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Research/Original Articles

The Effect of Fe203 Nanoparticles on Sperm Parameters and the Expression of Mitochondrial Apoptotic Pathway Genes in Rats With Scrotal Hyperthermia

Mahshid Deldar Abad Paskeh, Nahid Babaei, Maliheh Entezari, Mehrdad Hashemi, Abbas Doosti

Archives of Advances in Biosciences, Vol. 13 No. 2 (2022), , Page 1-8

Introduction: Hyperthermia can cause infertility in men following an increase in testicular
temperature. Oxidative stress has been found to be one of its major causes. In the present study,
the effects of iron superoxide nanoparticles on the expression of Bcl-2 and Bax family genes
were studied.
Materials and Methods: A total of 48 adult rats were purchased from the Pasteur Institute
of Iran. The rats were later divided into 4 groups: control group, control group receiving
superoxide nanoparticles (Fe2O3), hyperthermia group, h’:yperthermia group receiving
superoxide nanoparticles (Fe2O3). After RNA extraction, evaluating the sperm parameters and
the expression of Bax and Bcl-2 genes was examined using RT-PCR technique.
Results: Exposure to iron superoxide nanoparticles (Fe2O3) decreased sperm parameters,
increased proapoptotic BAX gene and decreased expression of BCL2 anti-apoptotic gene.
Conclusion: Exposure to nanoparticles by reducing sperm parameters and increasing apoptosis
has a negative effect on fertility. The association between infertility and testicular hyperthermia
is becoming increasingly apparent; administration of iron superoxide (Fe2O3) nanoparticles
can have significant effects on male infertility. Moreover, green synthesis of nanoparticles is
also recommended in this field.

Introduction: Despite the improvements in antiretroviral treatments, there is no authorized
HIV vaccine; therefore, designing an effectual vaccine is essential. This study was aimed at the
immunological evaluation of HIV-1 p24-Nef adjuvanted with IFN-γin BALB/c mice with the
purpose of stimulating effective immune responses.
Materials and Methods: Forty-eight female mice were used for immunization by p24-Nef.
The mice were divided into six cohorts with eight mice in each group. Immunizations were
executed three times at three-week intervals and subcutaneously for 5μg per mouse. A couple
weeks after the last injection, humoral and cellular immune pathways were appraised in blood
serum and splenocytes respectively through applying ELISA.
Results: The results showed that the applied regimen could elicit robust immune responses
in comparison with the control. In addition, the level of total antibody production which was
observed in the group containing adjuvanted antigen of interest had a significant difference
with the control cohort (P<0.0001). Moreover, IgG2a was the uppermost isotype (Th1-biased
response) in the immunized group that had p24-Nef antigen with IFN-γ adjuvant. In spite of
antibody secretion, the cellular immune response was the predominant stimulated pathway.
The potency of IFN-γ as an adjuvant for induction of a quantifiably extensive Th1 pathway
was shown to be more significant given the outcomes of cytokine assay, IgGisotype, and CTL
Conclusion: The results of the current study indicated that the p24-Nef antigen is able to
stimulate the humoral and cellular immune responses in immunized mice, either on its own
or when formulated with adjuvant. Thus, the high immune system stimulated by p24-Nef
injection regimen went along with IFN-γ adjuvant, offering a potential option for an efficient
vaccine against HIV-1.

Comparing Para-clinical and Laboratory Methods of Covid-19 Diagnosis in Iran

Hamid Chegni, Hedieh Haji Khodaverdi Khani, Fatemeh Eskandari malayeri, Farhoodeh Ghaedrahmati, Mohammad Heidarvand

Archives of Advances in Biosciences, Vol. 13 No. 2 (2022), , Page 1-10

Introduction: Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) caused by Severe Acute Respiratory
Syndrome Coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) was first discovered in China in late 2019 and spread
rapidly worldwide. This study aimed to correlate positive real time Reverse Transcriptase
Polymerase Reaction (RT-PCR) results after one month of follow-up with laboratory findings
of the same patients at hospital admission to predict clinical outcome and diagnosis.
Materials and Methods: We conducted a retrospective study on the laboratory findings of
299 adult patients suspected of COVID-19. Patients were admitted to hospital from March
21 to May 25, 2021 with final follow-up of one month for each patient. After one month of
follow-up, 233 patients recovered; however, in 64 patients the symptoms worsened. For these
patients RT-PCR was performed and some patients needed chest Computed Tomography
(CT) imaging and were hospitalized. We extracted laboratory findings of these 64 patients and
correlated the results of their RT-PCR with their laboratory findings.
Results: Based on our findings, severe cases are middle-aged adults (P=0.001) with
lymphopenia (P<0.001), decreased levels of white blood cells (WBCs) (P<0.001), and platelets
(P=0.007) count along with elevated COVID-19 IgG antibody (P=0.002) and Erythrocyte
Sedimentation Rate (ESR) (P<0.001).
Conclusion: RT-PCR is not necessary at admission; instead, some routine hematology
examinations and serological tests can predict the prognosis of COVID- 19 disease.


Introduction: Flask-adherent Splenocytes (SACs) fulfill antigen-presenting cell requirements
of acquired immune responses. This study was done to evaluate the efficacy of new
immunotherapy against breast cancer made by SACs pulsed with the extract of heated 4T1
cells and Lactobacillus casei, as a probiotic.
Materials and Methods: Mammary carcinoma was induced by injection of 4T1 cell line in
the flank of female Balb/c mice. The first SACs therapy was started on day 11 after tumor
induction when all animals had developed a palpable tumor. SACs therapy was done twice at
a 10-day interval.
Results: Mice with mammary tumors received SACs pulsed with combined heated 4T1 cells
and L. casei determined a more desirable survival curve and a slower rate of tumor development
compared to the other groups. At least 20% of the group receiving combined immunotherapy
were alive by day 58. Those mice receiving SACs pulsed with the Lysate of heated tumor
cells died by day 45.The maximum survival of other mice was up to 38 days after tumor
induction. Moreover, SAC pulsed with combined agents significantly amplified the secretion
of Interferon-γ (IFN-γ), and conversely reduced the secretion of Transforming growth factor-β
(TGF-β) and Interleukin 4 (IL-4) in the splenocyte population compared to splenocytes from
other groups. Combined immunotherapy increased the expression of p53 and caspase 3 genes
and reduced the exertion of BCL2 more than other immunotherapy protocols.
Conclusion: Immunotherapy with SACs pulsed with heated 4T1 cells and L. casei promotes
beneficial outcomes in the mouse model of breast cancer.

Anodal Effects of Transcranial Electrical Stimulation of Right Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex on Working Memory of Patients with Multiple Sclerosis

Hamid Alipour, Mohammad Nasehi, Mehdi Tehranidoost, Mohammad hossein Harirchian, Mohammad reza Zarrindast

Archives of Advances in Biosciences, Vol. 13 No. 2 (2022), , Page 1-7

Introduction: Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is a chronic, autoimmune and progressive neurological
disease that causes a wide range of cognitive deficits in patients by destroying the Central
Nervous System (CNS). This study aims to examine the effect of Transcranial Direct Current
Stimulation (tDCS) on working memory of patients with MS.
Materials and Methods: For this purpose, a quasi-experimental pre-t-est, post-test design
with the control group was considered. In total, 32 patients with relapsing-remitting MS were
selected using the convenience sampling method and randomly divided into experimental
and control groups. The intervention consisted of 10 sessions of cranial electrical stimulation,
during which the participants were divided into two groups receiving real and sham stimulation.
N-Back test was employed to evaluate working memory.
Results: The data were analyzed using the independent t-test. The results revealed that working
memory was improved in the experimental group compared to the control group (P<0.05).
Conclusion: It could be concluded that anodal tDCS over the right dorsolateral prefrontal
cortex (R-DLPFC) appears to be a promising therapeutic tool for cognitive dysfunction among
patients with MS.

Survey of the Relationship between Fatty Liver Disease in Men by Ultrasound and Serum Ferritin Level

Amin Saeedi, Milad Rezaiye; Fatemeh Saeed; Rasoul Raesi; Mehdi Raei, Salman Farahbakhsh; Salman Daneshi

Archives of Advances in Biosciences, Vol. 13 No. 2 (2022), , Page 1-7

Introduction: The most common hepatic disease is fatty liver. Raised serum ferritin levels are often described as an indicator of liver function. The present study aimed to evaluate the correlation between fatty liver in men by ultrasound and serum ferritin levels in patients referred to Imam Khomeini Hospital in Jiroft in 2020.

Materials and Methods: In this case series study, there is both a descriptive and an analytical component. The study population consisted of all male patients with fatty liver. Patients were included in the study after being visited by a specialist and thus diagnoses their fatty liver were mades by ultrasound.  After clinical examination and diagnosis of fatty liver, patients were prepared on a fasting basis for Paraclinical tests (serum levels of iron, and ferritin).  After collecting data from patient surveys based on a researcher-made checklist, the data were entered into SPSS V23 (22).

Results: The mean age of patients was 46.8± 16.7. 27. There was a statistically significant correlation between ferritin level and disease severity based on the ultrasound view (P-value = 0.000). Also, there was a significant correlation between serum iron level and disease severity based on the ultrasound view (P-value = 0.005).

Conclusion: The present study findings indicate a correlation between the severity of fatty liver disease and the level of serum ferritin and iron. Therefore, we need to pay special attention to the level of these indicators in patients with fatty liver.

Coronavirus-induced Anxiety among Pregnant Women

Hedyeh Askarpour, Atefeh Beigzadeh, Shohreh Alian Samakkhah; Sara Orouei ; Salman Daneshi

Archives of Advances in Biosciences, Vol. 13 No. 2 (2022), , Page 1-7

Introduction: Anxiety about COVID-19 is common and seems to be mostly due to the unknown and confusing nature of the virus. Given the effects of stress on maternal and fetal health and the lack of a similar study on this issue and the importance of the issue, so we decided to assess the degree of anxiety in COVID-19 in pregnant women.

Materials and Methods: The present study is a cross-sectional study (descriptive-analytical). The statistical population of this study includes pregnant women referred to Kashani Hospital in Jiroft from March to August 2020. A total of 182 pregnant women referred to the hospital were interred in the study.

Results: The mean age of pregnant women was 27.2±7.2 years. Among the demographic factors of pregnant women, only a significant relationship was seen between maternal age and anxiety caused by COVID-19. Also, the mean anxiety of psychological symptoms was significantly higher than the physical symptoms (P<0.001). Both factors indicated moderate anxiety.

Conclusion: Given that there is currently limited information available to pregnant women with COVID-19 and its complications in pregnant mothers, it is necessary to pay more attention to corona prevention training programs and how to deal with stress and anxiety in pregnant women.

Examining Effects of Pilates Workout and Jujube Supplementation on Liver Fat Content, Enzymes, and Platelet Count

Farzane lael rudi, Ali Younesian, Nasrin Razavianzadeh, Rasoul Raesi

Archives of Advances in Biosciences, Vol. 13 No. 2 (2022), , Page 1-13

Introduction: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the fastest-growing health issues worldwide. This study aimed to assess the effect of an eight-week Pilates exercise program and jujube supplementation on liver fat content, liver enzymes, and platelet count in women with NAFLD.

Materials and Methods: The current work is a pretest-posttest quasi-experimental study with a control group. Forty middle-aged women with NAFLD were selected via purposive sampling and allocated randomly to four equal groups, including jujube, Pilates, Pilates+jujube, and control. Liver enzymes measurement, platelet count, and ultrasonography were conducted to determine the fatty liver degree 24 hours before and 48 hours after the intervention. The Pilates protocol was performed three sessions weekly for eight weeks. The jujube supplementation group and the Pilates+jujube group consumed .4 g/kg jujube daily in the morning and evening. The collected data were analyzed in SPSS software, using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov, ANOVA, and dependent t-test. The level of significance was set at P <.05.

Results: AST, platelet count, waist-to-hip ratio, and fat levels in the Pilates, jujube, and Pilates+jujube groups changed significantly compared with the control group and baseline values (P <.05).

Conclusion: Pilates exercise and jujube consumption can lower serum enzyme concentrations along with fat content of the liver and raise blood platelet count. As a result, they may be regarded as efficient techniques to treat NAFLD.

Error Detection in Patients’ Pharmaceutical Data: Application of Ontology-Based Text Miner

Hamid Moghaddasi, Reza Rabiei, Sara Shadmani

Archives of Advances in Biosciences, Vol. 13 No. 2 (2022), , Page 1-5

 Introduction: Medication errors in patients’ medical records can influence the healthcare quality and cause risks for them. It is, therefore, crucial to apply appropriate procedures to reduce these errors. This study sought to develop a software for detecting medication errors through qualitative analysis of patients’ medical records.

Materials and Methods: The software was developed using object-oriented analysis and Java. The text was first pre-analyzed using a framework known as Stanford Core NLP. In the next stage, the text was turned into a semi-structured passage to be connected to Dr Onontology using Apache Jena framework. The name and dosage of available drugs were then extracted in the physician order forms and the patient progress notes. The areas of mismatch were identified through comparing the data obtained from these two forms.

Results: Software assessment was conducted in two stages. In the first stage, the capability of the software in proper recognition of medicine’s name was measured, as100 completed forms containing physician order forms with a total number of 1014 drugs were used for text mining and error detection. After running the analysis in the error detection software, 93% of the drugs were properly recognized. In the next stage, comparisons were made between the physician order forms and the patient progress notes to find possible mismatches. Out of 1000 recorded drugs in the analyzed forms, the software was able to properly detect mismatches in 91.8% of the cases. The medication data available in i2b2 were used for conducting the assessment.

Conclusion: Given that medical records are of paramount importance and their human analysis is a complicated and time-consuming process, deployment of a text miner with the capability of quality analysis could facilitate error detection efficiently and effectively.

General Health Subcomponents and Marital Satisfaction: Examining a Correlation during COVID-19

Rasoul Raesi, Marjan Moradi, Sam Saghari , Sara Orouei; Abdolqayum Movahedi Rudi; Kiavash Hushmandi, Mohammad Ali Sheikh Beig Goharrizi, Mohammad Hossein Gholami

Archives of Advances in Biosciences, Vol. 13 No. 2 (2022), , Page 1-10

Introduction: COVID-19 is known as a general health threat. General health can play a significant role in marital adjustment and satisfaction and thus the strength of the family foundation. The current study aimed to determine the correlation between families’ general health subcomponents and marital satisfaction during the COVID-19 pandemic in Khaf, Iran.

Materials and Methods: This descriptive-analytical study was conducted on 90 married people using the convenience sampling. The study instruments involved a demographics form, a general health questionnaire, and a marital satisfaction questionnaire. Data analyses were performed in SPSS statistical software ver. 22, using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov, Pearson correlation coefficient, multiple regression, independent t-test, one-way analysis of variance, and Tukey’s post hoc tests. The level of significance was set at p <.05.

Results: Among the general health subcomponents, the highest mean score belonged to depression (12.80 ± 4.65) and the lowest to social dysfunction (12.04 ± 4.24). The general health score was 49.70 ± 17.35, and the marital satisfaction mean score was 123.13 ± 34.02. Marital satisfaction was negatively and significantly associated with general health (r = -.71) as well as the subcomponents of somatic symptoms (r = -.64), anxiety (r = -.71), social dysfunction (r = -.66), and depression (-.067) (p <.001).

Conclusion: As COVID-19 depression and anxiety have the most significant impact on individuals’ general health and marital satisfaction, healthcare managers and policymakers are advised to consider solutions to these disorders in families. As such, they can contribute to spouses’ general health and marital satisfaction and thus strengthen the family foundation.

Evaluation of the Conceptual Model of Knowledge Management Audit in the Iranian Medical Universities’ Libraries

Tahereh Hadadi, Zohreh Mirhoseini, Fereshteh Sepehr

Archives of Advances in Biosciences, Vol. 13 No. 2 (2022), , Page 1-11

Introduction: Knowledge audit is a systematic evaluation of organizational knowledge health. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the conceptual model of knowledge management audit in the Iranian medical universities’ libraries.

Materials and Methods: The present study used a mixed method including qualitative and survey-analytical type. In order to identify the indicators of the conceptual model of knowledge management audit, the fuzzy Delphi technique was used by 12 experts during two stages; and to validate the identified indicators, the second-order confirmatory factor analysis of smart pls software was used. The statistical population to approve the model include 122 managers and librarians of university libraries of medical sciences.

Results: The conceptual model of knowledge management audit was obtained in three dimensions, 13 indicators and 55 sub-indicators. The three dimensions including the stage after knowledge management audit (0.8550), before knowledge management audit (0.8460), and during knowledge management implementation (0.8430) were the most important, respectively.

Conclusion: The obtained criteria and indicators showed the approval and acceptable fit of the conceptual model of knowledge management audit in the library of Iranian universities of medical sciences.



Protective Role of α-Pinene in Cuprizone-Induced Multiple Sclerosis in Mice

Shahin Hassanpour, Ali Elahinia

Archives of Advances in Biosciences, Vol. 13 No. 2 (2022), , Page 1-14

Introduction: It is clamied that α-pinene has properties against Multiple Sclerosis (MS) which is known as demyelination of the neurons. Given that, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of α-pinene on Cuprizone-induced (CPZ) MS.

Materials and Methods: A total of forty C57BL/6 mice were allocated to 4 groups. Mice in group 1 (control) were treated with a normal diet. In group 2, CPZ-induced demyelination was done by chew palate containing .2% (w/w) CPZ for 5 weeks. In group 3, a normal diet was provided and mice were injected with 𝛼-pinene (1 mg/kg; i.p.) 3 times a week for 5 weeks. In group 4, mice were fed with the CPZ containing diet and injected with 𝛼-pinene (1 mg/kg; i.p.) three times a week for 5 weeks. At the end of the study, reflexive motor behavior and depressive- like behavior tests were performed. Additionally, serum anti-oxidant activity was determined.

Results: Results show that the CPZ had an adverse effect on reflexive motor behavior tests (P<.05) and co-administration of the CPZ+𝛼-pinene diminished the adverse effect of the CPZ on the reflexive motor behavior tests (P<.05). Moreover, CPZ significantly amplified immobility time (P<.05) and co-administration of the CPZ+𝛼-pinene reduced the adverse effect of the CPZ on depressive-like behavior tests (P<.05). CPZ significantly increased malondialdehyde (MDA) and decreased glutathione peroxidase (GPx), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and total antioxidant status (TAS) and also these effects were reversed by α-pinene (P<.05). The data indicate that co-administration of the CPZ+𝛼-pinene significantly improved the adverse effect of the CPZ on serum antioxidants (P<.05).

Assessment of Health Literacy and Self-care Behaviors among Patients Discharged from COVID-19 Wards

Rasoul Raesi, Zahra Abbasi, Sam Saghari, Mohammad Hosein Mirzaei Varzeghani, Mohammad Hossein Gholami, Sepideh Mirzaei

Archives of Advances in Biosciences, Vol. 13 No. 2 (2022), , Page 1-9

Introduction: The rapid outbreak of the new COVID-19 virus has become an international health challenge. Confronting the prevalence of this pathogenic virus requires, in the first step, health literacy and self-care on people’s part.

Materials and Methods: This descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out over three months. A total of 67 patients discharged from a COVID-19 ward were selected randomly. Data were collected using a validated researcher-made questionnaire on health literacy and self-care. The data were then analyzed using SPSS software version 16.

Results: Sixty-seven patients (mean age: 45.32 ± 9.39; age range: 29 - 87) were assessed. The majority were male (64.2%), married (79.1%), illiterate (44.8%), and homemaker or unemployed (37.3%). The overall mean score of health literacy and self-care was moderate. The results of the Pearson correlation test showed a significantly positive association between overall health literacy and its components as well as the total self-care and its components among the patients studied (p <.001).

Conclusion: Since self-care increases with health literacy among COVID-19 patients, it demands educational interventions in this area to improve health literacy.

Review Article

Ivermectin: An Effective Remedy Against Various Diseases: A Literature Review

Mohammad Hossein Gholami, Farid Hashemi, Maliheh Entezari

Archives of Advances in Biosciences, Vol. 13 No. 2 (2022), , Page 1-10

Introduction: Ivermectin is a member of avermectins family which was discovered in 1967
in Japan. The contribution of this drug to animal and human health was so prominent that
the researchers who found the drug were awarded a Noble prize in 2015. With the advent of
COVID-19,lot of interest has shifted more towards ivermectin usage in treating the COVID-19
alone or in combination with other medicines as synergism. Since its introduction, ivermectin
has helped to control many parasitic diseases of animals and humans. For many years after its
discovery, ivermectin was considered to be only a parasitic agent, but as scientists continue to
evaluate this drug, they discover more healing aspects.
Materials and Methods: For this review, we searched keywords from international databases
including PubMed, Google Scholar, Science Direct and Scopus. The keywords were ivermectin,
anticancer, anti-inflammation, antibacterial, antivirus, antiparasitic, and mechanism of action.
Results: Several studies have shown that ivermectin has a very powerful antiparasitic,
antibacterial, and antiviral activity and it can also be used as an anticancer and anti-inflammatory
Conclusion: The collected data showed that ivermectin can be used to control and prevent
many pathogenic agents and it can also be repurposed for the treatment of COVID-19.

Context: Targeted anti-cancer approaches bring about individual therapies to combat the complexity of most malignancies and enhance their chances of success. Currently, immunotherapy, which exploits the patient's immune system to fight the disease, has made a significant progress in the success rate of cancer treatment. T lymphocytes are one of the most powerful arms of the immune system against cancer cells; however, many tumor cells can escape by hiding their peptide antigens.

Evidence Acquisition: CAR-T cells can detect tumor cells' HLA without any restrictions. Promising outcomes from CAR-T cell clinical trials have increased hope among cancer patients, making CAR-T cell a prospective treatment for most cancers. However, its unique toxicities and the possibility of recurrence have raised concerns among scientists.

Results: Therefore, in this review, in addition to the design of CAR-T cells, we intend to discuss the process of CAR-T cell therapy in the treatment of malignancies and explore its disadvantages, advantages, and prospects.

Conclusion: Despite extensive studies, it is not yet possible to confirm the role of CAR-T cells, but based on the experience of applying CAR-T cells, a definite treatment is feasible through immunotherapy and strengthening the immune system.

Case Reports

Silent β-thalassemia: Transition Mutation of the β-globin Gene (Promoter nt-101 C>T)

Zeynab Gharehdaghi, Arghavan Hosseinpouri, Narges Obeidi

Archives of Advances in Biosciences, Vol. 13 No. 2 (2022), , Page 1-4

Introduction: Heterozygote β-thalassemia is called carrier or β-thalassemia trait (BTT).
Carriers have no clinical symptoms but sometimes have a mild anemia. They can often be
identified with MCV<80 fl, MCH<27 pg and HbA2> 3.5 %. However, these tests are not
enough to diagnose some unexpected beta-globin mutations in premarital or prenatal screening.
Case Presentation: The mentioned case was one of the most common silent β-thalassemia
mutations (promoter nt-101C>T).
Conclusion: It was the first report from Fars (Iran) and the second one from Iran. The case
had normal hematologic indices and borderline hemoglobin A2 values that may be mistakenly
interpreted as normal. The presented case showed that electrophoresis and PCR sequencing
methods should be applied for screening thalassemia.

Letter to the Editor

Novel Therapeutic Methods Replacing Current Ones

Yara Elahi, Ramin Mazaheri Nezhad Fard

Archives of Advances in Biosciences, Vol. 13 No. 2 (2022), , Page 1-3

With the advancements of science in recent years, novel therapeutic methods have
been developed to treat microbial infections and improve medical performances. These
novel methods are more accurate than the old ones; therefore, they are more effective.
Technically, these methods may revolutionize science in the future. Some of these
new therapies include phage therapy, precision medicine, next-generation sequencing,
picotechnology, the use of recombinant proteins, microchips, and robotic surgery, each
of which will in turn surprise the medical world. Although some of these treatments have
been used in the past, researchers are now paying more attention to them because not only
these newer methods are more accurate and efficient, but many of the older treatments,
such as antibiotics, because of the increasing rate of the antibiotic resistance, are gradually
losing its popularity. In this letter, some of the latest innovative medical therapies have
been discussed; which you will hear more about soon.


“Anybody Should Follow Their Own Footsteps”: An Interview with Pietro Alano

Mostafa Pourhaji, Hamid Chegni

Archives of Advances in Biosciences, Vol. 13 No. 2 (2022), , Page 1-3

Pietro Alano (26 May 1959) is Principal Investigator at Istituto Superiore di Sanità (ISS), Rome, Italy. After his Ph.D. (University of Milan, 1986) on the bacteriophage-E. coli interplay he entered molecular parasitology (Woods Hole course Biology of Parasitism, 1986; University of Edinburgh, 1987-1991) and joined ISS in 1991. Over the past 30 years Pietro’s team has investigated genetics, cell biology and development of the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum and human and mosquito host-parasite interactions. This work, described in over 90 publications, generated ‘omics’ datasets, molecular tools and transgenic lines recently used in anti-parasite transmission drug discovery and development of innovative P. falciparum diagnostics tools. What comes below is an interview with Pietro Alano (PA) conducted by Mostafa Pourhaji (MP).