Effectiveness of autogenic training and affect regulation training on anxiety sensitivity in women with type 2 diabetes
Researcher Bulletin of Medical Sciences,
Vol. 26 No. 1 (2021),
30 October 2021
Objective: Diabetes and intermittent periods of fluctuations in blood sugar levels are associated with stress and negative emotions. Due to the fact that these patients are prone to emotional problems, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of autogenic training and affect regulation training on anxiety sensitivity in women with type 2 diabetes.
Materials and Methods: This was a quasi-experimental study with pre-test and post-test design and control group. The statistical population included all women with type 2 diabetes in Tehran who referred to diabetes control centers in 2020. Among them, 45 people were selected by available sampling and replaced in two experimental and one control groups. All three groups completed anxiety sensitivity questionnaire. Autogenic training and affect regulation training were performed on the experimental groups. Data were analyzed using SPSS software version 24 and multivariate analysis of variance.
Results: The analysis of the results showed that both autogenic training and affect regulation training reduced anxiety sensitivity in women with type 1 diabetes (P<0.00), but the effectiveness of autogenic training was not significantly different from affect regulation training (P >0.001).
Conclusion: Therefore, it can be said that affect regulation training by accepting and expressing the negative emotions, reduced anxiety sensitivity in women with type 2 diabetes. Also, people with high anxiety sensitivity are incapable of moment-to-moment awareness without judgment. Thus, through autogenic training, the skill of processing thoughts and observing emotion as objective events in the mind is strengthened.
- Affect regulation; Autogenic; Anxiety sensitivity; Type 2 diabetes
How to Cite
2. Wendland EM, Torloni MR, Falavigna M, Trujillo J, Dode MA, Campos MA, Duncan BB, Schmidt MI. Gestational diabetes and pregnancy outcomes-a systematic review of the World Health Organization (WHO) and the International Association of Diabetes in Pregnancy Study Groups (IADPSG) diagnostic criteria. BMC pregnancy and childbirth. 2012 Dec 1;12(1):23.
3. Khodabakhshi K, Falsafinejad M, GhorbaniSakachaie L,Sanagou A. Relation between metacognitive beliefs and psychological adjustment with improving quality of life in type 2 diabetic patients. Journal of Gorgan University of Medical Sciences, 2019 Autumn; 21(3): 79-87.
4. Alonso-Morán E, Satylganova A, Orueta JF, Nuño-Solinis R. Prevalence of depression in adults with type 2 diabetes in the Basque Country: relationship with glycaemic control and health care costs. BMC Public Health. 2014 Jul; 14: 769.
5. Agarwal PP, Manohari SM. A cross-sectional study to evaluate the correlation of depression and anxiety symptoms to glycemic control in recent onset type II diabetes mellitus-research from south India. Telangana journal of psychiatry. 2019 Jun 3;5(1).
6. Akushevich I, Yashkin AP, Kravchenko J. Identifying the causes of the changes in the prevalence patterns of diabetes in older U.S. adults: A new trend partitioning approach. Journal of Diabetes and its Complications, 06 Jan 2018, 32(4):362-367
7. Gonzalez JS, Safren SA, Cagliero E, Wexler DJ, Delahanty L, Wittenberg E, Blais MA, Meigs JB, Grant RW. Depression, self-care, and medication adherence in type 2 diabetes: relationships across the full range of symptom severity. Diabetes care 2007; 30(9):2222-7.
8. Ramesh S, Alizadeh Moghdam A, Safari A, Feizi M. Relationship between anxiety, depression and stress with the severity of diabetes: The mediating role of quality of life. Iranian Journal of Diabetes and Metabolism, 2019; 18(2): 80-89
9. Zvolensky MJ, Bakhshaie J, Shepherd JM, Peraza N, Garey L, Viana AG, Glover N, Brown JT, Brown RA. Anxiety sensitivity and smoking among Spanish-speaking Latinx smokers. Addictive behaviors. 2019 Mar 1;90:55-61.
10. Farris SG, Thomas JG, Abrantes AM, Lipton RB, Burr EK, Godley FA, Roth JL, Pavlovic JM, Bond DS. Anxiety sensitivity and intentional avoidance of physical activity in women with probable migraine. Cephalalgia. 2019 Oct;39(11):1465-9.
11. Wright KD, Lebell MA, Carleton RN. Intolerance of uncertainty, anxiety sensitivity, health anxiety, and anxiety disorder symptoms in youth. Journal of Anxiety Disorders. 2016 Jun 1;41:35-42.
12. Otto MW, Eastman A, Lo S, Hearon BA, Bickel WK, Zvolensky M, Smits JA, Doan SN. Anxiety sensitivity and working memory capacity: Risk factors and targets for health behavior promotion. Clinical Psychology Review. 2016 Nov 1;49:67-78.
13. Geoffrey L. Cohen1 and David K. Sherman. The Psychology of Change: Self-Affirmation and Social Psychological Intervention. Annu. Rev. Psychol. 2014. 65:333–71
14. Klott A. Autogenic Training – a self-help technique for children with emotional and behavioural problems. THE INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF THERAPEUTIC COMMUNITIES, 2014; 34(4): 152-159.
15. Stanton A, Meston C. A single session of autogenic training increases acute subjective and physiological sexual arousal in sexually functional women. Journal of sex & marital therapy. 2017 Oct 3;43(7):601-17.
16. Seo E, Kim S. Effect of Autogenic Training for Stress Response: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing. 2019 Aug 1;49(4):361-74.
17. Peper E, Miceli B, Harvey R. Educational model for self-healing: eliminating a chronic migraine with electromyography, autogenic training, posture, and mindfulness. Biofeedback. 2016;44(3):130-7.
18. Braunstein LM, Gross JJ, Ochsner KN. Explicit and implicit emotion regulation: a multi-level framework. Social cognitive and affective neuroscience. 2017 Oct 1;12(10):1545-57.
19. Zaki J. Integrating empathy and interpersonal emotion regulation. Annual Review of Psychology. 2020 Jan 4;71:517-40.
20. Taylor S, Zvolensky MJ, Cox BJ, Deacon B, Heimberg RG, Ledley DR, et al. Robust dimensions of anxiety sensitivity: development and initial validation of the Anxiety Sensitivity Index-3. Psychol Assess. 2007;19:176-88.
21. Foroughi AA, Mohammadpour M, Khanjani S, Pouyanfard S, Dorouie N, Parvizi Fard AA. Psychometric properties of the Iranian version of the Anxiety Sensitivity Index-3 (ASI-3). Trends in psychiatry and psychotherapy. 2019 Sep;41(3):254-61.
22. Sadigh MR. Autogenic Training: A Mind-Body Approach to the Treatment of Chronic Pain Syndrome and Stress Related Disorders.2nd ed. Jefferson, North Carolina: McFarland; 2012
23. Berking M, Whitley B. Guidelines for Effective Delivery of ART. InAffect Regulation Training 2014 (pp. 67-75). Springer, New York, NY.
24. Najimi, A., Asgari, K. And Aware Harris, m. The effectiveness of a combination of medication, healthy eating and appropriate physical activity with emotion regulation intervention on perception control of anxiety and cardiovascular responses in women with coronary heart disease. Journal of Medical Science; 2018; 24(129): 21-30.
25. Aldao A, Jazaieri H, Goldin PR, Gross JJ. Adaptive and maladaptive emotion regulation strategies: Interactive effects during CBT for social anxiety disorder. Journal of anxiety disorders. 2014 May 1;28(4):382-9.
26. Chow CK, Teo KK, Rangarajan S, Islam S, Gupta R, Avezum A, Bahonar A, Chifamba J, Dagenais G, Diaz R, Kazmi K. Prevalence, awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension in rural and urban communities in high-, middle-, and low-income countries. Jama. 2013 Sep 4;310(9):959-68.
27. McGinnis RA, McGtady A, Cox SA, Grower-Dowling KA. Biofeedback-Assisted Relaxation in Type 2 Diabetes. In: Schwarts MS, Andrasik F, editors. Biofeedback: Practitioners Guige, 4th ed. New York: The Guliford Press. 2016; 400-22.
- Abstract Viewed: 41 times