شاپا: 2345-2455

دوره 1 شماره 4 (1392)

پژوهشی/ اصیل پژوهشی

Traffic Injury: Believes on the Cause of Accidents in Southern Khorasan Province

Mohammad akbaryborng

مجله ارتقای ایمنی و پیشگیری از مصدومیت ها, دوره 1 شماره 4 (1392), 20 April 2014 , صفحه 177-182


Backgrounds and Objective: In order to study the cause of accident fatalities, we should look at social dimensions of this issue and discuss about common behaviors and norms in society and the necessity of behavior modification. This study has been designed to carry out survey individual believes in relation to cause of accidents.


Materials and Methods: This study is descriptive. For collecting information, we have used researcher-made questionnaire. This questionnaire has studied the accidents causes from these three dimensions: driver, fate, and chance and other factors (road, car quality). After codification, validity and reliability of the tool has surveyed for implementation and after modifications and assurance of the validity of tool, the study implemented. The inferential and descriptive statistics (variance analyze, Pierson correlation, and T-test) have been used for analyzing obtained data.


Results: Result of study revealed that subjects attributed the cause of accidents to these factors: driver, fate, and other factors (road and car) and they conceived all these factors somewhat as effective cases. There was significant difference in the survey of the belief toward outbreak of accidents in terms of gender. Subjects who were resident in rural places believed that fate is more effective factor in accidents than urban residents while this difference was not significant statistically. There was significant difference between these two factors: age and belief that driver is the prime factor of accidents.


Conclusion: The results obtained suggested to practitioners and authorities change their attitude towards the fate of the driver as the main cause of road accidents to act to provide for the reduction of road accidents.



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Assessment Risk Factors for Unintentional Childhood Poisoning: A Case-Control Study in Tehran

Kamyar Mansori, Hamid Soori, Fariba Farnaghi, Soheyla Khodakarim

مجله ارتقای ایمنی و پیشگیری از مصدومیت ها, دوره 1 شماره 4 (1392), 20 April 2014 , صفحه 183-189


Background and Objective: Recently, childhood poisoning has become one of the most pressing concerns in injury epidemiology. The aim of this study is to identify the main risk factors in unintentional childhood poisoning.


Materials and Methods: The present study is individual method case-control based in a hospital (case; n=140, control; n=280) in Tehran 1392. Cases with controls are matched on sex and age. Then children's parents are interviewed to determine demographic, behavior, previous poisoning, addiction and mental disease in the family, accessibility of poisoning products, and household size, using semi-structured interview by standard questionnaire. Finally invariable-multi adjusted Conditional Logistic Regression models were constructed.


Results: Narcotic poisoning was of highest prevalence among the cases (58.6%). The majority of the poisonings occurred at home (96.4%). The invariable model showed that maternal occupation, parent education, smoker parent, previous poisoning, addiction and mental disease in the family, accessibility of poisoning products, and household size all related to unintentional childhood poisoning. Finally, the multi-adjusted model in stepwise manner showed that addiction in the family (OR=14.6, p <?mso-application progid="Word.Document"?>14&lt;' type="#_x0000_t75">0.001), previous poisoning (OR=7, P <?mso-application progid="Word.Document"?>14&lt;' type="#_x0000_t75"> 0.001), maternal occupation (OR=4, P=0.016), and accessibility of poisoning products (OR=0.03, P <?mso-application progid="Word.Document"?>14&lt;' type="#_x0000_t75"> 0.001) associated with outcome.


Conclusion: Addiction in the family as risk factor and inability to access poisoning products had the most association with unintentional childhood poisoning. It is recommended that public health planning focus on these two factors.



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Investigation of Temporal Pattern of Scorpion Sting and Snakebite Incidence in Patients Referred to Masjedsoleiman’s Main Hospital, During 24 Months from 21 March 2008 to 20 March 2009

Fereshteh Zamani-Alavijeh, Tahereh Dehdari, Kambiz Ahmadi Angali, Mina Taghi Rahdari, Tahereh Azar-Abdar, Asghar Ashrafi Hafez, Akbar Babaei Heydarabadi

مجله ارتقای ایمنی و پیشگیری از مصدومیت ها, دوره 1 شماره 4 (1392), 20 April 2014 , صفحه 190-197



Background and Objective: Scorpion sting and snakebite are the important problems in some area such as Iran that must be addressed. This study was to investigate temporal pattern of scorpion sting and snakebite incidence in patients referred to Masjedsoleiman’s main hospital, during 24 months from 21 March 2008 to 20 March 2009.


Materials and Methods: It was an analytical study to scrutiny of monthly and seasonal procedure of scorpion sting and snakebite. Data were analyzed by SPSS and Minitab. To identify the goodness of fit model for monthly and seasonal incidence of scorpion sting and snakebite, autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) models were used to explore time series analysis.


Results: Of all 9457scorpion sting and snake-bite cases in patients referring to hospital, 45% (n=4253) were men. Mean age of them was 28.26±0.36 years. Significant numbers (27%) of these patients had 21-30 years old, and were bitted in urban (93%), at their home (99.7%). The auto regression suggested that monthly average incidents model have a moving average. The analyses through Anderson- Darling test provide evidence that the distribution of residuals was normal (P= 0.125).


Conclusion: Weather variables can be as the predictors of scorpion sting and snake-bite incidence for Masjedsoleiman.





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Determination of the Amount of Bioaerosols in Hospital Environments

Mohamadreza Massoudinejad, Elham Niknahad

مجله ارتقای ایمنی و پیشگیری از مصدومیت ها, دوره 1 شماره 4 (1392), 20 April 2014 , صفحه 198-204


Background and Objective: Bioaerosols are particles of microbes, viruses and derivatives; they exist in a wide variety of shapes and sizes and can be measured with different air samplers. The purpose of this study is the determination of bacterial aerosol in the air of hospitals and the determination of contaminated areas for disinfection proceedings by hospital health care teams, by selecting the most appropriate and efficient system for air conditioning.

Materials and Methods: This study was carried out at Tehran Ayatolah Taleghani Hospital. 35 most sensitive locations were chosen to reflect and be representative of the entire environment of the hospital. In the first phase, the three media were simultaneously put in the sampler each sample was repeated three times in the same conditions and then medium incubated in the incubator at a temperature of 37.2 degrees Celsius. After 24 or 48 hours, the numbers of colonies were counted. In the second phase the same locations were sampled again, at this stage, only thirty minute duration was sampled.

Results: All problems were located in different parts of the women’s toilets. .The colonies grow in a gram positive and gram negative specific medium and comparison with the standard indicators status of these settings was evaluated.

Conclusion: Bioaerosols can cause secondary hospital infections and this problem in patients with low immunity levels would be problematic. Factors such as humidity, sampling method, temperature, population, place and sampling time have a significant role in increasing the amount of bioaerosols in the air.



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Review of Injuries Leading to Death in Children Aged 1to59 Months in the Area Covered by Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences from March 2011- March 2013

Shahnaz Delbarpoor Ahmadi, Fatemeh Tajedini, Farnaz Ehdaievand, Bejan Moghimi-Dehkordi, Ahmad Reza Farsar, Sharif Torkaman Nejad

مجله ارتقای ایمنی و پیشگیری از مصدومیت ها, دوره 1 شماره 4 (1392), 20 April 2014 , صفحه 205-211



Background and Objective: Injuries have been identified as one of the most important causes of disability and death in humans, and children are more vulnerable to injuries than adults because of limitations in the detection of risk. The present study aimed to investigate the children aged 1 to 59 months death due to injuries cases in the area covered by the Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences.


Methods and materials: This survey was a cross-sectional and descriptive study conducted during the years 2011 to 2013. In this study all of the children aged 1 to 59 months deaths due to injuries cases that have occurred in the area covered by Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences were studied. Required data was extracted from registration forms of the child health office of Ministry of Health and Medical Education.


Results: The total number of deaths due to injuries recorded for children aged 1 to 59 month was 103. The most common causes of death were transport accidents, falls, drowning and respiratory obstruction. The highest frequency of death was observed in the children aged 1 to12months (24.3%).More than half of the children who died were boys (54.4%).


Conclusion: Approximately 70% of deaths due to injuries in children aged1to 59 months were due to the four following causes: transport accidents, falls, drowning and respiratory obstruction. All of these causes are preventable, thus, designing interventions in order to reduce children’s deaths is essential and should be considered as a priority by the national health planners.



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Testing Psychometric Properties of the Perpetration of Bullying and Victimization Scales with Olweus Bullying Questionnaire in Middle Schools

Meysam Rezapour, Hamid Soori, Soheyla Khodakarim

مجله ارتقای ایمنی و پیشگیری از مصدومیت ها, دوره 1 شماره 4 (1392), 20 April 2014 , صفحه 212-221


Background and Objective: Bullying behavior is one of the growing problems in many schools. Availability and access to a valid and reliable instrument for measuring this behavior is necessary for intervention and to reduce side effects. Therefore, this study has been carried out with middle school students with the aim of validating the bullying perpetration and victimization scales of Olweus Bullying Questionnaire.


Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on 830 public middle school students in Mazandaran province. The content validity was calculated from CVR. To assess structure, exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis was used; and correlations between factors for each of the scales were obtained. To assess reliability, test – retest procedure was used with intra class correlation coefficient (ICCs).


Results: In the assessment stage of content validity, each of the scales removed one question and added one question. Analysis Four-factor Structure of victimization scale explained by EFA with 64% of variance, as well as Four-Factor Structure of the perpetration of bullying scale by eliminating item 13, explained EFA 72% of variance. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) confirmed Four-Factor Structure in both victimization and perpetration of bullying scales. Values of reliability test - retest showed a good level of both of these scales.


Conclusion: Perpetration of bullying and victimization scales of Olweus Bullying Questionnaire has acceptable validation properties in middle school students.




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The Relationship between Occupational Stress & Related Injuries among Physician’s Assistants: A Case-Control Study

Soad Mahfoozpour, Fatemeh Khosravi Shadmani, Akram Ansarifar

مجله ارتقای ایمنی و پیشگیری از مصدومیت ها, دوره 1 شماره 4 (1392), 20 April 2014 , صفحه 222-227


Background and Objective: Job stress can have a direct impact on the incidence of work-related injuries and unsafe behavior and the highest rates of occupational injuries are in the health professions. Therefore, as we did not find any studies regarding the physician's assistants job stress; this research was performed to determine the relationship between job stress and occupational injuries among physician's assistants working at different units of hospitals affiliated to Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences.


Materials and Methods: This analytical study (case – control) was performed among physician's assistants working at 5 hospitals affiliated to Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences. 50 cases (with occupational injuries) were compared with 50 controls (without occupational injuries) about job stress. Job stress was measured by Osipow questionnaire with 6 domains; validity (content) and reliability, were confirmed by Cronbach's alpha = 0.89. The Mann-Whitney test for comparison of means and chi-square test for comparison of proportions were used.


Results: The mean stress scores did not show significant difference between the two groups in all domains except in role ambiguity and role boundary. After grouping stress scores, we observed significant differences in all domains, except in the responsibility (p=0.11). The stress score due to responsibility was very high for case (84.6%) and control (71.4%) groups. Maximum odds ratio was estimated in the role ambiguity field (OR= 8.36).


Conclusion: Because of some unavoidable stressors in medical practice and the necessity of preventing mental and behavioral effects of stress; implementing measures and actions to improve the quality of working life, education and coping strategies, are the duties of the departments, and the director of the hospital, in order to maintain the health of the current staff and to prevent their displacement.



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Orgasmic Disorders Subset of Sexual Dysfunction in Women and Improve it

Peymaneh Nemati, Alimohamad Nazariy

مجله ارتقای ایمنی و پیشگیری از مصدومیت ها, دوره 1 شماره 4 (1392), 20 April 2014 , صفحه 228-235


Background and Objective: Inability to achieve orgasm, or delay in achieving orgasm that causes personal distress or inter personal difficulty, examined in this research.


 Materials and Methods: This clinical trial was with pre-test and post-test, also with control group and to assess it’s, was used sexual satisfaction questionnaire of Glombok Rust. The samples studied were 20 women who were referred to the Center for Psychology and Counseling (Zendegi Bartar) in Karaj. The results of the tests were analyzed by SPSS, version 21 and using the chi-square test and t-test.


Results: Concerning results of the tests, average scores in post -test of orgasmic disorder in experimental group was 3.70 and was decreased significantly (p<o.o5) from post-test mean in control group (13.80).


Conclusion: in general cognitive-behavioral consultation played an important role in decreasing orgasmic disorder in experimental group and this medical method is recommended as an effective measure for controlling the disorder.


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مروری ساده/ غیرسیستماتیک

Review on Road Traffic Injuries Cost Calculation Methods

Elaheh Ainy, Hamid Soori

مجله ارتقای ایمنی و پیشگیری از مصدومیت ها, دوره 1 شماره 4 (1392), 20 April 2014 , صفحه 236-244


Background and Objective: To resource allocating at national levels as results of productivity, cost calculation helps to determine the size of the problem and revealed cost benefits of injury prevention and it can also ensure the better resource using and cost benefit assessment. This study was conducted to determine the method of calculating road traffic injuries cost.


Materials and Methods: In a literature review study using internet searching and library resources’ all references related to health cost determination was derived. Then among all the methods, methods of road traffic injury cost estimation were studied and a result with component of the two common methods is presented here.


Results: Findings showed that road traffic cost methods including: life insurance approach, court award(compensation), compensation method, the method of implicit public sector valuation, gross output method, using GDP(human capital) method, value change risk or willingness to pay. Mentioned methods have been used based on each section policies, but each method faced to its limitation and may be accompanied with under reporting.


Conclusion: Among the stated methods willingness to pay is more accurate, but because of the complexity of the method, human capital method according to available resources and capacity to perform the higher permeability is recommended for low and middle income countries.



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