using albendazole, which proved effective. This report emphasizes the consideration of ascariasis in diagnosing appendicitis, particularly in areas where intestinal parasites are common. It also demonstrated the improved diagnostic accuracy achieved through clinical scoring and imaging, thus reducing the risk of missing dual pathologies in young patients with acute abdominal pain.

Acellular Fish Skin for Deep Dermal Traumatic Wounds Management; Introducing a Novel Dressing

Esmaeil Biazar, Reza Zandi, Saeed Haidari-Keshel, Majid rezaei tavirani, Reza Vafaee, Mostafa Rezaei Tavirani, Reza M Robati (Author)

Archives of Academic Emergency Medicine, Vol. 12 No. 1 (2024), 1 January 2024, Page e14

The optimal therapy for deep wounds is based on the early debridement of necrotic tissue followed by wound coverage to avoid a systemic inflammatory response and optimize scar-free healing. The outcomes are affected by available resources and underlying patient factors, which cause challenges in wound care and suboptimal outcomes.

Here we report a patient with deep dermal injury wounds, who was treated with platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) gel, plasma rich in growth factor (PRGF) gel, and acellular fish skin. Patient’s outcomes regarding healing and scar quality were collected objectively and subjectively for one year after the injury. Wounds treated with acellular fish skin demonstrated accelerated wound healing, a significantly higher water-storage capacity, and better pain relief. Furthermore, improved functional and cosmetic outcomes, such as elasticity, skin thickness, and pigmentation, were demonstrated. It seems that, the PRGF gel and PRF in combination with acellular fish skin grafts resulted in the faster healing of wounds and better functional and aesthetic outcomes than split-thickness skin grafts treatment.

Photo Quiz

A 23-year-old Female with Abdominal Pain in the Emergency Department; a Photo Quiz

Mehdi Hashemi, Newsha Sardarzadeh, Afrooz Moradkhani, Mohammad Reza Abyaz (Author)

Archives of Academic Emergency Medicine, Vol. 12 No. 1 (2024), 1 January 2024, Page e8

A 23-year-old female patient with a history of heart disease and a pacemaker for the last four years and a cesarean section 22 days ago came to the emergency department (ED) complaining of abdominal pain. Abdominal pain started seven days ago, which was vague and intermittent at first and misdiagnosed as postpartum pain in an outpatient visit. After a few days, nausea and vomiting accompanied the patient's symptoms, the abdomen became distended, and episodes of abdominal pain occurred with shorter intervals and greater intensity. The patient was referred to the ED as the abdominal pain became more severe. The initial vital signs of the patient in the ED included a blood pressure of 100/60 mmHg, a heart rate of 98 beats/minute, respiratory rate of 18 /minute, oral temperature of 37.8 Celsius, and a saturation O2 of 96% on room air.


A Look at Archives of Academic Emergency Medicine Journal in 2023

Mehrnoosh Yazdanbakhsh (Author); Somayeh Saghaei Dehkordi

Archives of Academic Emergency Medicine, Vol. 12 No. 1 (2024), 1 January 2024, Page e21

In the 11th year of Archives of Academic Emergency Medicine (AAEM)’s activity in 2023, the journal has published 70 articles, all of which are indexed by SCOPUS, Web of Science, PubMed, and some other databases. The articles have been authored by more than two hundred researchers from various countries, including but not limited to the United States, Canada, UK, Mexico, Brazil, Spain, China, Denmark, Australia, Malaysia, Russia, Hong Kong, Türkiye, Thailand, Saudi Arabia, Egypt, Syria, India, Cyprus, Brunei, Somalia, Jordan, and Iran. We would like to thank all of the authors who trusted us with their valuable works and provided us with the articles published throughout 2023.


Lessons Learned from COVID-19 Pandemic Management in Iran; a Commentary

Reza Gharebaghi, Fatemeh Heidary, Ali Asghar Pourezzat (Author)

Archives of Academic Emergency Medicine, Vol. 12 No. 1 (2024), 1 January 2024, Page e24

Iran’s healthcare system is considered to be one of the most enduring and resilient ones in the Middle East (1). It had successful records in tackling various infectious diseases by producing vaccines at the Pasteur and Razi institutes for several years’ duration (2). However, COVID-19 has severely affected the healthcare system in Iran. From the beginning of the pandemic until January 01, 2024, over 146,000 cases lost their lives to COVID-19, with almost nine peaks resurgence (3). In this paper, the challenges regarding the control of COVID-19 in Iran are discussed, while the competences were discussed earlier (1).

High-Dose Vitamin C in the Treatment of Covid-19 Patients in Intensive Care Unit; A Letter to the Editor

Moloud Balafar, Ata Mahmoodpoor, Houri Arjmandi, Arezou Maddah Khelejani, Hassan Soleimanpour (Author)

Archives of Academic Emergency Medicine, Vol. 12 No. 1 (2024), 1 January 2024, Page e41

Vitamin C is a powerful antioxidant, which helps to improve the body's immune system. The antioxidant property of vitamin C reduces inflammation and improves the body's defense function against pathogens. In an interventional study, a total of 210 COVID-19 patients admitted to the intensive care units were randomly divided into two control and intervention groups. The intervention group received a treatment protocol including a high-dose vitamin C (12 g of vitamin C via a pump within four hours, which was repeated every 12 hours) for a week. About 60% of the patients in both groups died with no significant difference in the mortality rate between the two groups (p = 0.747). There was no improvement in the length of hospital stay, the degree of O2 saturation, and the mortality rate of the patients. No severe adverse effects were shown with this dose of vitamin C in ICU patients.