Original/Research Article

Comparison of qSOFA, SIRS, NEWS and REWS Scores in Predicting Severity and 28-day Mortality of older Suspected Sepsis Cases; a Prognostic Accuracy Study

Pitsucha Sanguanwit, Warunchana Thudsaringkarnsakul, Chuenruthai Angkoontassaneeyarat, Sorawich Watcharakitpaisan (Author)

Archives of Academic Emergency Medicine, Vol. 12 No. 1 (2024), 1 January 2024, Page e3

Introduction: Various scores have been developed to predict sepsis mortality. This Study aimed to evaluate the accuracy of the quick Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (qSOFA), Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome (SIRS), National Early Warning Score (NEWS) and Ramathibodi Early Warning Score (REWS) for predicting severity and 28-day mortality of elderly suspected sepsis cases in emergency department (ED).

Methods: This prognostic accuracy study was performed using data obtained from patients aged ≥ 60 years with suspected sepsis who visited the Ramathibodi Hospital ED between May and December 2019. The accuracy of NEWS, SIRS, REWS, and qSOFA in predicting the studied outcomes were evaluated using the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis.

Results: A total of 531 cases with the mean age of 77.6 ± 9.39 (range: 60-101) years were evaluated (45% male). The overall 28-day mortality was 11.6%. The area under ROC curve of qSOFA scores ≥2 showed moderate discrimination (0.66, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.59–0.73) in predicting mortality, which was significantly higher than SIRS ≥2 (ROC: 0.56, 95% CI: 0.50–0.63; p=0.04), NEWS ≥5 (ROC: 0.56, 95% CI: 0.50–0.63; p=0.01), and REWS ≥4 (ROC: 0.56, 95% CI: 0.50–0.63; p<0.01).

Conclusions: qSOFA score ≥2 was superior to SIRS ≥2, NEWS ≥5, and REWS ≥4 in predicting 28-day mortality and septic shock in elderly patients with suspected sepsis in the ED. However, the predictive performance of qSOFA ≥2 was only moderate (AUC<0.8). Therefore, to reduce mortality and improve outcomes, we suggest the use of qSOFA ≥2 combined with clinical or other early warning scores, or the development of new prediction scores for screening, triage, and prediction of mortality and of severity of sepsis in elderly patients with suspected sepsis in the ED.

MONTH Score in Predicting Difficult Intubations in Emergency Department; a Prognostic Accuracy Study

Nitis Hongthong, Sorravit Savatmongkorngul, Chaiyaporn Yuksen, Thanakorn Laksanamapune (Author)

Archives of Academic Emergency Medicine, Vol. 12 No. 1 (2024), 1 January 2024, Page e17

Introduction: MONTH Difficult Laryngoscopy Score was developed for effectively identifying difficult intubations in the emergency department (ED). This study aimed to evaluate the accuracy of MONTH Score in predicting difficult intubations in ED.

Methods: We prospectively collected data on all patients undergoing intubation in the ED of Ramathibodi Hospital, Bangkok, Thailand. The screening performance characteristics of the MONTH score in identifying the difficult intubation in ED were analyzed. All data were analyzed using STATA software version 18.0.

Results:  324 intubated patients with the median age of 73 (63-82) years were studied (63.58% male). The proportion of difficult intubations was 19.44%. The sensitivity and specificity of MONTH in predicting difficult intubations were 74.6% (95% CI: 61.6%-85.0%) and 92.8% (95% CI: 89.0%-95.6%), respectively. These measures in subgroup of patients with Intubation Difficulty Scale (IDS) score ≥ 6 were 44.1% (95%CI: 31.2-57.6) and 98.5% (95% CI: 96.2%- 99.6%), respectively. The area under the receiver operation characteristic (ROC) curve of MONTH in predicting difficult intubations was 0.895 (95% CI: 0.856- 0.926).

Conclusions: It seems that the MONTH Difficult Laryngoscopy Score could be considered as a tool with high specificity and positive predictive values in identifying cases with difficult intubations in ED.

Health Data Sharing with the Goal of Value Creation; Trying to Develop a Framework Using Qualitative Content Analysis

Mojtaba Zonoobi, Shaban Elahi, Mohammad Khansari, Alireza Hassanzadeh, Tahereh Saheb (Author)

Archives of Academic Emergency Medicine, Vol. 12 No. 1 (2024), 1 January 2024, Page e6

Introduction: Within the field of data sharing, discussions surrounding privacy concerns and big data management are extensive. This study aimed to provide a comprehensive framework for health data sharing with the objective of creating value.

Methods: This study is a qualitative content analysis, which was conducted using a combination of written sources through a systematic review method, in conjunction with content derived from interviews with experts in information technology and healthcare within hospital and emergency settings. Grounded theory serves as the qualitative methodology, involving three coding phases: open, axial, and selective, facilitated by MAXQDA software.

Results: Qualitative content analysis of the interviews revealed seven main (core) categories and 44 subcategories as driving factors in promoting healthcare data sharing. Simultaneously, inhibiting factors resulted in six main categories and 36 subcategories. The driving factors encompassed technology, education, patient management improvement, data utilization for various purposes, data-related considerations, legal and regulatory aspects, and health-related factors. Conversely, inhibiting factors encompassed security and privacy concerns, legal issues, external organizational influences, monitoring and control activities, financial considerations, and inter-organizational challenges.

Conclusion: This study has identified key driving and inhibiting factors that influence the sharing of healthcare data. These factors contribute to a more comprehensive understanding of the dynamics surrounding data sharing within the healthcare information system.

Hypo-attenuating Berry Sign as a Novel Imaging Marker of Ruptured Aneurysm in Patients with Subarachnoid Hemorrhage; a Diagnostic Accuracy Study

Xin-Wei zhou, Shu-Feng Cai, De-Qing Zhang, Gang Xiao, Jing Liu, Wen-Jie Yang, Yi Li, Si-Yu Chen, Hao-Chen Liu, zhong-qing huang (Author)

Archives of Academic Emergency Medicine, Vol. 12 No. 1 (2024), 1 January 2024, Page e31

Introduction: Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) constitutes a life-threatening condition, and identifying the ruptured aneurysm is essential for further therapy. This study aimed to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of hypo-attenuating berry sign (HBS) observed on computed tomography (CT) scan in distinguishing ruptured aneurysms.

Methods: In this diagnostic accuracy study, patients who had SAH and underwent non-enhanced brain CT scan were recruited. The HBS was defined as a hypo-attenuating area with an identifiable border in the blood-filled hyper-dense subarachnoid space. The screening performance characteristics of HBS in identifying ruptured aneurysms were calculated considering the digital subtraction angiography (DSA) as the gold standard.

Results: A total of 129 aneurysms in 131 patients were analyzed. The overall sensitivity and specificity of HBS in the diagnosis of aneurysms were determined to be 78.7% (95%CI: 73.1% - 83.4%) and 70.7% (95%CI: 54.3% - 83.4%), respectively. Notably, the sensitivity increased to 90.9% (95%CI: 84.3% - 95.0%) for aneurysms larger than 5mm. The level of inter-observer agreement for assessing the presence of HBS was found to be substantial (kappa=0.734). The diagnostic accuracy of HBS in individuals exhibited enhanced specificity, sensitivity, and reliability when evaluating patients with a solitary aneurysm or assessing ruptured aneurysms. The multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed a statistically significant relationship between aneurysm size and the presence of HBS (odds ratios of 1.667 (95%CI: 1.238 - 2.244; p < 0.001) and 1.696 (95%CI: 1.231 - 2.335; p = 0.001) for reader 1 and reader 2, respectively).

Conclusions: The HBS can serve as a simple and easy-to-use indicator for identifying a ruptured aneurysm and estimating its size in SAH patients.   

A Clinical Score for Predicting Successful Weaning from Noninvasive Positive Pressure Ventilation in Emergency Department; a Retrospective Cohort Study

Natthapat Kattinanon, wijittra liengswangwong, Chaiyaporn yuksen, Malivan Phontabtim, Siriporn Damdin, Khunpol Jermsiri (Author)

Archives of Academic Emergency Medicine, Vol. 12 No. 1 (2024), 1 January 2024, Page e15

Introduction: Noninvasive positive pressure ventilation (NIPPV) is recognized as an efficient treatment for patients with acute respiratory failure (ARF) in emergency department (ED). This study aimed to develop a scoring system for predicting successful weaning from NIPPV in patients with ARF.

Methods: In this retrospective cohort study patients with ARF who received NIPPV in the ED of Ramathibodi Hospital, Thailand, between January 2020 and March 2022 were evaluated. Factors associated with weaning from NIPPV were recorded and compared between cases with and without successful weaning from NIPPV. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to develop a predictive model for weaning from NIPPV in ED.

Results: A total of 494 eligible patients were treated with NIPPV of whom 203(41.1%) were successfully weaned during the study period. Based on the multivariate analysis the successful NIPPV weaning (SNOW) score was designed with six factors before discontinuation: respiratory rate, heart rate ≤ 100 bpm, systolic blood pressure ≥ 100 mmHg, arterial pH≥ 7.35, arterial PaCO2, and arterial lactate. The scores were classified into three groups: low, moderate, and high. A score of >14.5 points suggested a high probability of successful weaning from NIPPV with a positive likelihood ratio of 3.58 (95%CI: 2.56-4.99; p < 0.001). The area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve of the model in predicting successful weaning was 0.79 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.75-0.83).

Conclusion: It seems that the SNOW score could be considered as a helpful tool for predicting successful weaning from NIPPV in ED patients with ARF. A high predictive score, particularly one that exceeds 14.5, strongly suggests a high likelihood of successful weaning from NIPPV.

11-Year Trend of Mortality from Fatal Road Traffic Injuries in The Center of Iran; a Cross-sectional Study

Maziyar Mollaei Pardeh, Mohammad Hosain Yarmohammadian, Golrokh Atighechian, Afshin Ebrahimi, Mohamad Reza Maracy (Author)

Archives of Academic Emergency Medicine, Vol. 12 No. 1 (2024), 1 January 2024, Page e27

Introduction: Road traffic injuries (RTIs) are one of the major health problems in developed and developing countries. In Iran, RTIs are the first leading cause of years of life lost (YLL). So, the present study investigated the 11-year trend of RTI-

related mortalities in Iran.

Methods: This study was a population-based cross-sectional study. All-cause deaths as well as RTI-related mortalities’ data were collected from the Civil Registration Organization (CRO) and Legal medical organization (LMO) of Isfahan during 2011-2021. The mid-year population, number of deaths due to RTIs, the crude and age-standardized mortality (per 100,000) of RTIs, and the percentage of proportional mortality by sex and year of accident during the study period were calculated and reported. Also, trend analysis was done using join point regression program.

Results: During the study period, 11,248 deaths occurred due to RTIs in Isfahan province. 8,894 cases were male (79.03%), the highest number of deaths in both male and female cases was reported in those aged 15-39 years. Among the males, trend of standardized mortality in 2011-2015 was decreasing (annual percentage changes = -6.76(CI 95%: -2.53, -15.03)), while in 2015-2021 it was increasing (annual percentage changes = 3.00 (CI 95%: 0.63, 9.87)). However, no significant trend was observed among females.

Conclusion: The findings of the present study showed that the number and standardized mortality rate of RTIs decreased during the 11-year period. It seems that applying stricter policies, improving the quality of the roads of the province, improving the quality of cars, and increasing the number of hospital and pre-hospital medical facilities can play an effective role in reducing RTIs.

Associated Factors of Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Outcomes; a Cohort Study on an Adult In-hospital Cardiac Arrest Registry

Parin Rattananon, Welawat Tienpratarn, Chaiyaporn Yuksen, Supassorn Aussavanodom, Natthaphong Thiamdao, Phatcha Termkijwanich, Suraphong Phongsawad, Parama Kaninworapan, Kanda Tantasirin (Author)

Archives of Academic Emergency Medicine, Vol. 12 No. 1 (2024), 1 January 2024, Page e30

Introduction: In-hospital cardiac arrest (IHCA) remains a substantial cause of morbidity and mortality for hospitalized patients worldwide. This study aimed to identify associated factors of return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) and survival with favorable neurological outcomes of IHCA patients.

Method: A two-year retrospective cohort study was conducted at a university-based tertiary care hospital in Bangkok, Thailand, studying adult patients aged ≥ 18 years with IHCA from January 2021 to December 2022. The primary endpoint was sustained ROSC, and the secondary endpoint was survival with favorable neurological outcomes defined as Cerebral Performance Categories (CPC) Scale of 1 or 2 at discharge. Pre-arrest and intra-arrest variables were collected and analyzed using multivariable logistic regression to identify independent factors associated with the outcomes.

Results: During the study period, 156 patients were included in the study. 105 (67.3%) patients achieved sustained ROSC after the CPR, 28 patients (18.0%) were discharged alive, and 15 patients (9.6%) survived with a favorable neurological outcome at hospital discharge. Overall, sustained ROSC was higher in patients who had IHCA during the day shift (odds ratio (OR): 4.11; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.05-16.06) and electrocardiogram (ECG) monitoring prior to arrest (OR: 6.38; 95% CI: 1.18-34.54). In contrast, higher adrenaline doses administrated, and increased CPR duration reduced the odds of sustained ROSC (OR: 0.72; 95% CI: 0.54-0.94 and OR: 0.92; 95% CI: 0.85-0.98, respectively). Arrest due to cardiac etiology was associated with increased discharged survival with favorable neurological outcomes (OR: 13.43; 95% CI: 2.00-89.80), while a higher Good Outcome Following Attempted Resuscitation (GO-FAR) score reduced the odds of the secondary outcome (OR: 0.89; 95% CI: 0.81-0.98).


The sustained ROSC was higher in IHCA during the daytime shift and under prior ECG monitoring. The administration of higher doses of adrenaline and prolonged CPR durations decreased the likelihood of achieving sustained ROSC. Furthermore, patients with cardiac-related causes of cardiac arrest exhibited a higher rate of survival to hospital discharge with favorable neurological outcomes.

Zero-Inflated Count Regression Models in Solving Challenges Posed by Outlier-Prone Data; an Application to Length of Hospital Stay

Saeed Shahsavari, Abbas Moghimbeigi, Rohollah Kalhor, Ali Moghadas Jafari, Mehrdad Bagherpour-kalo, Mehdi Yaseri, Mostafa Hosseini (Author)

Archives of Academic Emergency Medicine, Vol. 12 No. 1 (2024), 1 January 2024, Page e13

Introduction: Ignoring outliers in data may lead to misleading results. Length of stay (LOS) is often considered a count variable with a high frequency of outliers. This study exemplifies the potential of robust methodologies in enhancing the accuracy and reliability of analyses conducted on skewed and outlier-prone count data of LOS.

Methods: The application of Zero-Inflated Poisson (ZIP) and robust Zero-Inflated Poisson (RZIP) models in solving challenges posed by outlier LOS data were evaluated. The ZIP model incorporates two components, tackling excess zeros with a zero-inflation component and modeling positive counts with a Poisson component. The RZIP model introduces the Robust Expectation-Solution (RES) algorithm to enhance parameter estimation and address the impact of outliers on the model's performance.

Results: Data from 254 intensive care unit patients were analyzed (62.2% male). Patients aged 65 or older accounted for 58.3% of the sample. Notably, 38.6% of patients exhibited zero LOS. The overall mean LOS was 5.89 (± 9.81) days, and 9.45% of cases displayed outliers. Our analysis using the RZIP model revealed significant predictors of LOS, including age, underlying comorbidities (p<0.001), and insurance status (p=0.013). Model comparison demonstrated the RZIP model's superiority over ZIP, as evidenced by lower Akaike information criteria (AIC) and Bayesians information criteria (BIC) values.

Conclusions: The application of the RZIP model allowed us to uncover meaningful insights into the factors influencing LOS, paving the way for more informed decision-making in hospital management.

Associated Factors of Leaked Repair Following Omentopexy for Perforated Peptic Ulcer Disease; a Cross-sectional Study

Aloysius Ugwu-Olisa Ogbuanya, Uche Emmanuel Eni, Daniel A Umezurike, Akputa A Obasi, Somadina Ikpeze (Author)

Archives of Academic Emergency Medicine, Vol. 12 No. 1 (2024), 1 January 2024, Page e18

Introduction: Previous studies have reported numerous clinico-pathologic risk factors associated with increased risk of leaked repair following omental patch for perforated peptic ulcer disease (PPUD). This study aimed to analyze the risk factors associated with leaked repair of omental patch and document the management and outcome of established cases of leaked repair in a resource-poor setting.

Methods: This is a multicenter cross-sectional study of leaked repair after omental patch of PPUD between January 2016 to December 2022. Following primary repair of PPUD with omental pedicle reinforcement, associated factors of leaked repair were evaluated using univariate and multivariate analyses.

Results: Overall, 360 cases were evaluated (62.8% male). Leaked repair rate was 11.7% (42 cases). Those without immunosuppression were 3 times less likely to have leaked repair (aOR= 0.34; 95% CI: 0.16 - 0.72; p = 0.003) while those with sepsis were 4 times more likely to have leaked repair (aOR=4.16; 95% CI: 1.06 - 12.36; p = 0.018). Patients with delayed presentation (>48 hours) were 2.5 times more likely to have leaked repair than those who presented in 0 - 24 hours (aOR=2.51; 95% CI: 3.62 - 10.57; p = 0.044). Those with Perforation diameter 2.1-3.0 cm were 8 times (aOR=7.98; 95% CI: 2.63-24.21; p<0.0001), and those with perforation diameter > 3.0cm were 33 times (aOR=33.04; 95% CI: 10.98-100.25; p<0.0001) more likely to have leaked repair than those with perforation diameter of 0-1.0 cm. Similarly, in those with no perioperative shock, leaked repair was 4 times less likely to develop than those with perioperative shock (aOR= 0.42; 95% CI: 0.41-0.92; p = 0.041). There was significant statistical difference in morbidity (p = 0.003) and mortality (p < 0.0001) rates for cases of leaked repairs and successful repairs.

Conclusion: Leaked repair following omentopexy for peptic ulcer perforation was significantly associated with large perforation diameter, delayed presentation, sepsis, immunosuppressive therapy, and perioperative shock.

Knowledge, Attitude and Perceptions of Healthcare Workers in Arab Countries Regarding Basic Life Support; a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Mohammed Alsabri Hussein Alsabri, Sarah Makram Elsayed, Alaa Ahmed Elshanbary, Mohamed Sayed Zaazouee, Basel F. Alqeeq, Syeda Alishah Zehra, Khaled Mohammed Al-Sayaghi, Sameer A. Alkubati, Gamil Ghaleb Alrubaiee (Author)

Archives of Academic Emergency Medicine, Vol. 12 No. 1 (2024), 1 January 2024, Page e32

Introduction: Effective Basic Life Support (BLS) interventions, including cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), are essential for enhancing survival rates. This review aimed to evaluate the knowledge, attitudes, and perceptions (KAP) of healthcare professionals regarding BLS in Arab countries.

Methods: We conducted a systematic search on PubMed, Cochrane, Scopus, Web of Science, and EMBASE, to identify relevant studies. We included studies performed in Arab countries that included healthcare workers' KAP assessment towards BLS. The meta-analysis was carried out utilizing the OpenMeta Analyst Software, and a subgroup analysis was performed for Nursing staff category. The quality of the included cross-sectional studies was assessed through Newcastle-Ottawa quality assessment scale.

Results: A total of 18 studies were included in our study, and eight of them entered the analysis. The study showed that 61.3% (95% confidence interval (CI): 48.9%, 73.7%, p<0.001) of health care workers were knowledgeable about the correct CPR ratio, and 62.1% (95% CI: 51.7%, 72.5%, p<0.001) answered the location of chest compression correctly. While, only 36.5% (95% CI: 23.5%, 49.6%, p<0.001) had correct answers regarding the compression rate, 48.1% (95% CI: 38.1%, 58.0%, p<0.001) were aware of the compression depth, and 34.8% (95% CI: 22.9%, 46.7%, p<0.001) answered the sequence correctly.

Conclusion: The study revealed a gap regarding the BLS KAP of healthcare workers in different Arab countries, which crucially requires taking actions, in terms of frequent certified training sessions, assessments, and clear protocols.

Carnitine in Alleviation of Complications Caused by Acute Valproic Acid Toxicity; an Exprimental Study on Mice

Akram Jamshidzadeh, Reza Heidari, Mahdie Shams, Melika Ebrahimi-sharghi, Sayed Mahdi Marashi (Author)

Archives of Academic Emergency Medicine, Vol. 12 No. 1 (2024), 1 January 2024, Page e20

Introduction: Hyperammonemia and hepatotoxicity are well-known complications of valproic acid (VPA) poisoning. The objective of this study is to evaluate the potential role of carnitine in mitigating the adverse effects of acute VPA toxicity in mice.

Methods: 54 male mice (25-30 g) were randomly assigned to one of three categories, including acute, sub-acute, and chronic poisoning. Each category contained 3 groups, each consisting of 6 mice (Group 1: control, Group 2: VPA treated, and Group 3: VPA + carnitine treated). The animals were sacrificed 24 hours after the initial injection, and their blood, liver, and brain samples were compared between groups of each category regarding liver function biomarkers, oxidative stress markers, ammonia level, and liver histopathologic changes using one-way ANOVA followed by Tukey’s multiple comparison test.

Results: The administration of VPA increased the serum level of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) (p=0.003) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) (p=0.001), as well as serum, and brain level of ammonia (p=0.0001 for both) in the intervention group. Elevated levels of lipid peroxidation and oxidative stress (p=0.0001 for both) in the liver tissue, decreased liver glutathione (p=0.0001) and ferric ion-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) (p=0.0001), and histopathologic changes in the form of moderate to severe inflammation were observed. Administration of VPA + carnitine reduced AST (p=0.05) and ALT (p=0.01), increased the FRAP, reduced free oxygen radicals and liver lipid peroxidation (p=0.0001 for all), and decreased tissue damage in the form of moderate inflammation. The administration of carnitine was ineffective in reducing brain or plasma ammonia levels in acute VPA-treated animals (p = 0.0115).

Conclusions: Although the administration of carnitine has been suggested as a protective remedy in cases of VPA toxicity, according to the present study, it did not have an antidotal effect and did not prevent encephalopathy or liver injury in acute VPA toxicity.

National Early Warning Score in Predicting Adverse Outcomes for Patients Admitted to Emergency Department; a Prognostic Accuracy Study

Setareh Asgarzadeh, Abbas Ebadi, Ali Saberi Shahrbabaki, Saeed Safari, Seyed Hadi Aghili, Mehri Farhang Ranjbar, Shayan Sadeghi (Author)

Archives of Academic Emergency Medicine, Vol. 12 No. 1 (2024), 1 January 2024, Page e1

Introduction: Overcrowding in emergency departments (ED) is a global concern, emphasizing the need for effective resource allocation. Triage plays a crucial role in prioritizing patients based on medical needs. This study aimed to evaluate the accuracy of National Early Warning Score (NEWS) in predicting the ED patients’ outcomes.

Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in two tertiary hospitals in Tehran, Iran, from June to July 2023. Adult patients presenting to ED were included. Data for calculating the NEWs and emergency severity index (ESI), as well as outcomes were recorded by trained nurses, and then the accuracy of each score in predicting the outcomes was evaluated.

Results: A total of 2,085 patients were analyzed. The majority were male (57%) with a mean age of 54.4 years. The primary outcome, cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) within 24 hours of admission, occurred in 1.9% of patients, while the need for intensive care unit (ICU) care and/or mechanical ventilation happened in 3.4%, and CPR or need for ICU care and/or mechanical ventilation was observed in 4.3% of studied cases. Each one-point increase in NEWS was associated with a 52% higher likelihood of CPR (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.41 to 1.65, p<0.001). Receiver operating characteristic curve analyses for the NEWS yielded the optimum cut-off value to be 6 for all three outcomes, with an overall area under the curve (AUC) of 0.856 (95% CI: 0.840 to 0.871), 0.834 (95% CI: 0.817 to 0.850), and 0.854 (95% CI: 0.838 to 0.869) for the primary, secondary, and tertiary outcomes, respectively.

Conclusion: NEWS ≥ 6 was associated with a higher incidence of adverse outcomes, including ICU admission and need for CPR. The good predictive validity of NEWS highlights its value in identifying patients at higher risk of adverse outcomes.

Characteristics of Hospitalized Pediatric Patients Following Traumatic Open Globe Injuries; a Cross-sectional Study

Alireza Peyman, Alireza Dehghani, Alireza Hoghooghi, Kazhaal Sheykhi, Mehri Khoshhali, Mahdi Abounoori, Hajar Khosrropour, Mohsen Pourazizi (Author)

Archives of Academic Emergency Medicine, Vol. 12 No. 1 (2024), 1 January 2024, Page e28

Introduction: One of the main causes of acquired blindness and impairment in children is ocular trauma. This study aimed to evaluate the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of pediatric patients hospitalized with open globe injuries (OGI).

Methods: A retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted on children diagnosed with OGI at a referral Hospital affiliated with Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran, from 2014 to 2018.

Results: 375 OGI medical records were detected during the study period. The common culprits for OGI in boys were knives (21.3%), wood (19.7%), metal bodies (12.2%), and glass (11.8%). In girls, the common causes were knives (28.7%), glass (24.3%), pencils (11.3%), and wood (10.4%). Boys had a greater rate of Intraocular foreign body (IOFB) (p= 0.052but had lower odds of blindness compared to girls (OR=0.48; 95% CI: (0.24, 0.98); p = 0.04). Patients with corneal lacerations had lower chances of long-term admission than those with corneal and scleral lacerations (OR= 0.35, 95% CI: (0.17, 0.69); p = 0.02).

Conclusion: Most pediatric OGIs occur in boys. knives were the principal culprit for OGI, followed by glass and wood. Boys had a greater IOFB rate but lower blindness odds than girls.

Prevalence, Complications, and Risk Factors of Falls and Fear of Falling Among Older Adults; Based on Ardakan Cohort Study on Aging (ACSA)

Ahmad Delbari, Amirali Azimi, Morvarid Najafi, Mohammad Saatchi, Mohammad Bidkhori, Mohammad Bidkhori, Mohammad Ebrahim Mousavi, Fatemeh-sadat Tabatabaei, Elham Hooshmand (Author)

Archives of Academic Emergency Medicine, Vol. 12 No. 1 (2024), 1 January 2024, Page e9

Introduction: The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence of falls, fear of falling (FOF), complications arising from falls, and identify possible sociodemographic and health-related factors associated with these outcomes among older adults.

Methods: This cross-sectional study was based on the first wave of the Ardakan Cohort Study on Aging (ACSA), which includes participants over 50 years of age residing in Ardakan, Iran. Fall history, number of fall events, FOF, hospitalizations, and fractures in the past 12 months were assessed through a face-to-face interview. Health-related factors were recorded on a self-expressed basis. Associations were assessed using multiple logistic regression.

Results: Among the 4,990 participants, fall history in the past 12 months was prevalent in 19.9%, with 10.1% reporting more than two fall events. Women (p < 0.001) and older participants (p< 0.001) had a higher prevalence. In females, 28.8% reported moderate to severe FOF, while 21% experienced disruptions in their daily activities as a result of this fear. The prevalence of fractures following falls was 5.1% in males and 8.6% in females. After adjusting for confounding factors, FOF (OR: 1.59, 95% CI: 1.33-1.91, p<0.001), imbalance (OR: 2.45, 95% CI: 1.68-3.58, p<0.001), urinary incontinence (OR: 1.44, 95% CI: 1.04-1.9, p=0.025), cognitive impairment (OR: 1.21, 95% CI: 1.01-1.46, p=0.049), vertigo or dizziness (OR: 1.39, 95% CI: 1.15-1.68, p<0.001), osteoporosis (OR: 1.24, 95% CI: 1.03-1.50, p=0.023), osteoarthritis (OR: 1.33, 95% CI: 1.13-1.56, p=0.001), depression (OR: 1.30, 95% CI: 1.06-1.60, p=0.010), and Central Nervous System (CNS)-affecting diseases (OR: 1.99, 95% CI: 1.33-2.97, p=0.001) were found to have positive associations with falls.

Conclusion: This study showed that about one-fifth of those over 50 in Iran have experienced at least one fall within a year. Self-expressed imbalance, FOF, and urinary incontinence were the most prominent risk factors. Due to resulting in hospitalization and fractures, falls also lead to fear of falling and the associated limitation of activities.

Acute Serum Calcium Level Changes Following Non-Massive Blood and Blood Product Transfusion in Emergency Department; a Cross-sectional Study

Halil Emre Koyuncuoglu, Basak Yuksek, Sırma Karamercan, Mehmet Akif Karamercan (Author)

Archives of Academic Emergency Medicine, Vol. 12 No. 1 (2024), 1 January 2024, Page e19

Introduction: The specific impact on calcium dynamics after non-massive blood transfusions remains relatively unexplored. This study aimed to compare pre- and post-transfusion calcium levels in patients receiving blood and blood product in the emergency department.

Methods: This is a single-center, prospective, cross-sectional study conducted at the Emergency Department of Gazi University Health Research and Application Center Hospital in Ankara, Turkey, from January 1, 2020, to August 31, 2020. The study included adult patients who underwent blood and blood product transfusions, and serum calcium levels were measured and compared from samples taken before and after transfusion.

Results: A total of 292 participants were enrolled in the study, with 242 participants included in the final analysis. The mean total calcium level was 8.41 ± 0.76 mg/dL before transfusion and 8.34 ± 0.71 mg/dL after transfusion (p=0.012). When examining the corrected calcium values after receiving blood products based on the type of blood products, participants who received apheresis platelets had a post-transfusion corrected calcium value of 8.26 ±0.41 mg/dL, with a pre-transfusion value of 9.09 ±0.49 mg/dL (p<0.01). The post-transfusion ionized calcium value for participants receiving apheresis was 1.04 ±0.08 mg/dL, compared to 1.15 ±0.09 mg/dL for those who did not receive apheresis (p=0.049). There was a significant relationship between receiving fresh frozen plasma and post-transfusion ionized calcium values (p=0.024).

Conclusion: This study demonstrated that transfusion-associated hypocalcemia can occur even at mild levels in patients receiving blood and blood product transfusions in the emergency department. However, it is suggested that the clinical effects of hypocalcemia, even when occurring based on the type and quantity of blood products, are minimal and negligible.

Review Article

The Effect of Aromatherapy with Lavender on Pain of Needle Insertion and Severity of Restless Legs Syndrome in Hemodialysis Patients; a Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

Fatemeh Izadi, Seyed Amirhossein Mazhari, Masoomeh Najafi, Mohammad Taghi Ashoobi, Milad Sarafi, Samad Karkhah, Pooyan Ghorbani Vajargah , Poorya Takasi, Mahbobeh Firooz , Seyed Javad Hosseini , Nurten OZEN (Author)

Archives of Academic Emergency Medicine, Vol. 12 No. 1 (2024), 1 January 2024, Page e4

Introduction: Pain experienced during the insertion of a catheter into the arteriovenous fistula (AVF) and restless legs syndrome (RLS) are prevalent issues among Hemodialysis (HD) patients. The primary objective of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to consolidate the findings from randomized clinical trial (RCT) studies examining the impact of aromatherapy with lavender on the pain associated with AVF catheter insertion and RLS in HD patients.

Methods: A systematic search was conducted on PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, Cochrane, Embase, ClinicalTrials.gov, and Google Scholar search engine from inception to August 1, 2022, using keywords extracted from Medical Subject Headings, such as “Aromatherapy”, “Lavender”, “Arteriovenous fistula”, “Pain”, “Restless legs syndrome”, and “Hemodialysis”.

Results: Finally, eleven articles were included in this systematic review and meta-analysis. The results showed that aromatherapy reduced the average pain of catheter insertion in AVF compared to the control group (Standard Mean Difference: -1.60, 95% Confidence Interval: -2.32 to -0.87, Z=4.32, I2:90.3%, P<0.001). Also, aromatherapy massage reduced the average severity of RLS compared to the control group, which was statistically significant (Weighted Mean Difference: -13.21, 95% Confidence Interval: -17.50 to -8.91, Z=6.03, I2:93.0%, P<0.001). Also, the subgroup analysis showed that lavender in the intervention group significantly decreased the pain intensity compared to the "no intervention" group (P<0.001), yet it was not significant compared to the placebo group (P=0.12).

Conclusion: In summary, the findings indicate a notable reduction in catheter insertion pain in AVF and relief from RLS among HD patients through the use of lavender essential oil. As a result, future research is encouraged to include a comparison of lavender's effects with those of a placebo group.

The Impact of The COVID-19 Pandemic on Hospital Admissions Due to Road Traffic Crashes; a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Neda Kabiri, Amin Abbasi, Fariba Pashazadeh, Sakineh Hajebrahimi, Hassan Soleimanpour (Author)

Archives of Academic Emergency Medicine, Vol. 12 No. 1 (2024), 1 January 2024, Page e12

Introduction: During the unprecedented COVID-19 lockdowns, road traffic was limited, and a change in the traumatic emergency admission pattern was anticipated. We conducted the current systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on hospital admissions due to road traffic crashes.

Methods: This systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted based on the Joanna Briggs Institute (JBI) instructions. The following databases were searched: PubMed, ISI Web of Knowledge, Scopus, ProQuest, and the Cochrane Library. Two independent reviewers screened articles based on the inclusion criteria for the review and assessed the methodological quality of the included studies using an appropriate appraisal checklist, introduced by the JBI, based on the study type. The meta-analysis was performed using Comprehensive meta-analysis (CMA) software. Considering the heterogeneity among studies, a random effect model was adopted to estimate the pooled effect with 95% confidence interval (CI) for binary outcomes.

Results: A total of 13 studies were included in this systematic review, and all of them were considered for meta-analysis. According to the meta-analysis, differences in hospital admission rates during the COVID-19 pandemic and one year before this pandemic were statistically significant [RR: 0.685 CI 95% (0.578 -0.813) p<0.00001]. The heterogeneity assessment of the included studies in the meta-analysis showed high heterogeneity (I2=78%, p<0.00001).

Conclusion: The results of this systematic review showed that the COVID-19 pandemic dramatically reduced the number of hospital admissions related to road traffic crashes because of both quarantines and lifestyle changes. Health policymakers and top health managers might use the results of this systematic review in similar contexts in the future.

Diagnostic and Prognostic Values of S100B versus Neuron Specific Enolase for Traumatic Brain Injury; a Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

Hamed Zarei, Shayan Roshdi Dizaji, Amirmohammad Toloui, Mahmoud Yousefifard, Alireza Esmaeili (Author)

Archives of Academic Emergency Medicine, Vol. 12 No. 1 (2024), 1 January 2024, Page e29

Introduction: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) represents a significant global health burden. This systematic review delves into the comparison of S100B and Neuron-Specific Enolase (NSE) regarding their diagnostic and prognostic accuracy in TBI within the adult population.

Methods: Conducted on October 21, 2023, the search identified 24 studies encompassing 6454 adult patients. QUADAS-2 and QUAPAS tools were employed to assess the risk of bias. The analyses aimed to evaluate the diagnostic and prognostic performance of S100B and NSE based on sensitivity, specificity, and area under the curve (AUC). The outcomes were detecting intracranial injury, mortality, and unfavorable outcome.

Results: Pooled data analysis tended towards favoring S100B for diagnostic and prognostic purposes. S100B exhibited a diagnostic AUC of 0.74 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.70-0.78), sensitivity of 80% (95% CI: 63%-90%), and specificity of 59% (95% CI: 45%-72%), outperforming NSE with an AUC of 0.66 (95% CI: 0.61–0.70), sensitivity of 74% (95% CI: 53%-88%), and specificity of 46% (95% CI: 24%-69%). Notably, both biomarkers demonstrated enhanced diagnostic value when blood samples were collected within 12 hours post-injury. The analyses also revealed the excellent diagnostic ability of S100B with a sensitivity of 99% (95% CI: 4%-100%) and a specificity of 76% (95% CI: 51%-91%) in mild TBI patients (AUC = 0.89 [0.86–0.91]). In predicting mortality, S100B showed a sensitivity of 90% (95% CI: 65%-98%) and specificity of 61% (95% CI: 39%-79%), slightly surpassing NSE's performance with a sensitivity of 88% (95% CI: 76%-95%) and specificity of 56% (95% CI: 47%-65%). For predicting unfavorable outcomes, S100B exhibited a sensitivity of 83% (95% CI: 74%-90%) and specificity of 51% (95% CI: 30%-72%), while NSE had a sensitivity of 80% (95% CI: 64%-90%) and specificity of 59% (95% CI: 46%-71%).

Conclusion: Although neither biomarker has shown promising diagnostic performance in detecting abnormal computed tomography (CT) findings, they have displayed acceptable outcome prediction capabilities, particularly with regard to mortality.

Prevalence of Delirium and Its Related Factors in Burn Patients; a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Hamidreza Alizadeh Otaghvar , Ramyar Farzan, Parham Tamimi, Aliasghar Ghaderi, Masoomeh Najafi, Mobina Tohidian, Fatemeh Izadi, Seyed Amirhossein Mazhari (Author)

Archives of Academic Emergency Medicine, Vol. 12 No. 1 (2024), 1 January 2024, Page e7

Introduction: Considering the importance of delirium disorder in burn patients and its complications, the present systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to determine the prevalence of delirium and its related factors in burn patients.

Methods: A comprehensive, systematic search was performed in different international electronic databases, such as Scopus, PubMed, and Web of Science, as well as Persian electronic databases such as Iranmedex, and Scientific Information Database (SID) using keywords extracted from Medical Subject Headings such as "Prevalence", "Delirium", and "Burns" from the earliest to the 17th of July, 2023.

Results: In total, 2,710 burn patients participated in ten original studies. Among the participants, 64.6% were male. In the ten studies, the reported pooled prevalence of delirium among burn patients was 20.5% (95% CI: 10.9% to 35.0%; I2=96.889%; P<0.001). Also, factors such as total body surface area, duration of hospitalization, mortality, days on ventilator, alcoholism, benzodiazepine dose, methadone dose, age, male gender, ICU days, operation days, wound care under anesthesia, and opioid dose had a significant correlation with the prevalence of delirium in burn patients.

Conclusion: Health managers and policymakers can reduce the prevalence of delirium in burn patients by eliminating or reducing factors associated with it.

Artificial Intelligence in Optimizing the Functioning of Emergency Departments; a Systematic Review of Current Solutions

Szymczyk Aleksandra, Krion Robert, Krzyzaniak Klaudia, Lubian Dawid, Sieminski Mariusz (Author)

Archives of Academic Emergency Medicine, Vol. 12 No. 1 (2024), 1 January 2024, Page e22

Introduction: The burgeoning burden on emergency departments is a global challenge that we have been confronting for many years. Emerging artificial intelligence (AI)-based solutions may constitute a critical component in the optimization of these units. This systematic review was conducted to thoroughly examine and summarize the currently available AI solutions, assess potential benefits from their implementation, and identify anticipated directions of further development in this fascinating and rapidly evolving field.

Methods: This systematic review utilized data compiled from three key scientific databases: PubMed (2045 publications), Scopus (877 publications), and Web of Science (2495 publications). After meticulous removal of duplicates, we conducted a detailed analysis of 2052 articles, including 147 full-text papers. From these, we selected 51 of the most pertinent and representative publications for the review.

Results: Overall the present research indicates that due to high accuracy and sensitivity of machine learning (ML) models it's reasonable to use AI in support of doctors as it can show them the potential diagnosis, which could save time and resources. However, AI-generated diagnoses should be verified by a doctor as AI is not infallible

Conclusions: Currently available AI algorithms are capable of analysing complex medical data with unprecedented precision and speed. Despite AI's vast potential, it is still a nascent technology that is often perceived as complicated and challenging to implement. We propose that a pivotal point in effectively harnessing this technology is the close collaboration between medical professionals and AI experts. Future research should focus on further refining AI algorithms, performing comprehensive validation, and introducing suitable legal regulations and standard procedures, thereby fully leveraging the potential of AI to enhance the quality and efficiency of healthcare delivery.

Treatment with Rapamycin in Animal Models of Traumatic Brain Injuries; a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Mohammad Kiah, Amir Azimi, Razieh Hajisoltani, Mahmoud Yousefifard (Author)

Archives of Academic Emergency Medicine, Vol. 12 No. 1 (2024), 1 January 2024, Page e16

Introduction: In light of the potential of enhanced functional and neurological recovery in traumatic brain injury (TBI) with the administration of rapamycin, this systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to investigate the efficacy of rapamycin treatment in animal models of TBI.

Methods: An extensive search was conducted in the electronic databases of Medline, Embase, Scopus, and Web of Science by July 1st, 2023. Two independent researchers performed the screening process by reviewing the titles and abstracts and the full texts of the relevant articles, including those meeting the inclusion criteria. Apoptosis rate, inflammation, locomotion, and neurological status were assessed as outcomes. A standardized mean difference (SMD) with a 95% confidence interval (95%CI) was calculated for each experiment, and a pooled effect size was reported. Statistical analyses were performed using STATA 17.0 software.

Results: Twelve articles were deemed eligible for inclusion in this meta-analysis. Pooled data analysis indicated notable reductions in the number of apoptotic cells (SMD for Tunnel-positive cells = -1.60; 95%CI: -2.21, -0.99, p<0.001), p-mTOR (SMD=-1.41; 95%CI: -2.03, -0.80, p<0.001), and p-S6 (SMD=-2.27; 95%CI: -3.03, -1.50, p<0.001) in TBI post-treatment. Our analysis also indicated substantial IL-1β reductions after rapamycin administration (SMD= -1.91; 95%CI: -2.61, -1.21, p<0.001). Moreover, pooled data analysis found significant neurological severity score (NSS) improvements at 24 hours (SMD= -1.16; 95%CI: -1.69, -0.62, p<0.001; I²=0.00%), 72 hours (SMD= -1.44; 95%CI: -2.00, -0.88, p<0.001; I²=0.00%), and 168 hours post-TBI (SMD= -1.56; 95%CI: -2.44, -0.68, p<0.001; I²=63.37%). No such improvement was observed in the grip test.

Conclusion: Low to moderate-level evidence demonstrated a significant decrease in apoptotic and inflammatory markers and improved neurological status in rodents with TBI. However, no such improvements were observed in locomotion recovery.

Quality Indicators of Pediatric Asthma Care in the Emergency Department; a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Islam E. Alkhazali, Ahmad Alrawashdeh, Mohd Hashairi Fauzi, Nik Hisamuddin Nik Ab Rahman (Author)

Archives of Academic Emergency Medicine, Vol. 12 No. 1 (2024), 1 January 2024, Page e26

Introduction: The quality of healthcare for pediatric asthma patients in the emergency department (ED) is of growing importance. This systematic review aimed to identify and describe existing quality indicators (QIs) designed for use in the ED for pediatric asthma care. Methods: We systematically searched three main electronic databases in May 2023 for all English-language qualitative and quantitative publications that suggested or described at least one QI related to pediatric asthma care in the ED. Two reviewers independently selected the included studies and extracted data on study characteristics, all relevant QIs reported, and the rates of compliance with these indicators when available. The identified QIs were classified according to Donabedian healthcare quality framework and the Institute of Medicine (IOM) framework. When feasible, we aggregated the compliance rates for the QIs reported in observational studies using random effects models. The quality assessment of the included studies was performed using various Joanna Briggs Institute (JBI) tools.

Results: We identified twenty studies, including six expert panels, 13 observational studies, and one trial. Together, these studies presented 129 QIs for use in EDs managing pediatric asthma. Among these QIs, 66 were pinpointed by expert panel studies, whereas 63 were derived from observational studies. Within the Donabedian framework, most indicators (86.8%) concentrated on the process of care. In contrast, within the Institute of Medicine (IOM) domain, the predominant focus was on indicators related to effectiveness and safety. Observational studies reported varying compliance rates for the 36 QIs identified in the expert studies. The included studies showed a wide range of bias risks, suggesting potential methodological variances.

Conclusions: A significant number of QIs in pediatric asthma care have been proposed or documented in literature. Although most of these indicators prioritize the process of care, there is a conspicuous absence of outcome and structure indicators. This meta-analysis uncovered significant disparities in compliance to the identified QIs, highlighting the urgent necessity for targeted interventions to enhance pediatric asthma care in ED.

Introduction: Large vessel occlusion (LVO) strokes are linked to higher mortality rates and a greater risk of long-term disability. This study aimed to evaluate the diagnostic performance of the Rapid Arterial Occlusion Evaluation (RACE) tool in detecting LVO through a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Methods: A comprehensive search was conducted across online databases including PubMed, Embase, Scopus, and Web of Science, up to June 25th, 2023. Additionally, a manual search on Google and Google Scholar was performed to identify studies that assessed the diagnostic accuracy of the RACE scale in detecting LVO among patients with stroke symptoms.

Results: Data extracted from 43 studies were analyzed. The optimal cut-off points were determined to be 3 and 4, with a sensitivity of 0.86 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.78, 0.91) and specificity of 0.57 (95% CI: 0.49, 0.67) for cut-off ≥3, and a sensitivity of 0.78 (95% CI: 0.70, 0.84) and specificity of 0.68 (95% CI: 0.59, 0.75) for cut-off ≥4. Subgroup meta-regression analysis revealed significant variations in sensitivity and specificity. RACE scale’s sensitivity was significantly higher in LVO detection in suspected stroke cases, in pre-hospital settings, prospective design studies, and when considering both anterior and posterior occlusions for LVO definition. RACE scale’s specificity was significantly higher when evaluating confirmed stroke cases, in-hospital settings, and considering only anterior occlusions for LVO definition and retrospective design studies. Notably, RACE exhibited higher sensitivity and specificity when utilized by neurologists and physicians compared to other emergency staff. Despite these variations, our study found comparable diagnostic accuracy across different conditions.

Conclusion: A high level of evidence indicates that the RACE scale lacks promising diagnostic value for detection of LVOs. A sensitivity range of 0.69 to 0.86 is insufficient for a screening tool intended to aid in the diagnosis of strokes, considering the substantial morbidity and mortality associated with this condition.

Prevalence and Related Factors of Rupture among Cases with Ectopic Pregnancy; a Systematic Review and Meta‐Analysis

Chenchen Xu , Zhilei Mao , Mi Tan , Seyed Amirhossein Mazhari , Pooyan Ghorbani Vajargah , Samad Karkhah, Fatemeh Izadi , Parisa Rouhi (Author)

Archives of Academic Emergency Medicine, Vol. 12 No. 1 (2024), 1 January 2024, Page e2

Introduction: In the absence of timely treatment, the risk of rupture in patients with ectopic pregnancy (EP) increases, which is associated with extensive bleeding, complicated surgery, and maternal death. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of rupture and its related factors among EP cases.

Methods: A comprehensive, systematic search was conducted in electronic databases, such as Scopus, PubMed, Web of Science, and Persian electronic databases such as Iranmedex, and Scientific Information Database using keywords extracted from Medical Subject Headings such as "Ectopic pregnancies", "Extrauterine pregnancies", and "Ruptured ectopic pregnancy" from the earliest to the 13th of December 2022. The CMA program, version 3, was utilized for analysis. The overall effect size was calculated using the sample size and the frequency of rupture in each of the studies. Heterogeneity was measured using the I2 statistics.

Results: A total of 5,269 women with EP participated in 17 studies. The pooled prevalence of rupture was 56.4% (95%CI: 44.9% to 67.2%; I2=98.09%; P<0.001). Factors such as number of parties, amount of β-hCG, age, history of ectopic pregnancy, cornual and isthmic pregnancies, gestational age, number of gravidities, history of tubal ligation, tubal diameters, periods of infertility, history of infertility, pregnancy by ovulation induction, extensive hemoperitoneum, ampullar and isthmic pregnancies, ampullar pregnancies, preoperative heart rate (HR), triage, triage shock index (SI), abdominal pain, single marital status, preoperative hemoglobin levels, preoperative hematocrit levels, history of pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), and use of contraceptives were associated with the prevalence of rupture in EP cases.

Conclusion: Based on the findings, 56.4% of EP cases experienced rupture and various factors influence its  prevalence. As a result, health managers and policymakers can address and mitigate modifiable factors contributing to rupture in EP cases by implementing regular consultations and screenings.

Case Report

The Autoimmune Hemolytic Anemia following Septic Shock with Escherichia Coli; a Case Report

Duong Le Xuan, Nhi Vo Thuy Tran, Giang Le Duc, Ninh Nguyen Duc, Ghi Nguyen Hai, Hoa Do Thanh (Author)

Archives of Academic Emergency Medicine, Vol. 12 No. 1 (2024), 1 January 2024, Page e5

Sepsis is a severe, life-threatening illness caused when the immune system responds inappropriately to infections, causing organ deterioration and negatively affecting the systems inside the body, one of which is the coagulation system. Most hematologic changes in red blood cells (RBCs) are non-antibody-mediated hemolytic anemia (NAHA). Autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) is a rare condition, challenging in diagnosis, requiring prompt recognition and management. Warm hemolytic anemia has recently been reported in patients with septic shock. This report presents a sepsis-induced autoimmune hemolytic anemia case. A 44-year-old Vietnamese female with no chronic disease came to the emergency department because of sudden periumbilical colicky pain after consuming a fresh garden salad. The abdominal pain appeared nine hours after the meal, following vomiting. Twelve hours later, she developed diarrhea, subsequently a fever, and chills. She was admitted to the emergency department in the fifteenth hour of the first symptom. Septic shock, multiple organ failure, and warm autoimmune hemolysis were all present in the patient. Hemolytic anemia and multiorgan failure made the situation worse, leading to death. Autoimmunity hemolytic anemia in sepsis or septic shock is rare, but treating both emergency hemolytic anemia and potential infectious etiology is crucial in acute situations.

Coincidence of Ascariasis with Appendicitis in a Pediatric Patient with abdominal Pain; a Case Report

Marzieh Aalinezhad, Mohammad Saleh Jafarpishe, Yosra Naderi, Mahdi Shahsavan, Zahra Souri (Author)

Archives of Academic Emergency Medicine, Vol. 12 No. 1 (2024), 1 January 2024, Page e11

The simultaneous occurrence of intestinal ascariasis and appendicitis presents a challenge in diagnosing pediatric abdominal emergencies due to overlapping symptoms. We present the case of an 8-year-old boy who experienced acute abdominal pain, characterized by a severe cramp in the mid and lower right abdomen, with pain rated 7 out of 10, a mild fever, and continuous nausea. The initial evaluation suggested appendicitis, supported by an Alvarado score of 9. However, ultrasonography did not conclusively confirm appendicitis but revealed an Ascaris worm in the ileum. This finding highlights the importance of careful diagnostic processes that combine clinical assessment with imaging techniques, while being mindful of their limitations. Surgical exploration confirmed retrocecal appendicitis coexisting with an Ascaris lumbricoides infection. The treatment involved surgical removal of the affected appendix and pharmacological expulsion of the parasitic worm using albendazole, which proved effective. This report emphasizes the consideration of ascariasis in diagnosing appendicitis, particularly in areas where intestinal parasites are common. It also demonstrated the improved diagnostic accuracy achieved through clinical scoring and imaging, thus reducing the risk of missing dual pathologies in young patients with acute abdominal pain.

Ventricular Septal Defect and Mitral Regurgitation Due to Penetrating Cardiac Trauma; a Case Report and Review of Literature

Hojjat Mortezaeian , Avisa Tabib, Hamidreza Pouraliakbar, Mohsen Anafje, Pouya Ebrahimi, Parnian Soltani (Author)

Archives of Academic Emergency Medicine, Vol. 12 No. 1 (2024), 1 January 2024, Page e25

Penetrating cardiac trauma is a fatal condition and can result in the injury of various parts of the heart. Ventricular Septal Defect (VSD) following these traumas occurs only in 1-5% of cases. The patients' conditions depend on location, size, and concomitant injuries. One of the uncommon coincidences with the VSD is Mitral Regurgitation (MR) due to injury to sub-valvular structures. In this study, we report a case of concomitant traumatic-induced VSD and MR in a 14-year-old boy following a stab wound to his chest. The patient was a teenage boy coming to the Rajaei Cardiology Hospital emergency room following a stab wound to the anterior and left part of his chest. Despite primary urgent surgery, his breathlessness had continued for three more months. Evaluations with Transthoracic Echocardiography (TTE) revealed VSD with concomitant MR, but there was no papillary muscle rupture. Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and angiographic evaluation confirmed the provisional diagnosis. The Amplatzer VSD occluder repaired the VSD, and the patient was discharged following the resolution of his symptoms. Although the MR has been present in the follow-up echocardiography, the patient has been asymptomatic. Since the initial presenting symptoms and signs of VSD and MR might be subtle or delayed, imaging modalities such as TTE and Transesophageal Echocardiogram (TEE) are beneficial in determining the diagnosis and the optimal treatment.

Acellular Fish Skin for Deep Dermal Traumatic Wounds Management; Introducing a Novel Dressing

Esmaeil Biazar, Reza Zandi, Saeed Haidari-Keshel, Majid rezaei tavirani, Reza Vafaee, Mostafa Rezaei Tavirani, Reza M Robati (Author)

Archives of Academic Emergency Medicine, Vol. 12 No. 1 (2024), 1 January 2024, Page e14

The optimal therapy for deep wounds is based on the early debridement of necrotic tissue followed by wound coverage to avoid a systemic inflammatory response and optimize scar-free healing. The outcomes are affected by available resources and underlying patient factors, which cause challenges in wound care and suboptimal outcomes.

Here we report a patient with deep dermal injury wounds, who was treated with platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) gel, plasma rich in growth factor (PRGF) gel, and acellular fish skin. Patient’s outcomes regarding healing and scar quality were collected objectively and subjectively for one year after the injury. Wounds treated with acellular fish skin demonstrated accelerated wound healing, a significantly higher water-storage capacity, and better pain relief. Furthermore, improved functional and cosmetic outcomes, such as elasticity, skin thickness, and pigmentation, were demonstrated. It seems that, the PRGF gel and PRF in combination with acellular fish skin grafts resulted in the faster healing of wounds and better functional and aesthetic outcomes than split-thickness skin grafts treatment.

Infected Ruptured Pseudo-aneurysm in Descending Aorta; a Case Report

Morteza Sanei Taheri, Sayyed Mojtaba Nekooghadam, Zahra Sadat Tabatabaei , Sahar Rezaei (Author)

Archives of Academic Emergency Medicine, Vol. 12 No. 1 (2024), 1 January 2024, Page e23

Aortitis is the inflammation of the aortic wall. It can be caused by both infectious and non-infectious etiologies. Mycotic aneurysm is a rare, serious medical condition and typically requires prompt treatment with antibiotics, surgical intervention, or endovascular procedures to prevent rupture and complications. Here we reported, a 66-year-old male patient with a medical history of diabetes and hypertension, who presented to the emergency department (ED) with left-sided hemiplegia. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed infarction in the right parietooccipital and left occipital lobes, demonstrating an embolic pattern. laboratory analysis revealed elevated levels of erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), C-reactive protein (CRP), and white blood cell (WBC). 

Photo Quiz

A 23-year-old Female with Abdominal Pain in the Emergency Department; a Photo Quiz

Mehdi Hashemi, Newsha Sardarzadeh, Afrooz Moradkhani, Mohammad Reza Abyaz (Author)

Archives of Academic Emergency Medicine, Vol. 12 No. 1 (2024), 1 January 2024, Page e8

A 23-year-old female patient with a history of heart disease and a pacemaker for the last four years and a cesarean section 22 days ago came to the emergency department (ED) complaining of abdominal pain. Abdominal pain started seven days ago, which was vague and intermittent at first and misdiagnosed as postpartum pain in an outpatient visit. After a few days, nausea and vomiting accompanied the patient's symptoms, the abdomen became distended, and episodes of abdominal pain occurred with shorter intervals and greater intensity. The patient was referred to the ED as the abdominal pain became more severe. The initial vital signs of the patient in the ED included a blood pressure of 100/60 mmHg, a heart rate of 98 beats/minute, respiratory rate of 18 /minute, oral temperature of 37.8 Celsius, and a saturation O2 of 96% on room air.


A Look at Archives of Academic Emergency Medicine Journal in 2023

Mehrnoosh Yazdanbakhsh (Author); Somayeh Saghaei Dehkordi

Archives of Academic Emergency Medicine, Vol. 12 No. 1 (2024), 1 January 2024, Page e21

In the 11th year of Archives of Academic Emergency Medicine (AAEM)’s activity in 2023, the journal has published 70 articles, all of which are indexed by SCOPUS, Web of Science, PubMed, and some other databases. The articles have been authored by more than two hundred researchers from various countries, including but not limited to the United States, Canada, UK, Mexico, Brazil, Spain, China, Denmark, Australia, Malaysia, Russia, Hong Kong, Türkiye, Thailand, Saudi Arabia, Egypt, Syria, India, Cyprus, Brunei, Somalia, Jordan, and Iran. We would like to thank all of the authors who trusted us with their valuable works and provided us with the articles published throughout 2023.


Lessons Learned from COVID-19 Pandemic Management in Iran; a Commentary

Reza Gharebaghi, Fatemeh Heidary, Ali Asghar Pourezzat (Author)

Archives of Academic Emergency Medicine, Vol. 12 No. 1 (2024), 1 January 2024, Page e24

Iran’s healthcare system is considered to be one of the most enduring and resilient ones in the Middle East (1). It had successful records in tackling various infectious diseases by producing vaccines at the Pasteur and Razi institutes for several years’ duration (2). However, COVID-19 has severely affected the healthcare system in Iran. From the beginning of the pandemic until January 01, 2024, over 146,000 cases lost their lives to COVID-19, with almost nine peaks resurgence (3). In this paper, the challenges regarding the control of COVID-19 in Iran are discussed, while the competences were discussed earlier (1).