شاپا: 2345-2455

دوره 1 شماره 4 (1392)

پژوهشی/ اصیل پژوهشی


Traffic Injury: Believes on the Cause of Accidents in Southern Khorasan Province

Mohammad akbaryborng

مجله ارتقای ایمنی و پیشگیری از مصدومیت ها, دوره 1 شماره 4 (1392), 20 April 2014 , صفحه 177-182

 

Backgrounds and Objective: In order to study the cause of accident fatalities, we should look at social dimensions of this issue and discuss about common behaviors and norms in society and the necessity of behavior modification. This study has been designed to carry out survey individual believes in relation to cause of accidents.

 

Materials and Methods: This study is descriptive. For collecting information, we have used researcher-made questionnaire. This questionnaire has studied the accidents causes from these three dimensions: driver, fate, and chance and other factors (road, car quality). After codification, validity and reliability of the tool has surveyed for implementation and after modifications and assurance of the validity of tool, the study implemented. The inferential and descriptive statistics (variance analyze, Pierson correlation, and T-test) have been used for analyzing obtained data.

 

Results: Result of study revealed that subjects attributed the cause of accidents to these factors: driver, fate, and other factors (road and car) and they conceived all these factors somewhat as effective cases. There was significant difference in the survey of the belief toward outbreak of accidents in terms of gender. Subjects who were resident in rural places believed that fate is more effective factor in accidents than urban residents while this difference was not significant statistically. There was significant difference between these two factors: age and belief that driver is the prime factor of accidents.

 

Conclusion: The results obtained suggested to practitioners and authorities change their attitude towards the fate of the driver as the main cause of road accidents to act to provide for the reduction of road accidents.

 

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2- Barati D, Razmiaynfar P. Factors affecting road traffic accidents, rescue and relief measures to improve and update and manage disaster mitigation. First International Conference on road Accidents, Tehran. 2006: 84.

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5-Rahmani FA, Saifollah F, Abasi Asfajir A, Zabihpoor N. A sociological study of the causes of road accidents (case study of general motorists and road city of Babylon).Iranian Journal of Social Studies. 2007; 1(2):182-95.

6- Mirzaie M. Transfer mortality, impaired health and health planning, population and development, with emphasis on Iran (ten articles). Asia Pacific Centre for Population Studies and Research, Tehran.

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Assessment Risk Factors for Unintentional Childhood Poisoning: A Case-Control Study in Tehran

Kamyar Mansori, Hamid Soori, Fariba Farnaghi, Soheyla Khodakarim

مجله ارتقای ایمنی و پیشگیری از مصدومیت ها, دوره 1 شماره 4 (1392), 20 April 2014 , صفحه 183-189

 

Background and Objective: Recently, childhood poisoning has become one of the most pressing concerns in injury epidemiology. The aim of this study is to identify the main risk factors in unintentional childhood poisoning.

 

Materials and Methods: The present study is individual method case-control based in a hospital (case; n=140, control; n=280) in Tehran 1392. Cases with controls are matched on sex and age. Then children's parents are interviewed to determine demographic, behavior, previous poisoning, addiction and mental disease in the family, accessibility of poisoning products, and household size, using semi-structured interview by standard questionnaire. Finally invariable-multi adjusted Conditional Logistic Regression models were constructed.

 

Results: Narcotic poisoning was of highest prevalence among the cases (58.6%). The majority of the poisonings occurred at home (96.4%). The invariable model showed that maternal occupation, parent education, smoker parent, previous poisoning, addiction and mental disease in the family, accessibility of poisoning products, and household size all related to unintentional childhood poisoning. Finally, the multi-adjusted model in stepwise manner showed that addiction in the family (OR=14.6, p <?mso-application progid="Word.Document"?>14&lt;' type="#_x0000_t75">0.001), previous poisoning (OR=7, P <?mso-application progid="Word.Document"?>14&lt;' type="#_x0000_t75"> 0.001), maternal occupation (OR=4, P=0.016), and accessibility of poisoning products (OR=0.03, P <?mso-application progid="Word.Document"?>14&lt;' type="#_x0000_t75"> 0.001) associated with outcome.

 

Conclusion: Addiction in the family as risk factor and inability to access poisoning products had the most association with unintentional childhood poisoning. It is recommended that public health planning focus on these two factors.

 

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3- Fernando R, Fernando DN. Childhood poisoning in Sri Lanka. The Indian Journal of Pediatrics. 1997;64(4):457-60.

4- Motlagh M, Nazari Z. Epidemiologic study of pediatric poisoning in amir kabir and abozar hospital of ahvaz in the year 2000. Scientific Journal of Forensic Medicine. 2002;8(27):39-42.

5- Balai-Mood M. Pattern of acute poisonings in Mashhad, Iran 1993-2000. Clin Toxicol. 2004;42(7):965-75.

6- Rice DP, Mackenzie EJ, Jones A, Kaufman S, DeLissovoy G, Max W, et al. Cost of injury in the United States: a report to Congress. San Francisco: Institute for Health and Aging, University of California; Injury Prevention Center, Johns Hopkins University, 1989.

 7- Lall S, Al-Wahaibi S, Al-Riyami M, Al-Kharusi K. Profile of acute poisoning cases presenting to health centres and hospitals in Oman. East Mediterr Health J. 2003;9(5-6):944-54.

8- Farnaghi F, Jafari N, Mehregan F-F. Methadone poisoning among children referred to Loghman-Hakim hospital in 2009. Pajoohandeh Journal. 2012;16(6):299-303.

9- Gibson JC, Vulliamy A. Accidental methadone poisoning in children: A call for Canadian research action. Child abuse & neglect. 2010;34(8):553-4.

10- Bilal A, Zafar F, Amna RS. Population attributable risk of unintentional childhood poisoning in Karachi Pakistan. Injury Prevention. 2012;18(Suppl 1):A114-A.

11- Petridou E, Kouri N, Polychronopoulou A, Siafas K, Stoikidou M, Trichopoulos D. Risk factors for childhood poisoning: a case-control study in Greece. Injury Prevention. 1996;2(3):208-11.

12- Soori H. Developmental of risk factors for unintentional childhood poisoning. Saudi Medical Journal. 2001;22(3):227-30.

13- Ramos CLJ, Barros HMT, Stein AT, Costa JSDd. Risk factors contributing to childhood poisoning. Jornal de Pediatria. 2010;86(5):435-40.

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15- Flanagan R, Rooney C, Griffiths C. Fatal poisoning in childhood, England & Wales 1968–2000. Forensic science international. 2005;148(2):121-9.

16- Azizi B, Zulkifli H, Kasim M. Risk factors for accidental poisoning in urban Malaysian children. Annals of tropical paediatrics. 1993;13(2):183.

17- Reed RP, Conradie FM. The epidemiology and clinical features of paraffin (kerosene) poisoning in rural African children. Annals of tropical paediatrics. 1997;17(1):49-55.

18- Wezorek C, Dean B, Krenzelok E. Accidental childhood poisoning: influence of the type of caretaker on etiology and risk. Veterinary and Human Toxicology. 1988;30(6):574.

19- Matteucci MJ, Hannum JE, Riffenburgh RH, Clark RF. Pediatric sex group differences in location of snakebite injuries requiring antivenom therapy. Journal of Medical Toxicology. 2007;3(3):103-6.

 

Investigation of Temporal Pattern of Scorpion Sting and Snakebite Incidence in Patients Referred to Masjedsoleiman’s Main Hospital, During 24 Months from 21 March 2008 to 20 March 2009

Fereshteh Zamani-Alavijeh, Tahereh Dehdari, Kambiz Ahmadi Angali, Mina Taghi Rahdari, Tahereh Azar-Abdar, Asghar Ashrafi Hafez, Akbar Babaei Heydarabadi

مجله ارتقای ایمنی و پیشگیری از مصدومیت ها, دوره 1 شماره 4 (1392), 20 April 2014 , صفحه 190-197

 

 

Background and Objective: Scorpion sting and snakebite are the important problems in some area such as Iran that must be addressed. This study was to investigate temporal pattern of scorpion sting and snakebite incidence in patients referred to Masjedsoleiman’s main hospital, during 24 months from 21 March 2008 to 20 March 2009.

 

Materials and Methods: It was an analytical study to scrutiny of monthly and seasonal procedure of scorpion sting and snakebite. Data were analyzed by SPSS and Minitab. To identify the goodness of fit model for monthly and seasonal incidence of scorpion sting and snakebite, autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) models were used to explore time series analysis.

 

Results: Of all 9457scorpion sting and snake-bite cases in patients referring to hospital, 45% (n=4253) were men. Mean age of them was 28.26±0.36 years. Significant numbers (27%) of these patients had 21-30 years old, and were bitted in urban (93%), at their home (99.7%). The auto regression suggested that monthly average incidents model have a moving average. The analyses through Anderson- Darling test provide evidence that the distribution of residuals was normal (P= 0.125).

 

Conclusion: Weather variables can be as the predictors of scorpion sting and snake-bite incidence for Masjedsoleiman.

 

 

REFERENCES

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Determination of the Amount of Bioaerosols in Hospital Environments

Mohamadreza Massoudinejad, Elham Niknahad

مجله ارتقای ایمنی و پیشگیری از مصدومیت ها, دوره 1 شماره 4 (1392), 20 April 2014 , صفحه 198-204

 

Background and Objective: Bioaerosols are particles of microbes, viruses and derivatives; they exist in a wide variety of shapes and sizes and can be measured with different air samplers. The purpose of this study is the determination of bacterial aerosol in the air of hospitals and the determination of contaminated areas for disinfection proceedings by hospital health care teams, by selecting the most appropriate and efficient system for air conditioning.

Materials and Methods: This study was carried out at Tehran Ayatolah Taleghani Hospital. 35 most sensitive locations were chosen to reflect and be representative of the entire environment of the hospital. In the first phase, the three media were simultaneously put in the sampler each sample was repeated three times in the same conditions and then medium incubated in the incubator at a temperature of 37.2 degrees Celsius. After 24 or 48 hours, the numbers of colonies were counted. In the second phase the same locations were sampled again, at this stage, only thirty minute duration was sampled.

Results: All problems were located in different parts of the women’s toilets. .The colonies grow in a gram positive and gram negative specific medium and comparison with the standard indicators status of these settings was evaluated.

Conclusion: Bioaerosols can cause secondary hospital infections and this problem in patients with low immunity levels would be problematic. Factors such as humidity, sampling method, temperature, population, place and sampling time have a significant role in increasing the amount of bioaerosols in the air.

 

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1- Pasquarella C, Pitzurra O, Savino A. The index of microbial air contamination.Journal of hospital infection. 2000;46(4):241-56.

2- Pant K, Crowe C, Irving P. On the design of miniature cyclones for the collection of bioaerosols.Powder Technology. 2002;125(2):260-5

3- Sillanpää M, Geller MD, Phuleria HC, Sioutas C. High collection efficiency electrostatic precipitator for in vitro cell exposure to concentrated ambient particulate matter (PM). Journal of Aerosol Science. 2008;39(4):335-47.

4- Zhen S, Li K, Yin L, Yao M, Zhang H, Chen L, et al. A comparison of the efficiencies of a portable BioStageimpactor and a Reuter centrifugal sampler (RCS) High Flow for measuring airborne bacteria and fungi concentrations. Journal of Aerosol Science. 2009;40(6):503-13.

5- Wu Y, Shen F, Yao M. Use of gelatin filter and BioSampler in detecting airborne H5N1 nucleotides, bacteria and allergens. Journal of Aerosol Science. 2010; 41(9):869-79.

6- Griffiths W, Bennett A, Speight S, Parks S. Determining the performance of a commercial air purification system for reducing airborne contamination using model micro-organisms: a new test methodology. Journal of Hospital Infection. 2005;61(3):242-7.

7- Durand KT, Muilenberg ML, Burge HA, Seixas NS. Effect of sampling time on the cultivability of airborne fungi and bacteria sampled by filtration. Annals of occupational Hygiene. 2002;46(1):113-8.

8- Obbard JP, Fang LS. Airborne concentrations of bacteria in a hospital environment in Singapore.Water, Air, and Soil Pollution. 2003; 144(1-4):333-41.

9- Li A, Liu Z, Zhu X, Liu Y, Wang Q. The effect of air-conditioning parameters and deposition dust on microbial growth in supply air ducts. Energy and Buildings. 2010; 42(4):449-54.

10- Tang C-S, Chung F-F, Lin M-C, Wan G-H. Impact of patient visiting activities on indoor climate in a medical intensive care unit: a 1-year longitudinal study. American journal of infection control. 2009;37(3):183-8.

11- Wan G-H, Chung F-F, Tang C-S. Long-term surveillance of air quality in medical center operating rooms.American journal of infection control. 2011;39(4):302-8.

12- Vahdat K, Rezaee R, Gharibi O. Bacteriology of hospital-acquired infection and antibiotic resistance in a hospital university of Bushehr Port Fatemeh Zahra (s) in 2002-2003. ISMJ. 2005;7(2):135-40.

13- Ghorbani-Shahna F, Joneidi-Jafari A, Yousefi-Mashouf R, Mohseni M, Shirazi J. Type and Concentration of Bioaerosols in the Operating Room of Educational Hospitals of Hamadan University of Medical Sciences and Effectiveness of Ventilation Systems, in Year 2004. 

14- Chobineh A, Rostami R, Tabatabai H. Investigation of diversity and density of bioaerosols in the air of educational hospitals of Shiraz University of Medical Science in 2008. Iran Work health 2008;6

15- Lee SJ, Park JS, Im HT, Jung H-I.A microfluidic ATP-bioluminescence sensor for the detection of airborne microbes. Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical. 2008;132(2):443-8.

16- Wu Y, Yao M. Inactivation of bacteria and fungus aerosols using microwave irradiation. Journal of Aerosol Science. 2010;41(7):682-93.

17- Chen F, Yang X, Mak HK, Chan DW. Photocatalytic oxidation for antimicrobial control in built environment: A brief literature overview. Building and Environment. 2010;45(8):1747-54.

18- Guan T, Yao M. Use of carbon nanotube filter in removing bioaerosols. Journal of Aerosol Science. 2010;41(6):611-20.

19- Hwang GB, Jung JH, Jeong TG, Lee BU. Effect of hybrid UV-thermal energy stimuli on inactivation of< i> S. epidermidis</i> and< i> B. subtilis</i> bacterial bioaerosols. Science of the total environment. 2010;408(23):5903-9.

20- Fletcher L, Noakes C, Beggs C, Sleigh P, editors. The importance of bioaerosols in hospital infections and the potential for control using germicidal ultraviolet irradiation. Proceedings of the First Seminar on Applied Aerobiology, Murcia, Spain, May; 2004.

 

 

Review of Injuries Leading to Death in Children Aged 1to59 Months in the Area Covered by Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences from March 2011- March 2013

Shahnaz Delbarpoor Ahmadi, Fatemeh Tajedini, Farnaz Ehdaievand, Bejan Moghimi-Dehkordi, Ahmad Reza Farsar, Sharif Torkaman Nejad

مجله ارتقای ایمنی و پیشگیری از مصدومیت ها, دوره 1 شماره 4 (1392), 20 April 2014 , صفحه 205-211

 

 

Background and Objective: Injuries have been identified as one of the most important causes of disability and death in humans, and children are more vulnerable to injuries than adults because of limitations in the detection of risk. The present study aimed to investigate the children aged 1 to 59 months death due to injuries cases in the area covered by the Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences.

 

Methods and materials: This survey was a cross-sectional and descriptive study conducted during the years 2011 to 2013. In this study all of the children aged 1 to 59 months deaths due to injuries cases that have occurred in the area covered by Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences were studied. Required data was extracted from registration forms of the child health office of Ministry of Health and Medical Education.

 

Results: The total number of deaths due to injuries recorded for children aged 1 to 59 month was 103. The most common causes of death were transport accidents, falls, drowning and respiratory obstruction. The highest frequency of death was observed in the children aged 1 to12months (24.3%).More than half of the children who died were boys (54.4%).

 

Conclusion: Approximately 70% of deaths due to injuries in children aged1to 59 months were due to the four following causes: transport accidents, falls, drowning and respiratory obstruction. All of these causes are preventable, thus, designing interventions in order to reduce children’s deaths is essential and should be considered as a priority by the national health planners.

 

REFERENCES

1- Ramazani A, Izadkhah M, Gholeenejad B, Amirabadizadeh H. Epidemiologic study and relationship factors of home injuries in clients to Birjand hospital in 2004. J Rostamineh. 2010;2(3):71-9.

2- Mahram M, Derakhshandeh J, Jamshidi M, Yektaparast M. Study of home injuries in clients of health centers and hospitals of Zanjan: 1999. Scientific J ZanjanUniv Med Sci. 2000;8(33):41-6.

3- Jagnoor J, Suraweera W, Keay L, Ivers RQ, Thakur J, Jha P. Unintentional injury mortality in India, 2005: nationally representative mortality survey of 1.1 million homes. BMC Public Health. 2012;12:487.

4- Hardelid P, Davey J, Dattani N, Gilbert R. Child Deaths Due to Injury in the Four UK Countries: A Time Trends Study from 1980 to 2010. PLoS One. 2013;8(7):e68323.

5- Schwebel DC, Gaines J. Pediatric unintentional injury: behavioral risk factors and implications for prevention. J DevBehavPediatr. 2007 Jun;28(3):245-54.

6- Gururaj G. Injury prevention and care: an important public health agenda for health, survival and safety of children. Indian J Pediatr. 2013 Mar;80Suppl 1:S100-8.

7- Sekii H, Ohtsu T, Shirasawa T, Ochiai H, Shimizu T, Kokaze A. Childhood mortality due to unintentional injuries in Japan, 2000&#8211;2009. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2013 Feb;10(2):528-40.

8- Montazeri Z, Salari M, Malakzadeh J, Rostaminejad A. Study on the frequency of injuries among children at Beheshti hospital in YasujArmaghaneDanesh. 2003;8(29):2-8.

9- Soori H, Naghavi M. Childhood deaths from unintentional injuries in rural areas of Iran. Inj prev. 1998;4(3):222-4.

10- Lornejad H, Barakati H. Report of national child mortality surveilance system - ministry of health and medical education. . Tehran: Pooneh; 2009.

 

11- Lyra R, Silva Rdos S, Montenegro Junior RM, Matos MV, Cezar NJ, Fernandes VO, et al. High prevalence of arterial hypertension in a Brazilian Northeast population of low education and income level, and its association with obesity and metabolic syndrome. Rev Assoc Med Bras. 2012 Apr;58(2):209-14.

12- Soori H. Epidemiology of injuries in children presenting to the emergency hospital in Ahvaz. Jundishapur J Med Sci. 2002;30(32):1-11.

13- Manikashani K, Saba M, Azimian M. The incidence of injury in elementary school students of Hamadan: 1998-1999. Scientific J Hamadan Univ Med Sci. 2001;8(3):69-73.

14- Amirzadeh F, Tabatabaiee H. The incidence rate and causes of accidents among the students of shiraz Guidance schools. J Kerman Univ Med Sci. 2007;14(1):55-60.

15- Baez-Baez GL, Orozco-Valerio Mde J, Davalos-Guzman JC, Mendez-Magana AC, Celis A. [Drowning mortality trends in children younger than 5 years old in Mexico, 1979-2008]. Rev Invest Clin. 2012 Nov-Dec;64(6 Pt 1):529-34.

16- Singer MS, Ghaffar A. Risk factors for injury in Pakistani children. Biosci Trends. 2008 Feb;2(1):10-4.

17- Fazel M, Fakharian E, Tabesh H, Aghadoost D, Azordegan F. Epidemiology of injuries in the city of Kashan during 2004-2006. J KashanUniv Med. 2007;11(44):28-31.

18- Vali M, Lang K, Soonets R, Talumae M, Grjibovski AM. Childhood deaths from external causes in Estonia, 2001-2005.BMC Public Health. 2007;7:158.

19- Jagnoor J, Bassani DG, Keay L, Ivers RQ, Thakur JS, Gururaj G, et al. Unintentional injury deaths among children younger than 5 years of age in India: a nationally representative study. Inj Prev. 2011 Jun;17(3):151-5.

20- Hong J, Lee B, Ha EH, Park H. Parental socioeconomic status and unintentional injury deaths in early childhood: consideration of injury mechanisms, age at death, and gender. Accid Anal Prev. 2010;42(1):313-9.

21- Tiikkaja S, Rahu K, Koupil I, Rahu M. Maternal social characteristics and mortality from injuries among infants and toddlers in Estonia. J Epidemiol Community Health. 2009;63(8):633-8.

 

 

Testing Psychometric Properties of the Perpetration of Bullying and Victimization Scales with Olweus Bullying Questionnaire in Middle Schools

Meysam Rezapour, Hamid Soori, Soheyla Khodakarim

مجله ارتقای ایمنی و پیشگیری از مصدومیت ها, دوره 1 شماره 4 (1392), 20 April 2014 , صفحه 212-221

 

Background and Objective: Bullying behavior is one of the growing problems in many schools. Availability and access to a valid and reliable instrument for measuring this behavior is necessary for intervention and to reduce side effects. Therefore, this study has been carried out with middle school students with the aim of validating the bullying perpetration and victimization scales of Olweus Bullying Questionnaire.

 

Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on 830 public middle school students in Mazandaran province. The content validity was calculated from CVR. To assess structure, exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis was used; and correlations between factors for each of the scales were obtained. To assess reliability, test – retest procedure was used with intra class correlation coefficient (ICCs).

 

Results: In the assessment stage of content validity, each of the scales removed one question and added one question. Analysis Four-factor Structure of victimization scale explained by EFA with 64% of variance, as well as Four-Factor Structure of the perpetration of bullying scale by eliminating item 13, explained EFA 72% of variance. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) confirmed Four-Factor Structure in both victimization and perpetration of bullying scales. Values of reliability test - retest showed a good level of both of these scales.

 

Conclusion: Perpetration of bullying and victimization scales of Olweus Bullying Questionnaire has acceptable validation properties in middle school students.

 

 

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The Relationship between Occupational Stress & Related Injuries among Physician’s Assistants: A Case-Control Study

Soad Mahfoozpour, Fatemeh Khosravi Shadmani, Akram Ansarifar

مجله ارتقای ایمنی و پیشگیری از مصدومیت ها, دوره 1 شماره 4 (1392), 20 April 2014 , صفحه 222-227

 

Background and Objective: Job stress can have a direct impact on the incidence of work-related injuries and unsafe behavior and the highest rates of occupational injuries are in the health professions. Therefore, as we did not find any studies regarding the physician's assistants job stress; this research was performed to determine the relationship between job stress and occupational injuries among physician's assistants working at different units of hospitals affiliated to Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences.

 

Materials and Methods: This analytical study (case – control) was performed among physician's assistants working at 5 hospitals affiliated to Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences. 50 cases (with occupational injuries) were compared with 50 controls (without occupational injuries) about job stress. Job stress was measured by Osipow questionnaire with 6 domains; validity (content) and reliability, were confirmed by Cronbach's alpha = 0.89. The Mann-Whitney test for comparison of means and chi-square test for comparison of proportions were used.

 

Results: The mean stress scores did not show significant difference between the two groups in all domains except in role ambiguity and role boundary. After grouping stress scores, we observed significant differences in all domains, except in the responsibility (p=0.11). The stress score due to responsibility was very high for case (84.6%) and control (71.4%) groups. Maximum odds ratio was estimated in the role ambiguity field (OR= 8.36).

 

Conclusion: Because of some unavoidable stressors in medical practice and the necessity of preventing mental and behavioral effects of stress; implementing measures and actions to improve the quality of working life, education and coping strategies, are the duties of the departments, and the director of the hospital, in order to maintain the health of the current staff and to prevent their displacement.

 

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Orgasmic Disorders Subset of Sexual Dysfunction in Women and Improve it

Peymaneh Nemati, Alimohamad Nazariy

مجله ارتقای ایمنی و پیشگیری از مصدومیت ها, دوره 1 شماره 4 (1392), 20 April 2014 , صفحه 228-235

 

Background and Objective: Inability to achieve orgasm, or delay in achieving orgasm that causes personal distress or inter personal difficulty, examined in this research.

 

 Materials and Methods: This clinical trial was with pre-test and post-test, also with control group and to assess it’s, was used sexual satisfaction questionnaire of Glombok Rust. The samples studied were 20 women who were referred to the Center for Psychology and Counseling (Zendegi Bartar) in Karaj. The results of the tests were analyzed by SPSS, version 21 and using the chi-square test and t-test.

 

Results: Concerning results of the tests, average scores in post -test of orgasmic disorder in experimental group was 3.70 and was decreased significantly (p<o.o5) from post-test mean in control group (13.80).

 

Conclusion: in general cognitive-behavioral consultation played an important role in decreasing orgasmic disorder in experimental group and this medical method is recommended as an effective measure for controlling the disorder.

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مروری ساده/ غیرسیستماتیک


Review on Road Traffic Injuries Cost Calculation Methods

Elaheh Ainy, Hamid Soori

مجله ارتقای ایمنی و پیشگیری از مصدومیت ها, دوره 1 شماره 4 (1392), 20 April 2014 , صفحه 236-244

 

Background and Objective: To resource allocating at national levels as results of productivity, cost calculation helps to determine the size of the problem and revealed cost benefits of injury prevention and it can also ensure the better resource using and cost benefit assessment. This study was conducted to determine the method of calculating road traffic injuries cost.

 

Materials and Methods: In a literature review study using internet searching and library resources’ all references related to health cost determination was derived. Then among all the methods, methods of road traffic injury cost estimation were studied and a result with component of the two common methods is presented here.

 

Results: Findings showed that road traffic cost methods including: life insurance approach, court award(compensation), compensation method, the method of implicit public sector valuation, gross output method, using GDP(human capital) method, value change risk or willingness to pay. Mentioned methods have been used based on each section policies, but each method faced to its limitation and may be accompanied with under reporting.

 

Conclusion: Among the stated methods willingness to pay is more accurate, but because of the complexity of the method, human capital method according to available resources and capacity to perform the higher permeability is recommended for low and middle income countries.

 

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