شاپا: 2345-2455

دوره 1 شماره 2 (1392)

پژوهشی/ اصیل پژوهشی


Investigating the Efficiency of Biological Filters for Ammonia Removal

S Motesaddi Zarandi, MR Massoudinejad, A Mazaheri Tehrani, H Pouri

ارتقای ایمنی و پیشگیری از مصدومیت ها, دوره 1 شماره 2 (1392), 7 September 2013 , صفحه 63-68
https://doi.org/10.22037/meipm.v1i2.4972

 

 Backgrounds and Aims: Ammonia removal from air to prevent severe damage to the environment and living organisms is very important. Biofiltration is an efficient, easy, cost-effective, and environmentally friendly process for degradation of ammonia from waste air. The aim of this study is to investigate the efficiency of biological filtration using a compost and scallop bed for ammonia removal.

 Materials and Methods: According to the ammonia removal method a column with 14cm inner diameter and 45cm height made from transparent Plexiglas was used. The column was filled up to 25 cm with compost and scallop (with a scallop: compost ratio of 1:4).  

In this study, performance of the biofilter was studied under 10 different flow rates (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 and 10 lit/min) and 5 different concentrations (0-20, 20-40, 40-60, 60-80 and 80-100 ppm) at a temperature of 25 degrees Celsius.

 Results: The results of this study showed that efficiency is decreased when the flow rate or concentration is increased because the microbial population is reduced. The efficiency was reduced by 84.6-98.2 percent. Maximum efficiency occurred at a 0.19g/(m3.h) loading rate. Efficiency was in 0-20 concentration intervals at a flow rate of 1 lit/min and at an Empty Bed Residence Time (EBRT) of 240 seconds.

 Conclusion: The results show that a biofilter with a compost and scallop bed is efficient for ammonia removal from air. Results can be optimized in the design and operation of biological systems to be used in the industrial control of ammonia gas.

 

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  5. Ho KL, Chung YC, Lin YH, Tseng CP. Biofiltration of trimethylamine, dimethylamine, and methylamine by immobilized Paracoccus sp. CP2 and Arthrobacter sp. CP1. Chemosphere 2008; 72(2): 250-6.
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  8. Devinny J, Deshusses M, Webster T. Biofiltration for Air Pollution Control. Boca Raton, Florida, USA: CRC Lewis; 1999.
  9. Rene ER, Murthy DVS, Swaminathan T. Performance Evaluation of a Compost Biofilter Treating Toluene Vapours. Process Biochem. 2005; 40 (8): 2771-9.
  10. Vergara-Fernández A, Molina LL, Pulido NA, ArocaG..Effects of Gas Flow Rate, Inlet Concentration and Temperature on the Biofiltration of Toluene Vapors. J. Environ. Manage. 2007; 2(84): 115-22.
  11. Mcnevin D, Barfoord J. Biofiltration as odor abatement strategy. Biochem. Eng. J. 2000; 5(3): 231-42.
  12. Ho KL, Chung YC, Lin YH, Tseng CP. Microbial Populations Analysis and Field Application of Biofilter for the Removal of Volatile-Sulfur Compounds from Swine Wastewater Treatment System. J. Hazard. Mater. 2008; 152(2): 580-8.
  13. Sheridan B, Currant T, Dodd V, Colligan J. Biofiltration of odour and ammonia from a pig unit-apilot-scale study. Biosystems Eng. J. 2002; 82 (4): 441–53.
  14. Wang Z, govind R, Bishop DF. Review of Biofiltration Effect of Support Media on Biofilter Performance. J. Air Waste Manage. 1996; 46(2): 96-111.
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  16. Hort C, Gracy S, Platel V, Moynault L. Evaluation of sewage sludge and yard waste compost as a biofilter media for the removal of ammonia and volatile organic sulfur compounds (VOSCs). Chem. Eng. J. 2009; 152(1): 44–53.
  17. Taghipour H, Shahmansoury MR, Bina B, Movahdian H. Operational parameters in biofiltration of ammonia-contaminated air streams using compost–pieces of hard plastics filter media. Chem. Eng. J. 2008; 137(2): 198–204.
  18. Fu Y, Shao L, Tong L, Liu H. Ethylene removal evaluation and bacterial community analysis of vermicompost as biofilter material. J. Hazard. Mater. 2011; 192(2):658-66.
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Assessment of Occupational Exposure to Aluminum Respirable Aerosols among Aluminum Foundry Workers

M Rezazadeh Azari, A Choupani, MJ Jafari, H Soori, SY Hosseini

ارتقای ایمنی و پیشگیری از مصدومیت ها, دوره 1 شماره 2 (1392), 7 September 2013 , صفحه 69 -73
https://doi.org/10.22037/meipm.v1i2.4973

Backgrounds and Aims: Aluminum and in particular its compounds make up a large proportion of the pollutants coming from the aluminum foundry. In several studies conducted on the harmful effects of aluminum in recent decades, it has been identified as a neurotoxic metal. Chronic occupational exposure through inhalation of dust is a common problem in aluminum foundries. Investigation of the exposure of various occupational groups in two aluminum foundry plants to aluminum aerosols.

 Materials and Methods: To study the occupational exposure of foundry workers to respirable aerosols of aluminum, personal sampling was conducted from the breathing zone of 63 workers at two foundries in the south of Tehran city following NIOSH method No. 0600. Then samples were treated using NIOSH Institute optimized method No. 7013 and analyzed by high sensitivity graphite atomic absorption.Collected data were analyzed with SPSS V.16 statistical software using an independent sample t-test and ANOVA.

 Result: The average of aluminum respirable aerosols in A and B factories were 3.21±2.33 and 3.31±2.15 mg/m3 respectively. The one-way ANOVA indicated that occupational exposure among various occupational groups (Similar Exposure Group) in Foundry A had no significant difference (p=0.089), but differences between the exposure of melting and assembling groups in Foundry B are significant (p=0.044). In general, in exposure frequency to aerosols in aluminum foundries, a significant difference was observed between melting and assembling groups (p=0.005) as well among abrading and assembling groups (p=0.02).  

 Conclusion: Most of the exposures to aluminum in foundry workers exceeded the current limits given by ACGIH Institute and the Iranian occupational exposure limits. According to the occupational exposure of both foundries and the absence of differences among variables involved in the exposure, the high exposure of melting and abrading groups compared to assembling groups can be attributed to the nature of these units in the production of aluminum aerosols.

 REFERENCES

Daniel Krewski, Robert A Yokel. Human health risk assessment for aluminum, aluminum oxide, and aluminum hydroxide. J Toxicol Environ Health B Crit Rev. 2007; 10(Suppl 1): 1–269.Zhang K, Zhou Q. Toxic effects of Al‐based coagulants on Brassica chinensis and Raphanus sativus growing in acid and neutral conditions. Environ toxicol. 2005; 20(2):179-87Becaria A, Campbell A, Bondy S. Aluminum as a toxicant.Toxicol. Ind. Health. 2002; 18(7):309-20Gómez M, Sánchez DJ, Llobet JM, Corbella J, Domingo J. The effect ofage on aluminum retention in rats. J Toxicol. 1997; 116(1-3):1-8Polizzi S, Pira E, Ferrara M, Bugiani M, Papaleo A, Albera R, et al. Neurotoxic effects of aluminium among foundry workers and Alzheimer's disease. Neurotoxicology. 2002;23(6):761-74Winder C, Stacey N. Occupational toxicology. 2, editor. Florida: CRC press; 2004.Exley C, Chappell J, Birchall J. A mechanism for acute aluminium toxicity in fish. J Theor Biol. 1991;151(3):417-28Yokel RA. Persistent aluminum accumulation after prolonged systemic aluminum exposure. Biol Trace Elem Res. 1983; 5(6):467-74Zatta P, Favaroto M, Nicolini M. Deposition of aluminum in brain tissues of rats exposed to inhalation of aluminum acetylacetonate. Neuroreport. 1993;4(9):1119-22Baydar T, Engin A, Aydin A, Sahin G. Effect of aluminum exposure on pteridine metabolism. Biol Trace Elem Res. 2005; 106(2):153-64Buchta M, Kiesswetter E, Otto A, Schaller K, Seeber A, Hilla W, et al. Longitudinal study examining the neurotoxicity of occupational exposure to aluminum-containing welding fumes. IJOEH. 2003; 76(7):539-48Gitelman HJ, Alderman FR, Kurs-Lasky M, Rockette HE. Serum and urinary aluminum levels of workers in the aluminium industry. Ann Occup Hyg. 1995; 39(2):181-91Riihimäki V, Hänninen H, Akila R, Kovala T, Kuosma E, Paakkulainen H, et al. Body burden of aluminum in relation to central nervous system function among metal inert-gas welders. Scand. J. Work Environ. Health. 2000; 26(2):118-30Sinczuk-Walczak H, Szymczak M, Razniewska G, Matczak W, Szymczak W. Effects of occupational exposure to aluminum on nervous system: clinical and electroencephalographic findings. IJOMEH. 2003; 16(4):301-10Hałatek T, Trzcinka-Ochocka M, Matczak W, Gruchała J. Serum Clara cell protein as an indicator of pulmonary impairment in occupational exposure at aluminum foundry. IJOMEH. 2006; 19(4):211-23Metwally FM, Mazhar MS. Effect of Aluminum on the Levels of Some Essential Elements in Occupationally Exposed Workers. Arh Hig Rada Toksikol. 2007; 58(3):305-11Röllin HB, Theodorou P, Cantrell AC. Biological indicators of exposure to total and respirable aluminum dust fractions in a primary aluminum smelter. Occup Environ Med. 1996. 53(6); 417-21Westberg H, Selden A. Letter to the Editor. Arch. Environ Health. 1999; 54:364

 

Comparison of Characteristic Property among Tehran Offensive and Non-Offensive Drivers Using Cloninger, s Treatment and Character Inventory

sh khedri, M Dejkam, E Ainy, H Soori, J Fathabadi

ارتقای ایمنی و پیشگیری از مصدومیت ها, دوره 1 شماره 2 (1392), 7 September 2013 , صفحه 74 -78
https://doi.org/10.22037/meipm.v1i2.4974

 Backgrounds and Aims: Characteristic property among Tehran offensive and non- offensive drivers using Cloninger, s treatment and Character Inventory questionnaire was studied.

 Materials and Methods: A cross- sectional study was carried out after coordinating with traffic police. 300 drivers: 150 offensive ( drivers with more than ten penalty points and 150 non- offensive drivers with less than ten penalty points in one year prior were selected randomly. Data was collected using Cloninger, s treatment and Character Inventory standard questionnaire by trained experts in three different routes of Tehran.

 Results: The average age was 20-34 years (82% male, 18% female). Based on Cloninger,s treatment and Character Inventory standard questionnaire, a significant differences was observed in novelty seeking, harm avoidance, reward dependence, self-directive ness, co- operation (p<0.001) and persistence (p<0.013) among offensive and non-offensive drivers. By one score increasing of novelty seeking the chance of to be offencer will be increased 4.5 times (OR= 4.520, p<0.007), in harm avoidance will be half (OR= 0.504, p<0.045) and in reward dependence will be one fourth (OR= 0.278, p<0.033).

 Conclusion: Novelty seeking sub scale of Cloningers treatment and Character Inventory questionnaire was higher and harm avoidance and reward dependence was lower among offensive drivers.

 REFERENCES

World report on road traffic injury prevention 2004. World Health Organization (WHO) and the World Bank report; 2010; Available from: http://www.who.int/world-health-day/2004/en.Haghshenas H, Hassani M, Jamshidi M, Azizi HR. Relationship between characteristic property and driving behaviour in Shiraz city. Hakim. 2008;11:47-54Rothengather T. Psychological aspects of road user behaviours, an international review. Applied psychology. 1997; 46(3): 223-34.Lingard H, Rowlinson S. Lingard H, Rowlinson S. The Wilful Traffic Offender Profile and its implications for education and training. PhD Research Summary, School of Psychology, University of  Exeter, 2000. USA and Canada: Taylor& Francis group; 2005.Burns P C, Wilde G J S. Risk taking in male taxi drivers: relationship among personality, observational data and driver records. Personality and Individual Differences. 1995; 18(2):267-78.Parker D, Reason J T, Manstead A S R, Stradling S. Driving errors, driving violations and accident involvement. Ergonomics. 1995; 38(5): 1038-48. Sommer  M, Herle  M, Hausler  J, Risser  R, Schutzhofer  B, Chaloupka  C. Cognitive and personality determinants of fitness to drive. Transportation of Research Board (TRB) 2008; 11(5):362-75.Sujata M, Patil J T S, Trivellore E R, Raymond C B. The Role of Personality Characteristics in Young Adult Driving.Traffic Inj Prev. 2006; 7(4): 328–34. Jonah BA, Thiessen R, Au-Yeung E. Sensation seeking, risky driving and behavioral adaptation. Accident Analysis & Prevention. 2001; 33(5): 679–84.Ulleberg P, Rundmo T. Personality, attitudes and risk perception as predictors of risky driving behaviour among young drivers. Saf. Sci. 2003; 41(5):427–43.Vassallo S, Smart D, Sanson A, Harrison W, Harris A, Cockfield S and et al. Risky driving among young Australian drivers: trends, precursors and correlates. Accid Anal Prev. 2007; 39(3): 444–58.Sigve O, Torbjørn R. The effects of personality and gender on risky driving behaviour and accident involvement. Saf. Sci. 2006; 44(7): 621-8. Machin M, Anthony S, Kim S. Relationships between young drivers' personality characteristics, risk perceptions, and driving behaviour. Accid Anal Prev. 2008; 40(2): 541-7.Dahlen E R, Martin R C, Ragan K, Kuhlman M M. Driving anger, sensation seeking, impulsiveness, and boredom proneness in the prediction of unsafe driving. Accid Anal Prev. 2005; 37(2): 341-8.Galanter M. Personality and alcoholism: Issues, methods, and etiological processes, Characteristics of children of alcoholics: Putative risk factors. New York: Kluwer Academic/ Plenum; 2005

 

Study of Road Traffic Injuries Risk Factors by Geographic Information System (GIS) in 2009

H Soori, M Bakhtiari, E Ainy, M Salehi, MR Mehmandar

ارتقای ایمنی و پیشگیری از مصدومیت ها, دوره 1 شماره 2 (1392), 7 September 2013 , صفحه 79 -85
https://doi.org/10.22037/meipm.v1i2.4975

 

 Backgrounds and Aims: Using Geographical Information System (GIS) can decreases the burden of road traffic injuries effectively by identification of hot spot to modification in hazardous areas. The aim of the study was determining geographical distribution of human risk factors associated with road traffic injuries by using Geographical Information System (GIS) in Iran.

 Materials and Methods: The national database of road traffic injuries registered by the Iranian traffic Police (Rahvar NAJA) was used. The human risk factors were investigated by recognition of the hazardous points and geographical distribution of associated risk factors. The Hot Spot Analysis and Map clustering approaches were employed to meet the objectives.

  Results: The mean age of injured subjects was 34 years and the most affected age group was 20-39 years. Death and injury occurrence within out of cities ways were 0.3 % and 28% respectively. Geographical distribution of risk factors also showed that roads of Northern provinces i.e. (Gilaan and Mazandaran) were the hazardous rising as well as Qazvin to Rasht and Qom to Tehran roads. Sistan and Balochestan Provinces and Tehran had the highest (4.8%) and the lowest (0.1%) rates of road traffic injuries leading to death in the country.

 Conclusions: Northern provinces and its leading axes by hazardous rising and Sistan and Balochestan province with fatal injuries need to identify the cause of injuries’ and, if necessary, more tighten regulations and more controls by the traffic police must be applied.

 

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Study of the Severity of Accidents in Tehran Using Statistical Modeling and Data Mining Techniques

H Ardakani Razi, MR Ahadi

ارتقای ایمنی و پیشگیری از مصدومیت ها, دوره 1 شماره 2 (1392), 7 September 2013 , صفحه 86 -94
https://doi.org/10.22037/meipm.v1i2.4976

Backgrounds and Aims: The Tehran province was subject to the second highest incidence of fatalities due to traffic accidents in 1390. Most studies in this field examine rural traffic accidents, but this study is based on the use of logit models and artificial neural networks to evaluate the factors that affect the severity of accidents within the city of Tehran.

Materials and Methods: Among the various types of crashes, head-on collisions are specified as the most serious type, which is investigated in this study with the use of Tehran’s accident data. In the modeling process, the severity of the accident is the dependent variable and defined as a binary covariate, which are non-injury accidents and injury accidents. The independent variables are parameters such as the characteristics of the driver, time of the accident, traffic and environmental characteristics. In addition to the prediction accuracy comparison of the two models, the elasticity of the logit model is compared with a sensitivity analysis of the neural network.

Results: The results show that the proposed model provides a good estimate of an accident's severity. The explanatory variables that have been determined to be significant in the final models are the driver’s gender, age and education, along with negligence of the traffic rules, inappropriate acceleration, deviation to the left, type of vehicle, pavement conditions, time of the crash and street width.

Conclusion: An artificial neural network model can be useful as a statistical model in the analysis of factors that affect the severity of accidents. According to the results, human errors and illiteracy of drivers increase the severity of crashes, and therefore, educating drivers is the main strategy that will reduce accident severity in Iran. Special attention should be given to a driver’s age group, with particular care taken when they are very young.

 

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  8. Garder P. Segment Characteristics and Severity of Head-on Crashes on Two-Lane Rural Highways in Maine. Accid Anal Prev. 2006; 38(4): 652-61.
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The Epidemiologic Status of Scorpion Stings in Qom Province, 2001-2011

A Saghafipour, M Noroozi, M Karami Jooshin

ارتقای ایمنی و پیشگیری از مصدومیت ها, دوره 1 شماره 2 (1392), 7 September 2013 , صفحه 95 -101
https://doi.org/10.22037/meipm.v1i2.4977

 

Backgrounds and Aims: In the tropical regions of Iran, scorpion stings are one of the most important medical and health problems. Knowing about their epidemiologic aspects might lead to the employment of appropriate preventive methods. Therefore, these studies were done in Qom province for this purpose.

Materials and Methods: This research is a descriptive cross-sectional study which has been done in all of the urban and rural areas of Qom province from 2001 to 2011, and all the cases which were referred to the only available hospital were assessed, examined, treated and subsequently followed. Finally, a questionnaire including demographic, epidemiologic and clinical data was completed for the patients. Chi square tests were used for the evaluation of the hypothesis.

Results: In total, 790 cases of scorpion stings were referred to the hospital during the period of study. Most of the cases were males (60.25%) in the 10-24 age groups. The most cases occurred during spring and summer. Hands and feet were the most common location of scorpion stings. 18.7 % of envenomed cases were due to black scorpions. 74.4 % of cases were from rural regions. 77.2% of the sufferers slept outdoors and on the ground. 20.5% of cases were surrounded by timber, dust and building materials.

 Conclusion: Based on these findings, scorpion stings are considered a public health problem in Qom province. Consequently, it is necessary to introduce health education programs for personal protection, in order to prevent possible injuries from scorpions, especially for the boy students that reside in rural areas. Also the villagers should use proper beds to sleep in the outdoors.

 

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1. Chomaili B, Moghisi A, Zare-Mirakabadi A. Guide line in treatment of Scorpion bite. 1, editor. Tehran: Ministry of Health Publication Center; 2008.

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مروری ساده/ غیرسیستماتیک


Road traffic status in the world and Iran: review of results from the World Health Organization

H Soori, E Ainy, M Iranfar

ارتقای ایمنی و پیشگیری از مصدومیت ها, دوره 1 شماره 2 (1392), 7 September 2013 , صفحه 53 -62
https://doi.org/10.22037/meipm.v1i2.4971

 

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