The effect of Verbena officinalis on stress oxidative factors and expression gen of NMDA receptor subunit GluN2B in male rat induced with scopolamine
Researcher Bulletin of Medical Sciences,
Vol. 26 No. 1 (2021),
30 October 2021
In traditional medicine, the Verbena officinalis is used to treat depression, seizure, jaundice, fever, anxiety, insomnia, abdominal problems, throat inflammation and thyroid problems. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of Verbena officinalis extract on scopolamine-induced memory impairment in rats. In this experimental study, 35 rats were randomly assigned into 5 groups: control group, scopolamine (0.7 mg/kg, i.p., injection) and scopolamine and Verbena officinalis recipients at concentrations of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg. After 3 weeks of treatment, behavioral tests including passive avoidance memory were performed. The level of malondialdehyde and the antioxidant potential of the serum and brain of the rats were also determined. NMDA receptor subunit GluN2B gene expression was also measured. Treatment of rats with Verbena officinalis increased the secondary delay in the shuttle box test. Treatment with Verbena officinalis also reduced levels of serum and brain tissue malondialdehyde and also increased serum and brain antioxidant capacity. Treatment with 100 doses of Verbena officinalis extract increased the expression level of GluN2B gene in the brain. The findings of this study indicate that the extract of this plant can be a neuropharmacologic agent against memory disorders and oxidative stress induced by scopolamine in rats.
- Verbena officinalis; Memory impairment; Hippocampus; GluN2B
How to Cite
2. Akhondzadeh S, Noroozian M, Mohammadi M, Ohadinia S, Jamshidi A, Khani M. Salvia officinalis extract in the treatment of patients with mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease: a double blind, randomized and placebo‐controlled trial. J clinical pharm therap. 2003; 28(1):53-9. DOI:10.1046/j.1365-2710.2003.00463.x
3. Budzynska B, Boguszewska-Czubara A, Kruk-Slomka M, Skalicka-Wozniak K, Michalak A, Musik I. Effects of imperatorin on scopolamine-induced cognitive impairment and oxidative stress in mice. Psychopharmacol. 2015; 232(5):931-42. DOI: 10.1007/s00213-014-3728-6
4. Caine ED, Weingartner H, Ludlow CL, Cudahy EA, Wehry S. Qualitative analysis of scopolamine-induced amnesia. Psychopharmacol. 1981;74(1):74-80. DOI: 10.1007/BF00431761
5. Calvo M. Anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity of the topical preparation of Verbena officinalis L. J ethnopharmacol. 2006;107(3):380-2. DOI: 10.1016/j.jep.2006.03.037
6. Casanova E, García-Mina J, Calvo M. Antioxidant and antifungal activity of Verbena officinalis L. leaves. Plant foods hum nutr. 2008; 63(3):93-7. DOI: 10.1007/s11130-008-0073-0
7. Cull-Candy S, Brickley S, Farrant M. NMDA receptor subunits: diversity, development and disease. Curr opin neurobiol. 2001;11(3):327-35.
8. Dua JS, Prasad D, Tripathi AC, Gupta R. Role of traditional medicine in neuropsychopharmacology. Asian J Pharm Clin Res. 2009;2(2):72-6.
9. El-Sherbiny DA, Khalifa AE, Attia AS, Eldenshary EE-DS. Hypericum perforatum extract demonstrates antioxidant properties against elevated rat brain oxidative status induced by amnestic dose of scopolamine. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2003;76(3):525-33. DOI: 10.1016/j.pbb.2003.09.014
10. Fan MM, Fernandes HB, Zhang LY, Hayden MR, Raymond LA. Altered NMDA receptor trafficking in a yeast artificial chromosome transgenic mouse model of Huntington's disease. J Neurosci. 2007;27(14):3768-79. DOI: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.4356-06.2007
11. Fathi F, Oryan S, Rafieian M, Eidi A. Neuroprotective effect of Mentha longifolia L. extract on inschemia/ reperfusion – induced brain injury in male wistar rats. J Med plant. 2015;2(14), 169- 181,
12. Heneka MT, Carson MJ, El Khoury J, Landreth GE, Brosseron F, Feinstein DL, et al. Neuroinflammation in Alzheimer's disease. Lancet Neurol. 2015; 14(4):388-405. DOI: 10.1016/S1474-4422(15)70016-5
13. Huo X-l, Min J-j, Pan C-y, Zhao C-c, Pan L-l, Gui F-f. Efficacy of lovastatin on learning and memory deficits caused by chronic intermittent hypoxia-hypercapnia: through regulation of NR2B-containing NMDA receptor-ERK pathway. PloS one. 2014; 9(4):e94278. Doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0094278
14. Izquierdo I, McGaugh J. Behavioural pharmacology and its contribution to the molecular basis of memory consolidation. Behav pharmacol. 2000;11(7):517-34. DOI: 10.1097/00008877-200011000-00001
15. Jo YS, Choi J-S. Memory retrieval in response to partial cues requires NMDA receptor-dependent neurotransmission in the medial prefrontal cortex. Neurobiol learn mem. 2014;109:20-6. DOI:10.1016/j.nlm.2013.11.004
16. Khan AW, Khan A-u, Ahmed T. Anticonvulsant, Anxiolytic, and Sedative Activities of Verbena officinalis. Front Pharmacol. 2016; 7: 499. DOI: 10.3389/fphar.2016.00499
17. Khare CP. Indian medicinal plants: an illustrated dictionary: Springer Science & Business Media.2008.
18. Kwon S-H, Lee H-K, Kim J-A, Hong S-I, Kim H-C, Jo T-H. Neuroprotective effects of chlorogenic acid on scopolamine-induced amnesia via anti-acetylcholinesterase and anti-oxidative activities in mice. Europ J pharmacol. 2010; 649(1-3):210-7.
19. Ling W, Chang L, Song Y, Lu T, Jiang Y, Li Y. Immunolocalization of NR1, NR2A, and PSD-95 in rat hippocampal subregions during postnatal development. Acta Histochem. 2012;114(3):285-95. DOI: 10.1016/j.acthis.2011.06.005
20. Markesbery WR. Oxidative stress hypothesis in Alzheimer's disease. Free Rad Biol Medic. 1997; 23(1):134-47. DOI: 10.1016/s0891-5849(96)00629-6
21. Nasir E, editor Flora of Pakistan. Agriculture Research Conference. Islamabad (Pakistan). 1981; 24-27:PARC.
22. Rakesh Rai, Hemant K. Singh, and S. Prasad. A Special Extract of Bacopa monnieri (CDRI-08) Restores Learning and Memory by Upregulating Expression of the NMDA Receptor Subunit GluN2B in the Brain of Scopolamine-Induced Amnesic Mice. Evid Base Comp Alternat Med. 2015; 2015: 254-303. DOI: 10.1155/2015/254303.
- Abstract Viewed: 22 times