The effectiveness of compassion focused therapy on distress tolerance, difficulty in emotion regulation and anxiety sensitivity in patients with cardiovascular disease
Social Determinants of Health,
Vol. 6 (2020),
14 July 2020
Background: Cardiovascular diseases are among the most common, chronic and debilitating diseases. This study aimed at evaluating the effectiveness of compassion focused therapy on distress tolerance, difficulty in emotion regulation and anxiety sensitivity in patients with cardiovascular disease.
Methods: It was a quasi-experimental study with pre-test, post-test and a control group. The statistical population included all cardiovascular patients in Mashhad city in 2019-2020. The sample consisted of 30 cardiovascular patients referred to Valiasr clinic that were selected by available sampling method and placed in experimental and control groups. The experimental group underwent compassion focused therapy for 8 sessions of 2 hours and, at the end, both groups received post-test. The measurement tools were distress tolerance scale, difficulties in emotion regulation scale and anxiety sensitivity scale. Data were analyzed using SPSS software and multivariate analysis of covariance.
Results: The results showed that there was a significant difference between the experimental and control groups in the variables of distress tolerance, difficulty in emotion regulation and anxiety sensitivity (P<0.05); In other words, compassion focused therapy has been effective on distress tolerance, difficulty in emotion regulation and anxiety sensitivity in patients with cardiovascular disease.
Conclusion: Based on the results, this therapeutic approach can be used to increase distress tolerance and reduce difficulty in emotion regulation and anxiety sensitivity in cardiovascular patients.
- Cardiovascular Disease
- Compassion Focused Therapy
- Distress Tolerance
- Emotion Regulation
How to Cite
Ramanathan N, Tan E, Loh LJ, Soh BS, Yap WN. Tocotrienol is a cardioprotective agent against ageing-associated cardiovascular disease and its associated morbidities. Nutr Metab (Lond). 2018;15:6. doi: 10.1186/s12986-018-0244-4. [PMID: 29387138]. [PMCID: PMC5775572].
Karunathilake SP, Ganegoda GU. Secondary prevention of cardiovascular diseases and application of technology for early diagnosis. Biomed Res Int. 2018;2018:5767864. doi: 10.1155/2018/5767864. [PMID: 29854766]. [PMCID: PMC5964583]
Sarrafzadegan N, Mohammadifard N. Cardiovascular disease in Iran in the last 40 years: Prevalence, mortality, morbidity, challenges and strategies for cardiovascular prevention. Arch Iran Med. 2019;22(4):204-10. [PMID: 31126179].
Raghfar H, Sargazi N, Mehraban S, Akbarzadeh M A, Vaez Mahdavi M R, Vahdati Manesh Z. The economic burden of coronary heart disease in Iran: A bottom-up approach in 2014. J Ardabil Univ Med Sci. 2018;18(3):341-56. doi: 10.29252/jarums.18.3.341.
Chaddha A, Robinson EA, Kline-Rogers E, Alexandris-Souphis T, Rubenfire M. Mental health and cardiovascular disease. The American journal of medicine. 2016;129(11):1145-8. doi: 10.1016/j.amjmed.2016.05.018. [PMID: 27288855]
Alizadeh S, Pazoki M, Akhlaghi Z, Behroznejad S. Comparsion of distress tolerance and affective maturation in people with and withought heart disease. The national conference on osychology and management of social pathology. Chabahar: Chabahar Branch, Islamic Azad University; 2016.
Chavanon M-L, Meyer T, Belnap BH, Huang Y, Abebe KZ, Rollman BL, Herrmann Lingen C. Emotion regulation in patients with heart failure: Its relationship with depressive symptoms and rehospitalization. J Psychosom Res. 125:109811. doi:10.1016/j.jpsychores.2019.109811. [PMID: 31450124]. [PMCID: PMC6752733].
Bahremand M, Alikhani M, Zakiei A, Janjani P, Aghaei A. Emotion risk-factor in patients with cardiac diseases: The role of cognitive emotion regulation strategies, positive affect and negative affect (A case- control study). Glob J Health Sci. 2016;8(1):173-9. doi: 10.5539/gjhs.v8n1p173. [PMID: 26234976]. [PMCID: PMC4804021].
Hatamian P, Babaei A, Rasoolzadeh Tabatabaei SK. Effectiveness of meta-cognitive based-training on emotion regulation and anxiety sensitivity in elderly with history of cardiovascular disease living in elderly care homes in Tehran city. IHC. 2020;21(4):319-29. doi: 10.29252/jhc.21.4.319.
Farris SG, Bond DS, Wu W, Stabile LM, Abrantes AM. Anxiety sensitivity and fear of exercise in patients attending cardiac rehabilitation. Ment Health Phys Act. 2018;15(1):22-6. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mhpa.2018.06.005.
Simons J, Gaher R. The Distress Tolerance Scale: Development and validation of a self-report measure. Motiv Emot. 2005;29:83-102. doi: 10.1007/s11031-005-7955-3.
Gratz KL, Roemer L. Multidimensional assessment of emotion regulation and dysregulation: Development, factor Structure, and initial validation of the difficulties in emotion regulation scale. J Psychopathol Behav Assess. 2004;26(1):41-54.
Mansouri A, Nejat H, Mansouri N. The mediating role of emotion regulation difficulties in the relationship between the brain behavioral systems and the severity of insomnia. RBS. 2017;15(4):501-7. URL: http://rbs.mui.ac.ir/article-1-571-en.html.
Horenstein A, Potter CM, Heimberg RG. How does anxiety sensitivity increase risk of chronic medical conditions? Clin Psychol, 2018;25(3):e12248. https://doi.org/10.1111/cpsp.12248.
Babaei L, Fakhri M, Jadidi M, SalehiOmran M. The impact of dialectical behavior therapy on emotion regulation and perceived social support in patients with coronary heart disease. JBUMS. 2015;17(11):21-27. URL: http://jbums.org/article-1-5391-en.html
Sheibani H, Aerab Sheibani Kh, Nezhad Amreei N, Javedani Masrour M. An investigation of the effects of the acceptance and commitment therapy in groups on the cognitive strategies of emotion regulation and self-control in coronary heart disease patients. J Med Life. 2019;12(4):361-7. doi: 10.25122/jml-2019-0035. [PMID: 32025254]. [PMCID: PMC6993306].
Rahbar Karbasdehi E, Abolghasemi A, Rahbar Karbasdehi F. The effectiveness of schema therapy integrated with rehabilitation on cognitive emotion regulation and existential anxiety in patients with congestive heart failure. J Contemp Psychother. 2018;48(1):233-9. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10879-018- 9390-2.
Shirali S, Dasht Bozorgi Z. Effect of existential group therapy on distress tolerance, existential anxiety, meta-worry and health worry in elderly women with cardiovascular disease. Iran Cardiovasc Res J. 2019;7(4):24-33. URL: http://journal.icns.org.ir/article-1-579-en.html
Craig C, Hiskey S, Spector A. Compassion focused therapy: A systematic review of its effectiveness and acceptability in clinical populations. Expert Rev Neurother. 2020;20(4):385-400. doi: 10.1080/14737175.2020.1746184. [PMID: 32196399].
Gilbert P. The origins and nature of compassion focused therapy. Br J Clin Psychol. 2014;53(1):6-41.
Horwood V, Allan S, Goss K, Gilbert P. The development of the compassion focused therapy therapist competence rating scale. Pschol Psychoter T. 2020;93(2):387-407. doi: 10.1111/bjc.12043. [PMID: 24588760].
Adibizadeh N, Sajjadian I. The effectiveness of compassion focused therapy on depression, anxiety and emotion regulation in patients with coronary heart disease. Medical Journal of Mashhad University of Medical Sciences. 2019;61(11):103-15. doi: 10.22038/mjms.2019.13769
Shojaei Vazhnany F, Sohrabi A, Azizi A, Mohammadi Rayegani M, Nasiri Hanis G. The Effectiveness of compassion-focused therapy on couple’s marital intimacy and emotion regulation. Rooyesh-e-Ravanshenasi Journal (RRJ). 2020;8(12):11-20. URL: http://frooyesh.ir/article-1-1670- en.html.
Dashtbozorgi Z. Effectiveness of self- compassion therapy on loneliness and emotion regulation of damaged women from marital infidelity. Knowledge & Research in Applied Psychology. 2018;18(4):72- 9.
Keshavarz Mohammadi R. Effectiveness of self-compassion on distress tolerance, emotion regulation and anxiety sensitivity in divorced women. Family Pathology, Counseling and Enrichment Journal. 2018;4(1):17-32. URL: http://fpcej.ir/article-1-170-en.html.
Sarmad Z, Bazargan A, Hejazi E. Research methods in behavioral sciences. Tehran: Agah; 2019.
Azizi A, Mirzaei A, Shams J. Correlation between distress tolerance and emotional regulation with students smoking dependence. Hakim Health Sys Res. 2010;13(1):11-18.
Reiss S, Peterson RA, Gursky DM, McNally RJ. Anxiety sensitivity, anxiety frequency and the prediction of fearfulness. Anxiety sensitivity, anxiety frequency and the prediction of fearfulness. Behav Res Ther. 1986;24(1):1-8. doi: 10.1016/0005-7967(86)90143-9. [PMID: 3947307].
Moradimanesh F, MirJafari SA, Goudarzi MA, Mohammad N. Examine the psychometric properties of the anxiety sensitivity index revised. Journal of Psychology. 2007;11(4):426-46.
Gilbert P. Introducing compassion-focused therapy. Adv Psychiatr Treat. 2009;15:199-208. doi: https://doi.org/10.1192/apt.bp.107.005264
- Abstract Viewed: 107 times
- PDF Downloaded: 59 times