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Research/Original Articles

The Effect of Fe203 Nanoparticles on Sperm Parameters and the Expression of Mitochondrial Apoptotic Pathway Genes in Rats With Scrotal Hyperthermia

Mahshid Deldar Abad Paskeh, Nahid Babaei, Maliheh Entezari, Mehrdad Hashemi, Abbas Doosti

Archives of Advances in Biosciences, Vol. 13 No. 2 (2022), 1 January 2022, Page 1-8

Introduction: Hyperthermia can cause infertility in men following an increase in testicular
temperature. Oxidative stress has been found to be one of its major causes. In the present study,
the effects of iron superoxide nanoparticles on the expression of Bcl-2 and Bax family genes
were studied.
Materials and Methods: A total of 48 adult rats were purchased from the Pasteur Institute
of Iran. The rats were later divided into 4 groups: control group, control group receiving
superoxide nanoparticles (Fe2O3), hyperthermia group, h’:yperthermia group receiving
superoxide nanoparticles (Fe2O3). After RNA extraction, evaluating the sperm parameters and
the expression of Bax and Bcl-2 genes was examined using RT-PCR technique.
Results: Exposure to iron superoxide nanoparticles (Fe2O3) decreased sperm parameters,
increased proapoptotic BAX gene and decreased expression of BCL2 anti-apoptotic gene.
Conclusion: Exposure to nanoparticles by reducing sperm parameters and increasing apoptosis
has a negative effect on fertility. The association between infertility and testicular hyperthermia
is becoming increasingly apparent; administration of iron superoxide (Fe2O3) nanoparticles
can have significant effects on male infertility. Moreover, green synthesis of nanoparticles is
also recommended in this field.

Immunological Evaluation of HIV-1 P24-Nef Harboring IFN-γas as an Adjuvant in BALB/c Mice

Fatemeh Rouhollah, Maryam Saeidi

Archives of Advances in Biosciences, Vol. 13 No. 2 (2022), 1 January 2022, Page 1-8

Introduction: Despite the improvements in antiretroviral treatments, there is no authorized
HIV vaccine; therefore, designing an effectual vaccine is essential. This study was aimed at the
immunological evaluation of HIV-1 p24-Nef adjuvanted with IFN-γin BALB/c mice with the
purpose of stimulating effective immune responses.
Materials and Methods: Forty-eight female mice were used for immunization by p24-Nef.
The mice were divided into six cohorts with eight mice in each group. Immunizations were
executed three times at three-week intervals and subcutaneously for 5μg per mouse. A couple
weeks after the last injection, humoral and cellular immune pathways were appraised in blood
serum and splenocytes respectively through applying ELISA.
Results: The results showed that the applied regimen could elicit robust immune responses
in comparison with the control. In addition, the level of total antibody production which was
observed in the group containing adjuvanted antigen of interest had a significant difference
with the control cohort (P<0.0001). Moreover, IgG2a was the uppermost isotype (Th1-biased
response) in the immunized group that had p24-Nef antigen with IFN-γ adjuvant. In spite of
antibody secretion, the cellular immune response was the predominant stimulated pathway.
The potency of IFN-γ as an adjuvant for induction of a quantifiably extensive Th1 pathway
was shown to be more significant given the outcomes of cytokine assay, IgGisotype, and CTL
Conclusion: The results of the current study indicated that the p24-Nef antigen is able to
stimulate the humoral and cellular immune responses in immunized mice, either on its own
or when formulated with adjuvant. Thus, the high immune system stimulated by p24-Nef
injection regimen went along with IFN-γ adjuvant, offering a potential option for an efficient
vaccine against HIV-1.

Anodal Effects of Transcranial Electrical Stimulation of Right Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex on Working Memory of Patients with Multiple Sclerosis

Hamid Alipour, Mohammad Nasehi, Mehdi Tehranidoost, Mohammad hossein Harirchian, Mohammad reza Zarrindast

Archives of Advances in Biosciences, Vol. 13 No. 2 (2022), 1 January 2022, Page 1-7

Introduction: Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is a chronic, autoimmune and progressive neurological
disease that causes a wide range of cognitive deficits in patients by destroying the Central
Nervous System (CNS). This study aims to examine the effect of Transcranial Direct Current
Stimulation (tDCS) on working memory of patients with MS.
Materials and Methods: For this purpose, a quasi-experimental pre-t-est, post-test design
with the control group was considered. In total, 32 patients with relapsing-remitting MS were
selected using the convenience sampling method and randomly divided into experimental
and control groups. The intervention consisted of 10 sessions of cranial electrical stimulation,
during which the participants were divided into two groups receiving real and sham stimulation.
N-Back test was employed to evaluate working memory.
Results: The data were analyzed using the independent t-test. The results revealed that working
memory was improved in the experimental group compared to the control group (P<0.05).
Conclusion: It could be concluded that anodal tDCS over the right dorsolateral prefrontal
cortex (R-DLPFC) appears to be a promising therapeutic tool for cognitive dysfunction among
patients with MS.

Comparing Para-clinical and Laboratory Methods of Covid-19 Diagnosis in Iran

Hamid Chegni, Hedieh Haji Khodaverdi Khani, Zahra Nasiri, Fatemeh Eskandari malayeri, Farhoodeh Ghaedrahmati, Mohammad Heidarvand

Archives of Advances in Biosciences, Vol. 13 No. 2 (2022), 1 January 2022, Page 1-10

Introduction: Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) caused by Severe Acute Respiratory
Syndrome Coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) was first discovered in China in late 2019 and spread
rapidly worldwide. This study aimed to correlate positive real time Reverse Transcriptase
Polymerase Reaction (RT-PCR) results after one month of follow-up with laboratory findings
of the same patients at hospital admission to predict clinical outcome and diagnosis.
Materials and Methods: We conducted a retrospective study on the laboratory findings of
299 adult patients suspected of COVID-19. Patients were admitted to hospital from March
21 to May 25, 2021 with final follow-up of one month for each patient. After one month of
follow-up, 233 patients recovered; however, in 64 patients the symptoms worsened. For these
patients RT-PCR was performed and some patients needed chest Computed Tomography
(CT) imaging and were hospitalized. We extracted laboratory findings of these 64 patients and
correlated the results of their RT-PCR with their laboratory findings.
Results: Based on our findings, severe cases are middle-aged adults (P=0.001) with
lymphopenia (P<0.001), decreased levels of white blood cells (WBCs) (P<0.001), and platelets
(P=0.007) count along with elevated COVID-19 IgG antibody (P=0.002) and Erythrocyte
Sedimentation Rate (ESR) (P<0.001).
Conclusion: RT-PCR is not necessary at admission; instead, some routine hematology
examinations and serological tests can predict the prognosis of COVID- 19 disease.


Immunotherapy of Metastatic Mouse Breast Cancer by Adherent Splenocytes Pulsed With Extracts of Heated Tumor Cells and Lactobacillus Casei

kave Golpasandi, Seyyed Meysam Abtahi Froushani, Amir Tukmachi

Archives of Advances in Biosciences, Vol. 13 No. 2 (2022), 1 January 2022, Page 1-9

Introduction: Flask-adherent Splenocytes (SACs) fulfill antigen-presenting cell requirements
of acquired immune responses. This study was done to evaluate the efficacy of new
immunotherapy against breast cancer made by SACs pulsed with the extract of heated 4T1
cells and Lactobacillus casei, as a probiotic.
Materials and Methods: Mammary carcinoma was induced by injection of 4T1 cell line in
the flank of female Balb/c mice. The first SACs therapy was started on day 11 after tumor
induction when all animals had developed a palpable tumor. SACs therapy was done twice at
a 10-day interval.
Results: Mice with mammary tumors received SACs pulsed with combined heated 4T1 cells
and L. casei determined a more desirable survival curve and a slower rate of tumor development
compared to the other groups. At least 20% of the group receiving combined immunotherapy
were alive by day 58. Those mice receiving SACs pulsed with the Lysate of heated tumor
cells died by day 45.The maximum survival of other mice was up to 38 days after tumor
induction. Moreover, SAC pulsed with combined agents significantly amplified the secretion
of Interferon-γ (IFN-γ), and conversely reduced the secretion of Transforming growth factor-β
(TGF-β) and Interleukin 4 (IL-4) in the splenocyte population compared to splenocytes from
other groups. Combined immunotherapy increased the expression of p53 and caspase 3 genes
and reduced the exertion of BCL2 more than other immunotherapy protocols.
Conclusion: Immunotherapy with SACs pulsed with heated 4T1 cells and L. casei promotes
beneficial outcomes in the mouse model of breast cancer.

Survey of the Relationship between Fatty Liver Disease in Men by Ultrasound and Serum Ferritin Level

Amin Saeedi, Milad Rezaiye; Fatemeh Saeed; Rasoul Raesi; Mehdi Raei, Salman Farahbakhsh; Salman Daneshi

Archives of Advances in Biosciences, Vol. 13 No. 2 (2022), 1 January 2022, Page 1-7

Introduction: The most common hepatic disease is fatty liver. Raised serum ferritin levels are often described as an indicator of liver function. The present study aimed to evaluate the correlation between fatty liver in men by ultrasound and serum ferritin levels in patients referred to Imam Khomeini Hospital in Jiroft in 2020.

Materials and Methods: In this case series study, there is both a descriptive and an analytical component. The study population consisted of all male patients with fatty liver. Patients were included in the study after being visited by a specialist and thus diagnoses their fatty liver were mades by ultrasound.  After clinical examination and diagnosis of fatty liver, patients were prepared on a fasting basis for Paraclinical tests (serum levels of iron, and ferritin).  After collecting data from patient surveys based on a researcher-made checklist, the data were entered into SPSS V23 (22).

Results: The mean age of patients was 46.8± 16.7. 27. There was a statistically significant correlation between ferritin level and disease severity based on the ultrasound view (P-value = 0.000). Also, there was a significant correlation between serum iron level and disease severity based on the ultrasound view (P-value = 0.005).

Conclusion: The present study findings indicate a correlation between the severity of fatty liver disease and the level of serum ferritin and iron. Therefore, we need to pay special attention to the level of these indicators in patients with fatty liver.

Coronavirus-induced Anxiety among Pregnant Women

Hedyeh Askarpour, Atefeh Beigzadeh, Shohreh Alian Samakkhah; Sara Orouei ; Salman Daneshi

Archives of Advances in Biosciences, Vol. 13 No. 2 (2022), 1 January 2022, Page 1-7

Introduction: Anxiety about COVID-19 is common and seems to be mostly due to the unknown and confusing nature of the virus. Given the effects of stress on maternal and fetal health and the lack of a similar study on this issue and the importance of the issue, so we decided to assess the degree of anxiety in COVID-19 in pregnant women.

Materials and Methods: The present study is a cross-sectional study (descriptive-analytical). The statistical population of this study includes pregnant women referred to Kashani Hospital in Jiroft from March to August 2020. A total of 182 pregnant women referred to the hospital were interred in the study.

Results: The mean age of pregnant women was 27.2±7.2 years. Among the demographic factors of pregnant women, only a significant relationship was seen between maternal age and anxiety caused by COVID-19. Also, the mean anxiety of psychological symptoms was significantly higher than the physical symptoms (P<0.001). Both factors indicated moderate anxiety.

Conclusion: Given that there is currently limited information available to pregnant women with COVID-19 and its complications in pregnant mothers, it is necessary to pay more attention to corona prevention training programs and how to deal with stress and anxiety in pregnant women.

Examining Effects of Pilates Workout and Jujube Supplementation on Liver Fat Content, Enzymes, and Platelet Count

Farzane lael rudi, Ali Younesian, Nasrin Razavianzadeh, Rasoul Raesi

Archives of Advances in Biosciences, Vol. 13 No. 2 (2022), 1 January 2022, Page 1-13

Introduction: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the fastest-growing health issues worldwide. This study aimed to assess the effect of an eight-week Pilates exercise program and jujube supplementation on liver fat content, liver enzymes, and platelet count in women with NAFLD.

Materials and Methods: The current work is a pretest-posttest quasi-experimental study with a control group. Forty middle-aged women with NAFLD were selected via purposive sampling and allocated randomly to four equal groups, including jujube, Pilates, Pilates+jujube, and control. Liver enzymes measurement, platelet count, and ultrasonography were conducted to determine the fatty liver degree 24 hours before and 48 hours after the intervention. The Pilates protocol was performed three sessions weekly for eight weeks. The jujube supplementation group and the Pilates+jujube group consumed .4 g/kg jujube daily in the morning and evening. The collected data were analyzed in SPSS software, using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov, ANOVA, and dependent t-test. The level of significance was set at P <.05.

Results: AST, platelet count, waist-to-hip ratio, and fat levels in the Pilates, jujube, and Pilates+jujube groups changed significantly compared with the control group and baseline values (P <.05).

Conclusion: Pilates exercise and jujube consumption can lower serum enzyme concentrations along with fat content of the liver and raise blood platelet count. As a result, they may be regarded as efficient techniques to treat NAFLD.

Error Detection in Patients’ Pharmaceutical Data: Application of Ontology-Based Text Miner

Hamid Moghaddasi, Reza Rabiei, Sara Shadmani

Archives of Advances in Biosciences, Vol. 13 No. 2 (2022), 1 January 2022, Page 1-5

 Introduction: Medication errors in patients’ medical records can influence the healthcare quality and cause risks for them. It is, therefore, crucial to apply appropriate procedures to reduce these errors. This study sought to develop a software for detecting medication errors through qualitative analysis of patients’ medical records.

Materials and Methods: The software was developed using object-oriented analysis and Java. The text was first pre-analyzed using a framework known as Stanford Core NLP. In the next stage, the text was turned into a semi-structured passage to be connected to Dr Onontology using Apache Jena framework. The name and dosage of available drugs were then extracted in the physician order forms and the patient progress notes. The areas of mismatch were identified through comparing the data obtained from these two forms.

Results: Software assessment was conducted in two stages. In the first stage, the capability of the software in proper recognition of medicine’s name was measured, as100 completed forms containing physician order forms with a total number of 1014 drugs were used for text mining and error detection. After running the analysis in the error detection software, 93% of the drugs were properly recognized. In the next stage, comparisons were made between the physician order forms and the patient progress notes to find possible mismatches. Out of 1000 recorded drugs in the analyzed forms, the software was able to properly detect mismatches in 91.8% of the cases. The medication data available in i2b2 were used for conducting the assessment.

Conclusion: Given that medical records are of paramount importance and their human analysis is a complicated and time-consuming process, deployment of a text miner with the capability of quality analysis could facilitate error detection efficiently and effectively.

General Health Subcomponents and Marital Satisfaction: Examining a Correlation during COVID-19

Rasoul Raesi, Marjan Moradi, Sam Saghari , Sara Orouei; Abdolqayum Movahedi Rudi; Kiavash Hushmandi, Mohammad Ali Sheikh Beig Goharrizi, Mohammad Hossein Gholami

Archives of Advances in Biosciences, Vol. 13 No. 2 (2022), 1 January 2022, Page 1-10

Introduction: COVID-19 is known as a general health threat. General health can play a significant role in marital adjustment and satisfaction and thus the strength of the family foundation. The current study aimed to determine the correlation between families’ general health subcomponents and marital satisfaction during the COVID-19 pandemic in Khaf, Iran.

Materials and Methods: This descriptive-analytical study was conducted on 90 married people using the convenience sampling. The study instruments involved a demographics form, a general health questionnaire, and a marital satisfaction questionnaire. Data analyses were performed in SPSS statistical software ver. 22, using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov, Pearson correlation coefficient, multiple regression, independent t-test, one-way analysis of variance, and Tukey’s post hoc tests. The level of significance was set at p <.05.

Results: Among the general health subcomponents, the highest mean score belonged to depression (12.80 ± 4.65) and the lowest to social dysfunction (12.04 ± 4.24). The general health score was 49.70 ± 17.35, and the marital satisfaction mean score was 123.13 ± 34.02. Marital satisfaction was negatively and significantly associated with general health (r = -.71) as well as the subcomponents of somatic symptoms (r = -.64), anxiety (r = -.71), social dysfunction (r = -.66), and depression (-.067) (p <.001).

Conclusion: As COVID-19 depression and anxiety have the most significant impact on individuals’ general health and marital satisfaction, healthcare managers and policymakers are advised to consider solutions to these disorders in families. As such, they can contribute to spouses’ general health and marital satisfaction and thus strengthen the family foundation.

Evaluation of the Conceptual Model of Knowledge Management Audit in the Iranian Medical Universities’ Libraries

Rasta Haddadi, Zohreh Mirhoseini, Fereshteh Sepehr

Archives of Advances in Biosciences, Vol. 13 No. 2 (2022), 1 January 2022, Page 1-11

Introduction: Knowledge audit is a systematic evaluation of organizational knowledge health. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the conceptual model of knowledge management audit in the Iranian medical universities’ libraries.

Materials and Methods: The present study used a mixed method including qualitative and survey-analytical type. In order to identify the indicators of the conceptual model of knowledge management audit, the fuzzy Delphi technique was used by 12 experts during two stages; and to validate the identified indicators, the second-order confirmatory factor analysis of smart pls software was used. The statistical population to approve the model include 122 managers and librarians of university libraries of medical sciences.

Results: The conceptual model of knowledge management audit was obtained in three dimensions, 13 indicators and 55 sub-indicators. The three dimensions including the stage after knowledge management audit (0.8550), before knowledge management audit (0.8460), and during knowledge management implementation (0.8430) were the most important, respectively.

Conclusion: The obtained criteria and indicators showed the approval and acceptable fit of the conceptual model of knowledge management audit in the library of Iranian universities of medical sciences.



Protective Role of α-Pinene in Cuprizone-Induced Multiple Sclerosis in Mice

Shahin Hassanpour, Ali Elahinia

Archives of Advances in Biosciences, Vol. 13 No. 2 (2022), 1 January 2022, Page 1-14

Introduction: It is clamied that α-pinene has properties against Multiple Sclerosis (MS) which is known as demyelination of the neurons. Given that, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of α-pinene on Cuprizone-induced (CPZ) MS.

Materials and Methods: A total of forty C57BL/6 mice were allocated to 4 groups. Mice in group 1 (control) were treated with a normal diet. In group 2, CPZ-induced demyelination was done by chew palate containing .2% (w/w) CPZ for 5 weeks. In group 3, a normal diet was provided and mice were injected with

Assessment of Health Literacy and Self-care Behaviors among Patients Discharged from COVID-19 Wards

Rasoul Raesi, Zahra Abbasi, Sam Saghari, Mohammad Hosein Mirzaei Varzeghani, Mohammad Hossein Gholami, Sepideh Mirzaei, Kiavash Hushmandi, Rasta Haddadi

Archives of Advances in Biosciences, Vol. 13 No. 2 (2022), 1 January 2022, Page 1-9

Introduction: The rapid outbreak of the new COVID-19 virus has become an international health challenge. Confronting the prevalence of this pathogenic virus requires, in the first step, health literacy and self-care on people’s part.

Materials and Methods: This descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out over three months. A total of 67 patients discharged from a COVID-19 ward were selected randomly. Data were collected using a validated researcher-made questionnaire on health literacy and self-care. The data were then analyzed using SPSS software version 16.

Results: Sixty-seven patients (mean age: 45.32 ± 9.39; age range: 29 - 87) were assessed. The majority were male (64.2%), married (79.1%), illiterate (44.8%), and homemaker or unemployed (37.3%). The overall mean score of health literacy and self-care was moderate. The results of the Pearson correlation test showed a significantly positive association between overall health literacy and its components as well as the total self-care and its components among the patients studied (p <.001).

Conclusion: Since self-care increases with health literacy among COVID-19 patients, it demands educational interventions in this area to improve health literacy.

Ubiquinone [Q10] and Dentate Gyrus Ischaemia Reperfusion Injury in a Rat Model of Brain Ischaemia

Niloofar Talebi Tadi, Shabnam Movasseghi; Mohammad Mahdi Nazarnejad; Zahra Nadia Sharifi

Archives of Advances in Biosciences, Vol. 13 No. 2 (2022), 1 January 2022, Page 1-6

Introduction: This research was conducted to evaluate the effect of ubiquinone following ischemia/reperfusion on dentate gyrus in Wistar rats.

Materials and Methods: Twenty-four Rats were randomly assigned to four groups [n=6].  Common carotid arteries were bilaterally closed for 20 minutes in order to perform ischemic model. Four days later, all rats were slaughtered and hippocampal tissue was examined by Nissl staining method.

Results: The data showed that ubiquinone had a neurotrophic effect on dentate gyrus cells of hippocampal region in ischemia/reperfusion model.

Conclusion: Our findings adduce the argument that ubiquinone can be used to treat brain lesions following ischemia.

Investigation of depression prevalence in slow coronary artery patients

Hossein Sadeghipour, Elaheh Baniasadipour, Nadia Sadri, Hossein Ghaedamini, Salman Farahbakhsh, Niloofar Kalantary Nejad, Salman Daneshi, Mohammad Ali Sheikh Beig Goharrizi, kiavash Hushmandi

Archives of Advances in Biosciences, Vol. 13 No. 2 (2022), 1 January 2022, Page 1-7

Introduction: There is limited information about the association between Coronary Slow Flow (CSF) phenomenon and depression. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of depression in slow coronary artery patients in compression of patients with normal coronary artery and those with significant coronary stenosis under angiography at Shafa hospital of Kerman in 2018.

Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study that was performed on 180 people. All participants were divided into three groups (60 patients with CSF diagnosed by elective Coronary Angiography (CAG), 60 people with Coronary Normal Flow (CNF), and 60 patients with significant coronary artery diseases (CAD) who were referred to Shafa hospital of Kerman in 2018. The data collection tool was a questionnaire that included two parts: demographic information and Beck Depression Scale. Data were analyzed by using SPSS 24 software.

Results: The results showed that 55 % of the sample were male and the incidence of mild, moderate, and severe depression is significantly higher among patients with CSF in compromising with normal and coronary stenosis group (P <0.0001).

Conclusion: Due to the significant association between depression and CSF, it is necessary for people with cardiovascular disease to be screened for psychiatric problems.

Epidemiological Study of Injuries among Traffic Accident Patients Admitted to Governmental Hospitals in Isfahan

Reza Eshraghi Samani , Masumeh Safaee, Narges Motamedi

Archives of Advances in Biosciences, Vol. 13 No. 2 (2022), 1 January 2022, Page 1-6

Introduction: Traffic-related injuries are one of the most significant challenges to the healthcare and socioeconomic systems. This study aimed to determine the epidemiology of injuries in patients admitted to Ayatollah Kashani and Al-Zahra hospitals after traffic accidents.

Materials and Methods: The study was a descriptive-analytical cross-sectional one. Using stratified random sampling and random numbers, 480 cases of traffic accident patients admitted to Ayatollah Kashani, and Al-Zahra (PBUH) hospitals in the year 1398 (based on the Persian calendar) were selected. A Chi-square test was used to evaluate the hypotheses.

Results: Most of the patients' injuries were related to motorcycles (46.3%). The most common injuries were fractures and injuries of the head and face, followed by leg and ankle fractures, especially on the right side. The survey found that the most common season for traffic accidents was autumn, followed by spring. The prevalence was significantly higher in men (77.5%) than women (22.5%). The age groups of 30 to 39 were the most prevalent with 22.7%, followed by 20 to 29 years with 22.3%.

Conclusion: The results of this study can help prioritize and implement preventive safety techniques and injury control treatment plans consistent with the Iranian national scientific and research priorities.

Introduction: Nickel (Ni) is a toxic heavy metal that can damage the brain structure, especially the hippocampus which is an important complex brain structure with a major role in memory and learning. Recent studies showed that heavy metals can alter some brain functions and disrupt hemostasis in central nervous system (CNS). The role of chronic Ni administration on memory and leaning, survival of neurons in CA1 hippocampus and the level of oxidative stress marker in rats.

Materials and Methods: In total 24 rats (n=6) were allocated to four groups: Group (I): vehicle received intraperitoneal (IP) normal saline (0.9% NaCl), Group (II, III ,IV): received 0.25 mg/kg, 0.5 mg/kg and 1 mg/kg IP NiCl2 for eight weeks, respectively. During this timespan, the rats were examined in the Morris water maze and novel object recognition test to evaluate memory and learning. Finally, the hippocampus of the rats was extracted and survived neurons were evaluated by Nissl staining; oxidative stress was determined using malondialdehyde (MDA) level and catalase enzyme activity.

Results: Results showed that dose-dependent Ni administration decreased memory and leaning in behavioral studies and caused degenerative and morphological changes in neurons by elevating MDA and catalase enzyme activity as the most important oxidative stress markers.

Conclusion: Ni induces changes in the structure of hippocampal neurons and disrupts memory and learning function in hippocampus in adult rats by an increase in oxidative markers.

Restoration of Harmane Induced Memory Consolidation Deficit by Alpha-lipoic Acid in Male Mice

Parisa Zamanian, Kamran Abouzari, Zahra Rahimi Azar, Maryam Bahrami Aziz, Shadi Khodakhah Darban, Morteza Karimian, Yaser Norozpour

Archives of Advances in Biosciences, Vol. 13 No. 2 (2022), 1 January 2022, Page 1-6

Introduction: there has been a growing number of publications focusing on the effect of beta-carbolines (e.g., harmane) on cognitive behaviors such as different stages of memory formation process. Moreover, several studies have stated that Alpha-lipoic acid (ALA) induces some molecular pathways effects including antioxidant effect and reduction of inflammation process. Thus, in the lines that follow, the question of whether ALA could alter memory consolidation deficit caused by harmane in the male NMRI mice will be addressed.

Materials and Methods: The data for this study were collected by step-down inhibitory avoidance task with one trial protocol for evaluation of memory consolidation. The ALA (35 mg/kg) was injected intraperitoneally immediately after training followed by subthreshold and effective doses of harmane (2.5, 5 and 10 mg/kg) with 15-minute interval period.

Results: The results show that post-training injection of the highest dose of harmane (10 mg/kg) lowers step-down latency, indicating the amnesia induced by harmane (P<.001). In addition, similar injection of subthreshold dose of ALA (35 mg/kg), 15 minutes before injection of subthreshold and effective doses of harmane, restores step-down latency caused by higher dose of harmane (P<.001) without its effect on the responses induced by subthreshold doses of harmane, indicating benefit effect of ALA on amnesia induced by harmane.

Conclusion: An implication of this study is the possibility that ALA can reverse the amnesia induced by harmane. Therefore, future studies on this topic such as molecular mechanisms are recommended.


The Effect of Resveratrol on Anxiolytic and Emotional Memory Impairment Induced by Morphine

Zahra Fathi, Soheila Soleimani, Sara Jafari, Fereshteh Karami-Chamdivan, Nazanin Ilghami Azar, Zahra khodaie, Morteza Piri

Archives of Advances in Biosciences, Vol. 13 No. 2 (2022), 1 January 2022, Page 1-7

Introduction: A body of pharmacological and non-pharmacological studies have been conducted with the purpose of attenuating morphine side effects such as anxiety and memory impairment. It seems that there is a close relationship between resveratrol and morphine according to molecular cell pathway. Thus, the aim of the present investigation was to evaluate the effect of resveratrol on anxiolytic-like behavior and emotional memory induced by morphine.

Materials and Methods: A basic experimental research has been designed for this study. The test-retest protocol of elevated plus-maze (EPM) apparatus was used. The male Wistar rat received subthreshold dose of resveratrol (50 mg/kg), 15 minutes before injection of saline (1 ml/kg) or different doses of morphine (1.25, 2.5 and 5 mg/kg) on the test day. Twenty-four hours after test day, the EPM’s parameters was also measured without drug injection. All drugs were injected intraperitonealy.

Results: The data indicated that higher dose of morphine (5 mg/kg) elevated Open Arm Time (%OAT, P<.05) and Open Arm Enters (%OAE, P<.001) on the test day, and also %OAT (P<.05) and %OAE (P<.001) on the retest day, indicating decrease of anxiety and impairment of emotional memory, respectively. Moreover, subthreshold dose of resveratrol (50 mg/kg) restored all parameters induced by higher doses of morphine in the test (P<.05 for %OAT and P<.01 for %OAE) and the retest day (P<.05 for %OAT and P<.001 for %OAE).

Conclusion: The principal findings of this research showed that resveratrol can alter morphine responses on anxiety and emotional memory process. It is also postulated that the resveratrol can decrease the morphine side effects in the people using it.

Progesterone Administration after Ovarian Stimulation: Effects on Ovary Mast Cell Count and Histamine Level

Negar Azadi, Nasim Beigi Boroujeni, Majid Tavafi , Leila Nazari, Mandana Beigi Boroujeni

Archives of Advances in Biosciences, Vol. 13 No. 2 (2022), 1 January 2022, Page 1-6

Introduction: Induction of ovulation results in changes in ovary including the tissue immune cells. Administration of progesterone following induction of ovulation may ameliorate some of these changes. The present study was conducted to examine the effect of this administration of progesterone on mast cell count and tissue histamine level in mice ovary at pre-implantation time.

Materials and Methods: An experimental study on 15 NMRI mice was carried out. The groups of study were control group, induction of ovulation group and a group for administration of progesterone after induction of ovulation. Mast cells count was through toluidine blue staining and tissue histamine level measure was through spectrophotometry. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used for data analysis.

Results: The mean of mast cell count was significantly different between the groups (P <.001). Pairwise comparisons showed that induction group had significantly higher mast cells in comparison with control group (P =.039), indicating the effect of ovulation induction on mast cell count. The count was higher in progesterone group in comparison with induction group (P =.020). Mean of histamine level was significantly different between the groups (P <.001). Induction group had significantly higher histamine level in comparison with control group (P <.001). However, histamine level was not significantly different between induction and histamine groups (P =.998).

Conclusion: Ovulation induction raises ovary mast cell population and histamine level. However, progesterone could not improve this change. Further studies should be conducted to find further roles of mast cells and histamine in ovary.


Investigation of the Interaction of Some Alkaloids Derived from Marine Algae’s with Human Acetylcholinesterase: In Silico Study

Nakisa Zarrabi Ahrabi, Yasin SarveAhrabi, Sarina Nejati khoei

Archives of Advances in Biosciences, Vol. 13 No. 2 (2022), 1 January 2022, Page 1-9

 Introduction: Nowadays, acetylcholinesterase inhibitors are commonly used to improve the symptoms of Alzheimer's disease and central nervous system disorders. Marine algae’s contain compounds like alkaloids that have many biological activities. We aimed to investigate the inhibitory effects of some alkaloids with human acetylcholinesterase using molecular docking.

Materials and Methods: In this study, the interaction of 19 alkaloid compounds with human acetylcholinesterase (hAChE) was investigated using molecular docking. The initial structure of the compounds was optimized using mm2 method by Chem3D software; the compounds were evaluated as inhibitors on the gap of the active site of the enzyme by AutodackVina software, and the output results were analyzed by Discovery Studio software.

Results: The results showed that most of these compounds act as inhibitors with good binding energy (-7.7 to -9.8 kcal/mol). The best performance is related to the three compounds including Caulerpin, Martefragin A and N-Acetyl tyramine. Caulerpin was involved in hydrogen bonding with an affinity of -9.6 with the amino acids Histidine: 405, Arginine: 296, and Asparagine: 233. Martefragin A was involved in hydrogen bonding with an affinity of -9.6 with the amino acids Serine: 293, Phenylalanine: 295, and Arginine: 296, respectively. N-Acetyl tyramine was involved in hydrogen bonding with an affinity of -9.8 with the amino acids Asparagine: 186, Lysine: 53, and Glycine: 14.

Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that most of these alkaloid compounds can inhibit this enzyme by binding to the cleavage site of the active site of hAChE, and thus are suitable options for further studies to design new anticholinesterase drugs.

IKZF1 Alteration in Pediatric B-Cell Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia: A Single-Center Report on the Frequency of IKZF1 Deletions and Its Subtypes

Hamed Baghdadi, Behzad Poopak, Mehdi Shakouri Khomartash, Mahmoud Vahidi, Gholamreza Bahoush, Mahdi Ghorbani, Masoud Soleimani, Mojgan Mohammadimehr

Archives of Advances in Biosciences, Vol. 13 No. 2 (2022), 1 January 2022, Page 1-9

Introduction: The most prevalent malignancy during childhood is B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL). Many genetic variations are the causes of B-ALL. IKZF1 alterations are prevalent in childhood B-ALL cases, which are associated with a poor prognosis. This study examined seventy-two pediatric B-ALL patients for the frequency of IKZF1 alteration and types of IKZF1 deletions.

Materials and Methods: In this study, bone marrow aspirate specimens at the stage of diagnosis in pediatric B–ALL patients were used. The diagnosis of B-ALL was performed following cytomorphology, cytochemistry, and immunophenotyping based on the 2016 World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines. ALL translocations, including TCF3-PBX1 fusion, ETV6-RUNX1 fusion, BCR-ABL1 fusion, and KMT2A-AFF1 fusion, were performed on DNA specimens of all patients. IKZF1 status was checked with the SALSA MLPA P335 ALL-IKZF1 probemix Kit.

Results: The common-B ALL subtype was detected in 64/72 patients (88.9%). CD2 and CD13 aberrant expressions were found in 5/72 (6.9%) and 7/72 patients (9.7%), respectively. Molecular analysis for translocation revealed the frequency of ETV6-RUNX1 in 12/72 patients (16.7%) and BCR-ABL1 in 3/72 (4.2%). IKZF1 alterations were found in 13/72 patients (18%), of whom 10 (13.9%) had IKZF1 deletions. Three common types of IKZF1 deletions were found.

Conclusion: The frequency of IKZF1 deletion in this study is similar to the results already obtained in larger studies. The type of IKZF1 deletion related to poor outcomes has a higher frequency in this study. Because of the relatively high prevalence of IKZF1 deletion, its determination is important for better risk stratification and prognosis in pediatric B-ALL patients.

Evaluation of Ultrasonographic Findings in Patients with Knee Osteoarthritis: Correlations with Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Indexes

Hasan Anari, Afsaneh Enteshari-moghaddam, Firouz Amani, Kousar Roshki

Archives of Advances in Biosciences, Vol. 13 No. 2 (2022), 1 January 2022, Page 1-6

Introduction: Osteoarthritis is the most common chronic joint disease that affects both the elderly and the middle-aged people. This disease is the most common cause of limitation for the elderly and middle-aged people in daily activities significantly affecting the quality of their lives. The aim of this study was to evaluate the ultrasonographic findings in patients with knee osteoarthritis and its correlation with Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Indexes (WOMAC).

Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, patients with knee osteoarthritis, who were referred to the rheumatology clinic of Imam Hospital from April 2020 to June 2021, were evaluated by radiographic and laboratory assessment. Laboratory tests included Rheumatoid Factor (RF), Anti-Cyclic Citrullinated Peptide (Anti-CCP), Antinuclear Antibodies (ANA), Erythrocyte Sedimentation Ratio (ESR) and C-Reactive Protein (CRP); patients with positive inflammatory and serological tests were excluded from the study. Then, patients with osteoarthritis were visited by a radiologist for ultrasound findings and underwent ultrasound. In addition, the WOMAC questionnaire was administered at the same time.

Results: 138 patients over 40 years old and 85.5% of whom being female were studied. The joint dryness score was significantly higher in patients with left synovial effusion (4.04 vs. 2.51; p = 0.001). In patients with right synovial hypertrophy, the mean overall score of WOMAC and its sub-branches was significantly higher (61.26 vs. 47.80; p = 0.001); also, mean joint dryness score in patients with left synovial hypertrophy is higher (4.15 vs. 3.17; p= 0.017).

Conclusion: The results of the present study showed that in terms of synovial inflammation, which includes hypertrophy and synovial effusion, there is a direct relationship with patients' WOMAC score, since ultrasound modality is non-invasive and available everywhere; moreover, the cheapness of this modality makes it possible to follow-up patients with osteoarthritis. This modality is also reliable in assessing synovial changes, but more accuracy is needed in assessing cases such as osteophyte.

A New Scale for Measuring the Socio-economic Status in Health Studies Conducted in Tehran

Nezhat Shakeri, Mostafa Faridizadeh, Roya Sehat

Archives of Advances in Biosciences, Vol. 13 No. 2 (2022), 1 January 2022, Page 1-9

Introduction: One of the most important determinants in health studies is health-related socio-economic status. The precise determination of health-related socio-economic classes is contingent upon updating the data and taking new cultural, social, and health factors. The objective of this study is to provide a practical method for determining the index and health-related socio-economic classes of the subjects under study.

Materials and Methods: A questionnaire containing 68 items was developed as a tool to assess the socio-economic status index related to health. Data were collected from six hundred and four married individuals who were randomly recruited from the city of Tehran. To identify the prognostic variables of the model, linear regression method was used. Predicted values of the index were obtained using the model. Then, boundary lines were proposed to determine the five socio-economic classes using the K-means cluster method.

Results: Education, employment, internet access at home, use of supplementary health insurance, and time spent in virtual reality (cyberspace) were among the significant variables.

Conclusion: The socio-economic class determination table at the end of the manuscript presents a step-by-step method for calculating the index and determining the desired class with respect to gender.

Introduction: α-Amylases catalyze the starch hydrolysis reaction and are widely used in starch processing industries. Despite the high demand for the use of α-amylase in various industries, most α-amylases do not have the required functional characteristics such as proper activity, temperature and pH compatibility, as well as temperature stability. In this regard, ionic liquids are widely used today as co-solvents to improve enzymes' activity, stability, and selectivity.

Materials and Methods: Activity, optimum temperature, optimum pH, and thermal stability of B. subtilis α-amylase were investigated in the presence of 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate. Structural changes in the presence of [EMIm][Ac] were examined using intrinsic fluorescence spectroscopy.

Results: The activity of α-amylase and Vm increased in the presence of 0.4 M of [EMIm][Ac] while Km decreased. The optimum temperature and pH did not change in the presence of [EMIm][Ac] compared to its absence. At 40 and 50 °C, the inactivation rate of α-amylase in the presence of both concentrations of 0.4 and 1 M of [EMIm][Ac] is the same as in its absence. However, the rate of inactivation at 60 and 70 °C is higher than that in the absence of [EMIm][Ac]. The results of intrinsic fluorescence spectroscopy confirmed the structural changes in the presence of [EMIm][AC].

Conclusion: [EMIm][Ac] can be used to increase the activity of B. subtilis α-amylase without affecting the optimal temperature and pH parameters. Moreover, [EMIm][Ac] relatively improves the thermal stability of the α-amylase.

Long-term Survival of Multiple Myeloma Based on CBC Test at Diagnosis Using Defective Marshall-Olkin Cure Model

Dariush Kadkhoda, Ahmad Reza Baghestani, Abbas Hajifathali, Ali Akbar Khadem Maboudi

Archives of Advances in Biosciences, Vol. 13 No. 2 (2022), 1 January 2022, Page 1-5

Introduction: As a malignant proliferative disorder, multiple myeloma (MM) is classified as a cancer of the immune system. Generally, a complete blood count (CBC) is the first test for a patient with symptoms of MM. Through CBC, physicians can monitor abnormalities in the blood. To normalize malignancies in their blood, patients must first go through conventional chemotherapy. Afterward, if eligible, subjects would receive high-dose therapy and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Primarily, patients would be subjected to autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (auto-HSCT).

Materials and Methods: This retrospective cohort study consisted of 56 MM patients who were diagnosed between January 2010 and August 2016 and were followed up until February 2022. The survival rate of MM patients was assessed based on CBC test at the time of diagnosis. The clinical conditions, i.e., Thrombocytopenia, Leukopenia, and Anemia, were extracted from the CBC test and were used as the desired prognostic factors in companion with age at diagnosis. Overall survival based on the mentioned factors was analyzed using the defective Marshall-Olkin gompertz cure model, which was programmed in R software version 4.0.3.

Results: The mean age at diagnosis was 52.76 (SD = 7.1). The probability of long-term survival for patients in this study was 46%, with five-year overall survival equaling 73.2%. Patients with thrombocytopenia had about 86% lower odds of long-term survival compared with patients with normal Platelet levels (Plt).

Conclusion: The present study indicates that deficiency in Plt count is a significant factor leading to poor survival of MM patients.

Evaluation of Laboratory Diagnostic Markers in Patients with Hypertension

Fatemeh Norouzi Larki, Maryam Ban , Mohammad Kogani , Sara Mobarak , Alireza Hazbenejad, Khadije Kanani, Esmat Radmanesh

Archives of Advances in Biosciences, Vol. 13 No. 2 (2022), 1 January 2022, Page 1-10

Introduction: Hypertension is growing as a running title public health problem. It is one of the most important risk factors for various diseases including cardiovascular disease. The study of laboratory markers and early detection of complications can play an effective role in controlling the disease.

Materials and Methods: The present study was a descriptive-analytical cross-sectional one that was performed from March 21, 2020, to March 19, 2021, on patients referred to Abadan and Khorramshahr educational hospitals with hypertension. Information on age, sex, and laboratory diagnostic factors of patients with hypertension admitted to HIS were received. Data were analyzed using STATA software.

Results: The study population involved 1505 patients with hypertension admitted to Abadan and Khorramshahr educational hospitals; there were 487 males (32%) and 1018 females (68%). The average age of the patients was 61 (SD: 12). The highest frequency of patients with hypertension was in the age group of 64-55 years with a frequency of 420 (27.9%). The results showed that the mean of creatinine was higher than normal. The mean of CK-MB and INR was slightly higher than normal. The two sexes were significantly different in terms of the means of CK-MB, AST, ALT, Cr, Na, MCHC, HCT, HB, and RBC. According to the unadjusted and multiple logistic regression analysis, each 1 unit increase in BUN and K+ was associated with an increase in the odds of abnormal creatinine. Each 1 unit increase in RBC, HB, HCT, MCH, and MCHC was associated with a decrease in the odds of abnormal creatinine, and each 1 unit increase in PT was associated with an increase in the odds of abnormal creatinine.

Conclusion: The results of the present study showed that some laboratory markers in patients with hypertension were above the normal range including renal, cardiac, and coagulation diagnostic factors and some of which depend on age and sex; thus, it is important to pay attention to these markers in controlling high blood pressure in these patients. Future studies are warranted to examine the issue further.

Review Article

Ivermectin: An Effective Remedy Against Various Diseases: A Literature Review

Mohammad Hossein Gholami, Farid Hashemi, Maliheh Entezari

Archives of Advances in Biosciences, Vol. 13 No. 2 (2022), 1 January 2022, Page 1-10

Introduction: Ivermectin is a member of avermectins family which was discovered in 1967
in Japan. The contribution of this drug to animal and human health was so prominent that
the researchers who found the drug were awarded a Noble prize in 2015. With the advent of
COVID-19,lot of interest has shifted more towards ivermectin usage in treating the COVID-19
alone or in combination with other medicines as synergism. Since its introduction, ivermectin
has helped to control many parasitic diseases of animals and humans. For many years after its
discovery, ivermectin was considered to be only a parasitic agent, but as scientists continue to
evaluate this drug, they discover more healing aspects.
Materials and Methods: For this review, we searched keywords from international databases
including PubMed, Google Scholar, Science Direct and Scopus. The keywords were ivermectin,
anticancer, anti-inflammation, antibacterial, antivirus, antiparasitic, and mechanism of action.
Results: Several studies have shown that ivermectin has a very powerful antiparasitic,
antibacterial, and antiviral activity and it can also be used as an anticancer and anti-inflammatory
Conclusion: The collected data showed that ivermectin can be used to control and prevent
many pathogenic agents and it can also be repurposed for the treatment of COVID-19.

Design, Effectiveness, Limitations and Future Perspectives of CAR-T Cells: A Review Article

Hamid Chegni, Sarina Entezari

Archives of Advances in Biosciences, Vol. 13 No. 2 (2022), 1 January 2022, Page 1-13

Context: Targeted anti-cancer approaches bring about individual therapies to combat the complexity of most malignancies and enhance their chances of success. Currently, immunotherapy, which exploits the patient's immune system to fight the disease, has made a significant progress in the success rate of cancer treatment. T lymphocytes are one of the most powerful arms of the immune system against cancer cells; however, many tumor cells can escape by hiding their peptide antigens.

Evidence Acquisition: CAR-T cells can detect tumor cells' HLA without any restrictions. Promising outcomes from CAR-T cell clinical trials have increased hope among cancer patients, making CAR-T cell a prospective treatment for most cancers. However, its unique toxicities and the possibility of recurrence have raised concerns among scientists.

Results: Therefore, in this review, in addition to the design of CAR-T cells, we intend to discuss the process of CAR-T cell therapy in the treatment of malignancies and explore its disadvantages, advantages, and prospects.

Conclusion: Despite extensive studies, it is not yet possible to confirm the role of CAR-T cells, but based on the experience of applying CAR-T cells, a definite treatment is feasible through immunotherapy and strengthening the immune system.

Case Reports

Silent β-thalassemia: Transition Mutation of the β-globin Gene (Promoter nt-101 C>T)

Zeynab Gharehdaghi, Arghavan Hosseinpouri, Narges Obeidi

Archives of Advances in Biosciences, Vol. 13 No. 2 (2022), 1 January 2022, Page 1-4

Introduction: Heterozygote β-thalassemia is called carrier or β-thalassemia trait (BTT).
Carriers have no clinical symptoms but sometimes have a mild anemia. They can often be
identified with MCV<80 fl, MCH<27 pg and HbA2> 3.5 %. However, these tests are not
enough to diagnose some unexpected beta-globin mutations in premarital or prenatal screening.
Case Presentation: The mentioned case was one of the most common silent β-thalassemia
mutations (promoter nt-101C>T).
Conclusion: It was the first report from Fars (Iran) and the second one from Iran. The case
had normal hematologic indices and borderline hemoglobin A2 values that may be mistakenly
interpreted as normal. The presented case showed that electrophoresis and PCR sequencing
methods should be applied for screening thalassemia.

Letter to the Editor

Novel Therapeutic Methods Replacing Current Ones

Yara Elahi, Ramin Mazaheri Nezhad Fard

Archives of Advances in Biosciences, Vol. 13 No. 2 (2022), 1 January 2022, Page 1-3

With the advancements of science in recent years, novel therapeutic methods have
been developed to treat microbial infections and improve medical performances. These
novel methods are more accurate than the old ones; therefore, they are more effective.
Technically, these methods may revolutionize science in the future. Some of these
new therapies include phage therapy, precision medicine, next-generation sequencing,
picotechnology, the use of recombinant proteins, microchips, and robotic surgery, each
of which will in turn surprise the medical world. Although some of these treatments have
been used in the past, researchers are now paying more attention to them because not only
these newer methods are more accurate and efficient, but many of the older treatments,
such as antibiotics, because of the increasing rate of the antibiotic resistance, are gradually
losing its popularity. In this letter, some of the latest innovative medical therapies have
been discussed; which you will hear more about soon.


“Anybody Should Follow Their Own Footsteps”: An Interview with Pietro Alano

Mostafa Pourhaji, Hamid Chegni

Archives of Advances in Biosciences, Vol. 13 No. 2 (2022), 1 January 2022, Page 1-3

Pietro Alano (26 May 1959) is Principal Investigator at Istituto Superiore di Sanità (ISS), Rome, Italy. After his Ph.D. (University of Milan, 1986) on the bacteriophage-E. coli interplay he entered molecular parasitology (Woods Hole course Biology of Parasitism, 1986; University of Edinburgh, 1987-1991) and joined ISS in 1991. Over the past 30 years Pietro’s team has investigated genetics, cell biology and development of the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum and human and mosquito host-parasite interactions. This work, described in over 90 publications, generated ‘omics’ datasets, molecular tools and transgenic lines recently used in anti-parasite transmission drug discovery and development of innovative P. falciparum diagnostics tools. What comes below is an interview with Pietro Alano (PA) conducted by Mostafa Pourhaji (MP).