Research Articles


Antioxidant and antibacterial activity of Allium saralicum and Allium longisepalum leaves extracts as medicinal plants in Iran

Nasrin Choobkar, Abdoreza Aghajani, Shapour Kakoolaki, Pooneh Amini Geram, Mahya Rezaeemanesh

Researcher Bulletin of Medical Sciences, Vol. 26 No. 1 (2021), , Page e1

Recently, there has been increasing interest in medicinal plants, due to their content of health-promoting compounds, e.g., phenolics. Hence, this study aims to estimate the antioxidant and antibacterial properties of Soraneh (Allium saralicum R.M. Fritsch) and Pichkeh (Allium longisepalum) extracts as a Iranian medicinal plants. The study was done by 2,2-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assays, total phenolic content, total flavonoid content and antibacterial effects of the herbal extracts were determined. According to results, the highest total phenolic content (1.187±0.012mgGAE/g) was obtained in aqueous extract of Pichkeh. The highest total flavonoid content (1.193±0.004mgRE/g) and the antioxidant activity (5.93±0.07%) were found for hydroalcoholic extract of Soraneh and Pichkeh, respectively. In disk-diffusion test, for two extracts, the highest and lowest antibacterial effect was observed for L. monocytogenes and S. aureus, respectively. Soraneh extract had the highest and the lowest antibacterial effect on L.monocytogenes and P. aeruginosa, respectively. In the well-diffusion method, Pichkeh extract had the highest antibacterial effect on S.aureus. For the Soraneh extract, the highest effect was related to B. cereus, and there was also no detectable colony of S.aureus, P.aeruginosa and S. enterica. The results of present comprehensive analysis demonstrated that Soraneh and Pichkeh leaves possess high phenolic, flavonoid contents and potential antioxidant and antibacterial activity, and could be used as a viable source of bioactive compounds and might be exploited for functional foods and neutraceutical applications.


 

Predicting mental health based on religious beliefs and social intelligence in Payame Noor university students

Amene Shahande

Researcher Bulletin of Medical Sciences, Vol. 26 No. 1 (2021), , Page e2

Objective: Students in terms of the importance and direct impact they have on the growth, development and progress of society are considered as efficient and specialized forces of the future for society and due to the special conditions of the student period such as being away from family, entering a large and stressful complex. Economic problems, high volume of courses and intense competition require more mental health. Religion, as one of the spiritual and psychological aspects of human beings, is one of the important and special issues and examining its effects can help human beings in terms of mental health. It seems that there is a relationship between mental health and religious beliefs and social intelligence in students. In this regard, the purpose of this study is to investigate the role of religious beliefs and social intelligence in predicting the mental health of students at Payame Noor Khoy University.


Materials and Methods: The present study was descriptive and performed through multivariate regression and Pearson correlation. For this purpose, from the statistical population of undergraduate students in Payame Noor Khoy University with the help of Fidell & Tabachnick formulas, a sample of 120 people (60 girls and 60 boys) selected by random cluster sampling in the academic year 2016-2017. From the questionnaire, 28 questions of Goldberg mental health question, 25 questions of Braheni religious attitude and 21 questions of Tromso social intelligence were completed by the subjects and the results were analyzed using SPSS statistical program version 23.


Results: Out of 120 students, in this study, the highest number of students belonged to the group of 20-25 years old, 78.3% and the highest number of students belonged to technical students.  Findings show that there is a significant relationship between religious beliefs and mental health, as well as social intelligence and mental health. R = 0.71), p <0.01 (Pearson correlation analysis shows that according to the sample number of 120 people and coefficient There is a direct and significant relationship between mental health and religious beliefs (0.74) and there is a direct and significant relationship between mental health and social intelligence based on the correlation coefficient (0.76).


Conclusion: The results showed that there is a significant relationship between religious beliefs and mental health and social intelligence of Payame Noor Khoy University students. This means that the more positive religious beliefs people have, the better their mental health, and the higher their social intelligence, the better their mental health.


 

Refractive outcomes of small incision lenticule extraction with accelerated cross-linking (ReLEx SMILE Xtra) in patients with thin cornea

Hassan Soori, Farideh Doroodgar, Feizollah Niazi, Sana Niazi, Cyrus Alinia, Azad Sanginabadi

Researcher Bulletin of Medical Sciences, Vol. 26 No. 1 (2021), , Page e3

Objective: To study the safety and clinical outcomes of ReLEx SMILE with accelerated cross-linking in eyes with thin cornea.


Materials and Methods: Fifty-four thin cornea with corrected distance visual acuity 20/25 or better, stable refraction of at least 1 year, age 21 years or older, and residual corneal thickness of greater than 400 mm before performing collagen crosslinking were studied. Following the removal of lenticule, 0.25% riboflavin in saline was injected into the interface and allowed to diffuse for 60 seconds. Finally, eye was exposed to UV-A radiation of 45mW/cm2 for 75 seconds through the cap. Total energy delivered was 3.4 J/cm2.


Results: 54 eyes of 27 patients with mean age of 25.22 ± 2.67 years were treated. Mean follow-up was 6 months. Mean spherical equivalent (SE) was −5.58 ± 1.22D preoperatively and -0.111 ± 0.636D postoperatively. The mean central corneal thickness (CCT) and keratometry changed from 498.39 ± 11.79 µm to 417.85 ± 12.82 µm and 45.47 ± 0.68 D to 41.13 ± 1.13D, respectively. Mean uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA) was 20/25 or better in all eyes. No eyes lost lines of corrected distant visual acuity (CDVA). There were no complications like haze, keratitis, ectasia, or regression.


Conclusion: Based on the initial clinical outcome it appears that SMILE Xtra may be a safe. Although further follow-up and larger samples are needed to fully confirm these findings, the results suggest that combined small-incision lenticule extraction and intrastromal corneal collagen crosslinking (CXL) are a promising treatment option for patients for whom conventional laser refractive surgery is contraindicated.

Effects of buccal misoprostol compared with vaginal misoprostol on first-trimester abortions: a randomized clinical trial

Maryam Sadat Hosseini, Nooshin Shirzadi, Nooshin Amjadi

Researcher Bulletin of Medical Sciences, Vol. 26 No. 1 (2021), , Page e4

Objective: Misoprostol can be used by different routes in the medical management of abortion. This study aimed to compare the efficacy and safety of buccal and vaginal administration of misoprostol for the completion of first-trimester abortions.


Materials and Methods: This study was a randomized clinical trial in which women with first-trimester abortion referred to Imam Hossein Medical Center in 2018 were studied. Women were randomly divided into two groups of buccal or vaginal misoprostol treatment. From the time of drug administration to complete abortion, side effects, duration of drug use until tissue excretion, need for blood transfusion and need for surgical evacuation were recorded and compared in two groups.


Results: One-hundred women (each group, 50 patients) were evaluated in this study. There was a significant difference between the two groups regarding the duration of misoprostol use (p-value = 0.028), and it was longer in the buccal group. Besides, there was a significant difference between the two groups in terms of the dose required until the tissue discharge (p-value = 0.034). In the buccal group, patients received higher doses of misoprostol. The rate of fever had a significant difference between the two groups and was more frequent in the vaginal group (p-value=0.023).


Conclusion: Vaginal misoprostol can be more effective in treating first-trimester abortions compared to buccal misoprostol and may be associated with longer duration of use and lower required doses.

Emotion regulation difficulties and cognitive emotional regulation in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy

Abbas Masjedi Arani, Sepideh Batebi, Behrooz Dolatshahi, Mojtaba Azimian

Researcher Bulletin of Medical Sciences, Vol. 26 No. 1 (2021), , Page e5

Objective: Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is one of the most prevalent types of complex partial epilepsy in adults. Due to the damage to the amygdala, patients with TLE struggle with emotional problems. The purpose of this study was to investigate the functions of emotion regulation and cognitive-emotional self-regulation in patients with TLE compared to non-epileptic individuals.


Method: In this study, 80 patients with TLE were recruited based on some inclusion criteria and compared with 80 non-epileptics by considering their emotional functions. Questionnaires for evaluating difficulties in emotion regulation (Gratz & Roemer) and cognitive emotional regulation (Garnefski) were given to the participants of the study. Finally, data analysis was performed using multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) by SPSS 19 Statistics.


Results: The results of MANOVA test showed a significant difference between the components of difficulties in emotion regulation as well as cognitive-emotional regulation between patients with TLE and the healthy group (P<0.01).


Conclusion: Patients with TLE had more difficulties in emotion regulation and higher negative cognitive emotional regulation strategies than healthy subjects.


 

The effect of Verbena officinalis on stress oxidative factors and expression gen of NMDA receptor subunit GluN2B in male rat induced with scopolamine

Hanieh Chakkoshi, Zahra Hooshmandi, Gelavij Mahmoodi

Researcher Bulletin of Medical Sciences, Vol. 26 No. 1 (2021), , Page e6

In traditional medicine, the Verbena officinalis is used to treat depression, seizure, jaundice, fever, anxiety, insomnia, abdominal problems, throat inflammation and thyroid problems. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of Verbena officinalis extract on scopolamine-induced memory impairment in rats. In this experimental study, 35 rats were randomly assigned into 5 groups: control group, scopolamine (0.7 mg/kg, i.p., injection) and scopolamine and Verbena officinalis recipients at concentrations of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg. After 3 weeks of treatment, behavioral tests including passive avoidance memory were performed. The level of malondialdehyde and the antioxidant potential of the serum and brain of the rats were also determined. NMDA receptor subunit GluN2B gene expression was also measured. Treatment of rats with Verbena officinalis increased the secondary delay in the shuttle box test. Treatment with Verbena officinalis also reduced levels of serum and brain tissue malondialdehyde and also increased serum and brain antioxidant capacity. Treatment with 100 doses of Verbena officinalis extract increased the expression level of GluN2B gene in the brain. The findings of this study indicate that the extract of this plant can be a neuropharmacologic agent against memory disorders and oxidative stress induced by scopolamine in rats.


 

Effectiveness of problem-solving therapy for depression and dysfunctional attitudes in patients after coronary artery bypass graft surgery: a randomized clinical trial

Nima Hajitabar Firouzjaei, Abbas Masjedi Arani, Rokhsare Yeke Yazdandoost, Sajjad Khanjani, Reza Karimi, Esmail Soltani

Researcher Bulletin of Medical Sciences, Vol. 26 No. 1 (2021), , Page e7

Objective: In patients with coronary artery bypass depression is common and a major cause of mortality after graft surgery. The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of problem solving therapy (PST) in patients with coronary artery bypass by assessing changes in depression and dysfunctional attitudes after graft surgery.


Material and Methods: This randomized controlled trial conducted in Tehran Shahid Modarres Hospital in autumn 2018. Intervention group received PST individually in six sessions of one-hour per week and control group only received education of usual care program for two sessions. At the end of the intervention course and Follow up, both groups were tested simultaneously using the Research tools and the data were analyzed by repeated measures analysis of variance using SPSS-18 software.


Results: Patients receiving PST intervention showed significant improvement based BDI (P=0.018) and DSA-26 (P= 0.009). Also, compared with Usual Care, BDI remission of rates were superior in the PST group (P= 0.001) and larger decrease on the dysfunctional attitudes in the DAS-26 at two follow up times (P= 0.001).


Conclusions: These results shows that PST will be effective in reducing depression and dysfunctional attitudes in among patients with Coronary Artery Bypass Graft surgery. Then PST is an effective intervention that can improve problem-solving abilities and mental health-related in CABG surgery patients

Development of a model of brain function change based on treatment of heterogeneous hemispheres on the depression of addicts

Setareh Malekzadeh, Hassan Ahadi, Fariborz Dortaj

Researcher Bulletin of Medical Sciences, Vol. 26 No. 1 (2021), , Page e8

Objective: The aim of this istudy is to determine the model of brain function change based on treatment of heterogeneous hemispheres on the depression of addicts.


Materials and Methods: This research is a quasi-experimental study with a pre-test-post-test design with a control group, which 20 male addicts leaving in the city of Karaj, Iran. Beck Depression Inventory and Blood Test was used. We selected 20 out of 100 people at random and placed them in two experimental and control groups equally (10 experimental group and 10 control group). Evaluation of the subjects by the Depression Inventory and blood test before training and after training of the experimental group. The subjects in the experimental group were trained for 16 sessions 2 days a week, two hours a day, and the control group did not receive any intervention. The obtained data were analyzed using ANKOA statistical method and research data was analyzed with SPSS software version 22.


Results: the reuslts showed that the subjects in the experimental group after training were significantly different from the control group in their scores of depression and increase in chemical carriers (serotonin and dopamine). In other words, brain change model based on heterogeneous hemisphere treatment was effective on depression of withdrawal addicts with 95% probability.


Conclusion: Teaching a model of brain function change based on heterogeneous hematopoietic treatment was effective on depression in withdrawal addicts. approved.


 

Psychological predictors of emotional divorce in couples

Younes Parvaz, Leila Salek Ebrahimi , Seyedeh Elnaz Mousavi

Researcher Bulletin of Medical Sciences, Vol. 26 No. 1 (2021), , Page e9

Objective: Emotional divorce in today's society is a silent problem and leads to marital dissatisfaction, so the purpose of this study is to investigate the psychological predictors of emotional divorce in couples.


Method: This research was descriptive-analytical. The study population was all couples in Zanjan city. The sample size according to Free Statistics Calculators Version4 was 423 people. Using random cluster sampling, married people from Zanjan were randomly selected. Guttmann Emotional Divorce, Internet Addiction, and Humor styles Questionnaires were randomly assigned to participants to complete. Finally, for the final analysis of the data, including 413 descriptive statistics and structural models were performed. In order to investigate the structural model due to the normality of the data and the acceptability of other prerequisites, as well as the graphical environment and high capability of AMOS software, version 22 of this software package was used.


Results: In the final general model, 35% of the variance of emotional divorce was explained by the variables of sexual satisfaction and Internet addiction, and the fit indices were appropriate and acceptable. The data showed that sexual satisfaction (64) was more important for men in emotional divorce. Among women, Internet addiction had more explanatory power in emotional divorce than sexual satisfaction. The Internet addiction pathway coefficient was about 66. and the sexual satisfaction pathway coefficient was about 48.


Conclusion: Emotional divorce is a multi-factor or multi-causal phenomenon that is affected by both psychological and sociological factors. As shown in the findings section, Internet addiction and sexual satisfaction were strongly predictors of emotional divorce

Predicting health-related quality of life in women with infertility based on alexithymia, sexual satisfaction due to the mediating role of perceived infertility stigma

Masumeh amini masouleh, Hooman namvar, Alireza Agha Yousefi

Researcher Bulletin of Medical Sciences, Vol. 26 No. 1 (2021), , Page e10

The present study predicts health-related quality of life in women with infertility based on alexithymia, sexual satisfaction with respect to the mediating role of perceived infertility stigma. The method of this research was descriptive (non-experimental) and the research design was a correlation of structural equations. The statistical population of the present study was infertile women in Tehran in 1399. The sample size was 250 and according to the formula for determining the sample size (1992). The research instruments included standard questionnaires such as Weber (1992), Bagby, Parker & Tyler (1994), Larson (1988) and Perceived Stigma of Infertility (2014). Data analysis was performed using SmartPLS software. The results showed that perceived stigma of infertility had a mediating role in the relationship between mood variables and sexual satisfaction with health-related quality of life in women with infertility.


 


 

Visual acuity impairment in patients with retinitis pigmentosa

Hamideh Sabbaghi , Narsis Daftarian , Maryam Fakhri , Bahareh Kheiri , Hamid Ahmadieh

Researcher Bulletin of Medical Sciences, Vol. 26 No. 1 (2021), , Page e11

Purpose: To determine the visual acuity (VA) impairment in patients with retinitis pigmentosa (RP) in different age groups.


Materials and Methods: This descriptive study was extracted from the recorded data in the National Registry for Inherited Retinal Diseases (IRDs) in Iran (IRDReg®). The clinical records of 441 patients with a diagnosis of RP were investigated in the present study. The comprehensive visual and ocular examination with retinal imaging were conducted for all study subjects to ascertain the definite clinical diagnosis of RP. VA was classified based on the presenting VA (PGVA) of the better eye according to the International Classification of Diseases reported by the World Health Organization (WHO).


Results: In this study, a total of 441 RP patients with the mean age of 38.66 ± 14.24 years (range, 4 to 74) were included. Generally, the majority of RP patients in the age range of 20 to 40 years had visual impairment (80%; 95% CI, 74.3% to 84.9%). RP patients with younger ages had mild visual impairment (26.3%; 95% CI, 14.4% to 41.7%), while patients with no light perception was only found in older ages (3.4%; 95%CI, 1.4% to 6.8%), (P<0.001). The most frequency of RP patients suffering from visual impairment had disease onset at age ≤20 years (82.0%; 95% CI, 77% to 86.2%), and also severe visual impairment was observed in patients with earlier disease onset (2.6%; 95% CI, 1.2% to 5.1%), (P=0.001).


Conclusion: Based on our findings, more disease progression and subsequently visual acuity reduction was observed in RP patients who had older ages and disease onset in younger ages.


 


 

The effects of breastfeeding position and the change in nutritional habit on infantile colic: A randomized clinical trial

Sara Sadeghzadeh Fard Sorkhabi, Mohammad Kazemian, Ahmad Reza Shamshiri

Researcher Bulletin of Medical Sciences, Vol. 26 No. 1 (2021), , Page e12

Purpose: This study aimed to investigate the role of non-pharmacological method of breastfeeding and maternal nutrition in the treatment of infantile colic in order to reduce the role of pharmacological method.


Methods: This study was a double-blinded clinical trial study on 62 infants less than 4 months of age referred to Emergency ward of Mofid Hospital in 2014. The infants were randomly divided into two groups that one group received routine colic treatment without any intervention (as the control group) and the other group received hypoallergenic lactation and also were trained on how to breastfeed appropriately. On the second and tenth days, all mothers were contacted and the duration of crying and restlessness of the infant was assessed.


Results: The severity of colic significantly lower in intervention group as compared to control group on the second and tenth days of intervention. In this regard, the mean change in severity of colic at the end of assessment was 2.4 ± 2.2 in intervention group and 0.7 ± 1.5 in control group (p < 0.001). The mean change in colic intensity in subgroups with complete, partial and low adherence was 4.1 ± 2.4, 2.5 ± 1.6, and 0.2 ± 1.6 respectively indicating a significant difference (p < 0.001). 


Conclusion: Comprehensive mothers' training on how to breastfeed and determine the best breastfeeding position along with the change in nutritional habit can significantly reduce colic severity. 

Covid-19 disease effect on diabetic foot ulcer management, a big challenge in its management: A case report & literature review

Mohammad Hassani, Samira Salajeghe, Mustafa Nozarinia, Sara Salajeghe

Researcher Bulletin of Medical Sciences, Vol. 26 No. 1 (2021), , Page e13

Covid-19, which is now pandemic in countries around the world, including Iran. It has shown to cause hypoxia, which can lead to impaired wound healing. In positive covid-19 patients, the patient and his companion’s do not usually do appropriate washing of wounds. In addition, economic issues such as procurement and mask of personnel exposed to the patients with covid-19 disease are also an issue. In this article, Corona suspicious patient presented with a diabetic foot and required hospital admission. As such a patient with specific condition suspicion was required to admit, we needed to create a guideline for him and for upcoming similar cases. The patient was a 74-year-old diabetic man who did not respond to debridement. So the patient underwent below-knee amputation, which ended up to above the knee amputation due to a Klebsiella infection and failure to respond to non-invasive treatment of wound infection of stump of below-knee amputation and the patient's condition. The question is whether Corona- related hypoxia has exposed the patient to nosocomial infection, or the patient's lack of self-control at home as well as the medical staff lack of care due to fear of corona was the reason? In the period of the patient was under treatment, there was no significant complaint of shortness of breath. Conclusion: in patent with diabetic foot and covid-19 suspicion _ especially in critically ill patient may benefit from aggressive approach such as early major amputation because of cost-benefit and minimizing covid-19 risk must consider.


 

‏ Examining the role of faith in overcoming human fear, sorrow and despair from the perspective of the Holy Quran

Omid Rasa, Mohammad Farahani

Researcher Bulletin of Medical Sciences, Vol. 26 No. 1 (2021), , Page e14

Exploring and axplaining the role of faith in overcoming man's fear, sorrow, and despair in life from the perspective of the Holy Quran; in addition to the awareness and assistance of human societies in the treatment of human weakness and mental illness; It highlights the role and position of the Holy Quran in providing comprehensive solutions and unmatched answers to human questions and intellectual needs in life.This research has been done in the framework of analytical and descriptive methods and library method has been used to collect materials, and the concepts of the Holy Quran are the main reference and source for quoting its contents and arguments.In quoting the verses and concepts of the Holy Quran; the result was that man's faith and faithful behavior; it overcomes fear, sadness and frustration in life and Beneficial and valuable benefits such as: bring confidence, peace and satisfaction to human beings.God-centeredness and monotheism; trust and trust in God; cosmology and the hereafter; belief in reward and ultimately good; repentance and forgiveness; love and benevolence; among the causes and sources of the ability of believing human beings to overcome fear, sorrow and despair.

Development and psychometrics measurement scales of factors affecting the establishment of teledermatology

Sakineh Beigom Kazemi, Mehrnoosh Jafari, Seyed Mojtaba Hosseini, Ali Maher, Mohammad Karim Bahadori

Researcher Bulletin of Medical Sciences, Vol. 26 No. 1 (2021), , Page e15

Purpose: Despite its vast benefits, the establishment of telemedicine, especially teledermatology, faces many problems due to several reasons. The present study was carried out with the purpose of psychometrics measurement of the factors affecting the establishment of teledermatology.


Materials and Methods: The present mixed-method (qualitative and quantitative) study was carried out through triangulation in 2018. The research population comprises experts and managers of the health system of Iran. Cronbach's alpha test was used to assess the internal consistency, and the external reliability was measured by the test-retest method. The significance level throughout the whole analysis was P<0.05.


Results: According to the scree plot, the eigenvalues were greater than 1 and the slope of the scree plot, 8 factors with the potential of predicting the 69.52% of the total changes of the factors of the establishment of the telemedicine were extracted and selected. Cronbach's alpha test was employed to determine the internal consistency of the questionnaire, which was approved with the amount of 0.941 (higher than 0.7).


Conclusion: The results indicated that the 58-article measurement scale for the factors influencing the establishment of teledermatology has good validity and reliability. According to factor analysis, it includes 8 subscales. Cronbach's alpha coefficient was calculated to be equal to 0.941.


 

The effect of special training exercise on FGF21 expression and FGFR-1 among CABG patients

Sara Bakhtiar, Alireza Barari, Ahmad Abdi

Researcher Bulletin of Medical Sciences, Vol. 26 No. 1 (2021), , Page e16

Background: The aim of this study is to evalute special training exercise on the FGF21 and FGFR-1 among coronary artery bypass surgery (CABG) patients.


Materials and Methods: The study method was semi-experimental and the statistical population was patients who had heart disease, after coronary artery bypass surgery.


Results: The study results showed 8 weeks of special exercises among the experimental group had a significant increase in the expression levels of FGF21 and FGFR1 among CABG patients, compared to the control group. Physical activity may increase FGF21 levels, which is an important factor in oxidative stress and inflammation.


Conclusion: The study results showed 8 weeks of special exercises among the experimental group had a significant increase in the expression levels of FGF21 and FGFR1 among CABG patients, compared to the control group. Physical activity may increase FGF21 levels, which is an important factor in oxidative stress and inflammation.


 

The effect of Verbena officinalis on stress oxidative factors and expression gen of NMDA receptor subunit GluN2B in male rat induced with scopolamine

Hanieh chakkoshi, Zahra Hooshmandi, Gelavij Mahmoodi

Researcher Bulletin of Medical Sciences, Vol. 26 No. 1 (2021), , Page e17

In traditional medicine, the Verbena officinalis is used to treat depression, seizure, jaundice, fever, anxiety, insomnia, abdominal problems, throat inflammation and thyroid problems. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of Verbena officinalis extract on scopolamine-induced memory impairment in rats. In this experimental study, 35 rats were randomly assigned into 5 groups: control group, scopolamine (0.7 mg/kg, i.p., injection) and scopolamine and Verbena officinalis recipients at concentrations of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg. After 3 weeks of treatment, behavioral tests including passive avoidance memory were performed. The level of malondialdehyde and the antioxidant potential of the serum and brain of the rats were also determined. NMDA receptor subunit GluN2B gene expression was also measured. Treatment of rats with Verbena officinalis increased the secondary delay in the shuttle box test. Treatment with Verbena officinalis also reduced levels of serum and brain tissue malondialdehyde and also increased serum and brain antioxidant capacity. Treatment with 100 doses of Verbena officinalis extract increased the expression level of GluN2B gene in the brain. The findings of this study indicate that the extract of this plant can be a neuropharmacologic agent against memory disorders and oxidative stress induced by scopolamine in rats.


 

The relationship between mental health, cultural beliefs and sexual behavior of pregnant women

Setareh Malekzadeh, Hassan Ahadi, Fariborz Dortaj

Researcher Bulletin of Medical Sciences, Vol. 26 No. 1 (2021), , Page e18

The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between mental health and cultural beliefs and sexual behavior in pregnant women. Mental health and cultural beliefs are important individual factors. Human sexual behaviors are influenced by culture, customs, beliefs and beliefs of people, and there is a lot of diversity in different societies. This study was a field correlation and the study sample was available to 100 pregnant women. Sampling method: Sampling was done through a questionnaire. The results showed that cultural beliefs of individuals had an effect on their sexual behavior and women's mental health had a significant relationship with the request of unusual sexual behaviors by their husbands.


 

The effectiveness of emotion regulation group training in reducing depression, anxiety, and stress symptoms in women during pregnancy

Samira Ameli, Maryam Aslzaker , Saghar Salehpour, Mahdi Jafari

Researcher Bulletin of Medical Sciences, Vol. 26 No. 1 (2021), , Page e19

Background: Pregnancy and childbirth is a natural function but it is also a stressful and critical period that increases women’s vulnerability to psychological problems and also increases the mental health problems of the woman and her fetus, so they need interventions to improve maternal health during this time. This study investigated the effectiveness of emotion regulation group training in reducing depression, anxiety, and stress symptoms in women during pregnancy and postpartum.


Materials and Methods: This quasi-experimental study had a pre-test, post-test and follow-up (2 months follow after delivery). The study population consisted of 31 pregnant women who were randomly divided into intervention (n = 15) and control (n = 16) groups. The Depression, Anxiety and Stress Questionnaire (DASS-21) was used in this study. Eight sessions of emotion regulation group training were administered to the intervention group and the control group received information about pregnancy and childbirth during 4 sessions. After intervention and also two months after delivery, the questionnaires were completed again. The results of the scales were analyzed by SPSS software using repeated measures analysis of variance.


Results: The data analysis showed that depression, anxiety and stress in the intervention group are decreasing from pre-test to post-test and follow-up significantly more than control group.


Conclusion: According to the results of this study, emotion regulation group training can be effective in reducing of depression, anxiety and stress symptoms in pregnant women.

Letter to Editor


Therapeutic Potentiality of Coenzyme Q10 for COVID-19

Hamideh Moravvej, Mojtaba Memariani, Hamed Memariani

Researcher Bulletin of Medical Sciences, Vol. 26 No. 1 (2021), , Page e20

As coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) death toll continues to surge around the globe, researchers are trying to reposition already-approved drugs for battling against sever acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Diet and nutritional status have long been acknowledged to be associated with certain diseases. Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10), also known as ubiquinone, is a fat-soluble, vitamin-like substance which plays a pivotal role in mitochondrial bioenergy transfer. Furthermore, it is an anti-oxidant with superb free radical-scavenging activities (1). Emerging evidence also hints that CoQ10 possesses immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory properties. Regarding the latter, CoQ10 has been observed to inhibit expression of nuclear factor-κB, interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumour necrosis factor-α (2). In light of the foregoing, CoQ10 has been assessed in numerous studies for its potential in treating various health conditions and maladies such as neurodegenerative disorders, cardiovascular diseases, cancers, periodontitis, diabetes, renal failure, and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, to cite just a few (1).


There have been some attempts to assess potential associations between CoQ10 levels and symptom severity in patients who suffered from pulmonary infections (2-4). In a clinical trial, elderly hospitalized patients with community-acquired pneumonia who received oral CoQ10 (200 mg/d) as an adjunct to ceftriaxone plus azithromycin for 14 days exhibited improvement with defervescence and shorter length of hospital stay as compared to the placebo group (2). Likewise, another study revealed a significant correlation between serum levels of CoQ10 and chest radiographic findings of children with pneumonia caused by H1N1 influenza (3). The same authors also demonstrated that CoQ10 levels were remarkably lower in a pediatric population infected with H1N1 influenza in comparison to both controls and seasonal influenza patients (3). This finding was further substantiated by another investigation in which patients with acute influenza showed significantly lower levels of serum CoQ10 in comparison to healthy controls (P = 0.004), suggesting that diminished levels of CoQ10 may predispose individuals for acquiring viral respiratory diseases (4). Serum levels of CoQ10 in influenza patients were also inversely correlated with certain inflammatory markers (4).


Interestingly, one study has reported the beneficial effects of CoQ10 supplementation (100 mg/d for 4 weeks) in asthma patients, which was evident by a significant enhancement in forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1)/forced vital capacity (FVC) ratio (5). Furthermore, different nanosuspensions of CoQ10 for nebulization have been recently developed for pulmonary disorders (6), providing more effective drug medication delivery.


A recent study on rats revealed that CoQ10 protects sepsis-induced acute lung injury (7). Of note, the levels of high-mobility group box 1, IL-6, macrophage inflammatory protein 2, and keratinocyte chemoattractant were significantly diminished in CoQ10 group compared with the untreated controls (P < 0.05). Similarly, administration of CoQ10 was shown to ameliorate lung and liver fibrosis in rats through modulation of autophagy in methotrexate treated rats (8).


Patients suffered from COVID-19 have augmented levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, increased risk of pneumonia, and acute respiratory distress syndrome. Owing to obvious anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory properties of CoQ10, we envisage that the nutrient has the potential for adjuvant therapy against SARS-CoV-2 infection. On the other hand, there will be remarkable fibrotic consequences following the infection in some patients (9). Anti-fibrotic properties of CoQ10 may have a preventive role against pulmonary fibrosis secondary to COVID-19. Future clinical trials should scrutinize the therapeutic benefits of CoQ10 (in an inhaled form or oral administration) in critically ill patients.