Original Articles

Stigma, discrimination, and attitude towards the Chinese community in the USA and Canada during the outbreak of COVID-19

Adekunle Sanyaolu, Chuku Okorie, Aleksandra Marinkovic, Abu Abbasi, Jasmine Mangat, Sadaf Younis, Henry Chan, Urooj Jaferi

Social Determinants of Health, Vol. 6 (2020), 14 July 2020 , Page e12

Introduction: The COVID-19 outbreak, declared a global pandemic by the WHO, raises some serious health, as well as discrimination concerns worldwide. This exploratory study outlines the knowledge, stigma, and discrimination towards the Chinese community in the USA and Canada at the onset of the pandemic.
Methods: An online community-based, opt-in descriptive survey was conducted from the 20th of February 2020 through the 13th of March 2020. The study collected data with anonymity about demographics, travel history, COVID-19 knowledge, awareness, as well as stigmatization and discrimination against the Chinese community. Data was compiled with excel using descriptive statistics and Chi-square for the analysis.
Results: In this study, 148/172 (86%) respondents (P<0.05) knew how COVID-19 can spread from one person to another and 123/175 (71.5%) knew how to avoid getting the infection(P<0.05). There was some reported stigma against the Chinese community, particularly during the early days of the outbreak when it was still contained within the Chinese borders; 11/172 (6.4%) participants (P<0.05) indicated that only Chinese infected COVID-19 individuals need to be quarantined with 23/172 (13.4%) avoiding only the Chinese community(P<0.05); which demonstrates the lack of information and protocol available to the public at the time, as well as a general lack of understanding of COVID-19 by the general public. Furthermore, 52/172 (30%) of the respondents (P<0.05) blamed people from China for the COVID-19 outbreak; while 23/172 (13%) people (P<0.05) said they would avoid Chinese people and/or their communities. The level of knowledge, stigma, and discrimination with the respondent’s socio-demographic characteristics was compared as well.
Conclusion: As this was a newly diagnosed disease, lack of knowledge caused anxiety and fear among some people, which thus played the main role in the rising cases of Chinese community stigma and discrimination reported.

Autologous Plasma rich platelet versus Low Molecular weight Hyaluronic Acid in Knee Osteoarthritis

Zahra Hajihashemi, Mohammad Mahdi Emam, Mohammad-Reza Sohrabi

Social Determinants of Health, Vol. 6 (2020), 14 July 2020 , Page e15

Objective: This study aimed to compare the effect of autologous plasma rich platelet (PRP) versus Low molecular weight Hyaluronic acid (HA) on pain, function and stiffness in knee osteoarthritis during six months follow-up.

Design: Through a non-placebo blocked randomized controlled trial with parallel design on 77 patients with knee osteoarthritis; 50 in intervention group, treated by PRP; 27 in control group, treated by HA.  They received three injections and assessed before, after two and six months. Pain, stiffness and function were assessed using WOMAC and VAS. Descriptive statistics, chi-square, and ANOVA were used when appropriate.

Results: Pain reduced in both groups compared to their respective baseline (P<0.007); the reduction rates were similar in both groups (P>0.1). WOMAC and VAS scores were different between before injection and both two and six months follow-ups in both groups (P<0.001); although increasing of VAS score between two and six months follow-ups was more considerable in PRP but not statistically significant (P=0.08). Considering Kellgren-lawrence classification of knee osteoarthritis, WOMAC scores were different in patients with grade 2 and 3 in both groups (P<0.01); but VAS scores were different with grade 3 only in PRP group (P=0.009).

Conclusions: There was no difference between PRP and HA in reducing symptoms of knee osteoarthritis compare to their baseline but sustainability of the effect may be more with HA.


Review Article

A review on Quarantine during COVID-19 Outbreak: Lessons Learned from Previous Epidemics

Kimia Vakili, Elahe Ahsan, Mobina Fathi, Niloofar Deravi, Shirin Yaghoobpoor, Melika Mokhtari, Tara Fazel, Mercede Holaki, Sara Javanmardi, Reza Shekarriz-Foumani, Maryam Vaezjalali

Social Determinants of Health, Vol. 6 (2020), 14 July 2020 , Page e13

Since emergence in December 2019, the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) have caused a global pandemic that have infected so many people all around the world and led to a large number of deaths. As there are no vaccination or antiviral treatment available yet, public health measures play a substantial role in the management of this pandemic. Quarantine is one of the most effective and oldest public health measures to control the spread of communicable diseases. In response to recent COVID-19 outbreak, governments of affected countries have imposed different quarantine policies and travel bans. Quarantining people who are currently healthy but possibly infected during a pandemic is very significant due to its effectiveness, but it comes at a heavy cost. If the benefits outweigh the risks, quarantine should be used. As quarantine can have many controversial aspects, this review intends to clarify its role in disease control and other aspects of human everyday life with due attention to a couple of epidemics in the past (SARS, MERS and flu) and ongoing COVID-19 outbreak.

Policy Note

Community resilience is the key factor to overcome COVID-19 disease

Nasir Dehghan, Zeinab Ebrahimi Fard

Social Determinants of Health, Vol. 6 (2020), 14 July 2020 , Page e11

Community resilience can be defined as having the ability to cope with hardships and displaying flexible responses to daily life pressures which can vaccinate us against all types of tensions and stresses of life.

A resilient individual can stand strong in the face of social difficulties by utilizing his own biological- psychological balance. Enhancing this resilience can lead to huge progress in one’s self care and psychological skills. On the other hand, the resilience of urban communities forms the main foundation of societies’ solidarity in the face of crises and unexpected incidences.