Case Report

Immunohistochemical Diagnosis of Primary Laryngeal Melanoma as a Rare Malignant Laryngeal Tumour

Laszlo Ivan, Gabor Vass, Sandor Hamar, Gholam Hossein Alim Marvasti, Laszlo Rovo

Journal of Otorhinolaryngology and Facial Plastic Surgery, Vol. 6 No. 1 (2020), 12 September 2020 , Page 1-5

In this case presentation, the authors discuss the prevalence, diagnosis and surgical treatment of the exceedingly rare primary laryngeal melanoma. The importance of immunohistochemical investigations is emphasised since the condition tends to mimic laryngeal carcinomas. Laryngeal melanomas have a very poor prognosis; their five-year survival is less than 10% in international literature. However, the patient presented in this article is still asymptomatic and has no metastases 7 years after the removal of the lesion with transoral laser microsurgery.

Original Article

The Outcomes of Dome Cut in Rhinoplasty versus Alternative Methods in Patients with Various Nasal Tip Deformities

Shahrokh Khoshsirat, Sepideh Shiravand, Zahra Soroureddin

Journal of Otorhinolaryngology and Facial Plastic Surgery, Vol. 6 No. 1 (2020), 12 September 2020 , Page 1-8

Background: There were several techniques for reconstruction of nasal tip cartilage. Dome cut is a technique that has recently proposed for nasal tip projection, this method is recently concern regarding its efficacy. 

Aim: This study was performed to determine the outcomes of rhinoplasty with dome cut vs. alternative methods in patients with various nasal tip deformities.

Methods: A retrospective review from 36 cases was conducted. Patients were selected from a computerized rhinoplasty database of operative cases. The database was used to extract a subset population that had received the dome cut procedure and had follow-up data for 6 months or more after surgery. Patient satisfaction, physician evaluation, physical examination, blinded comparison of preoperative and postoperative photographs, and revision surgery necessitation were also analyzed in this review of results and complications.

Results: Initially 41.7 percent had saddle nose deformity, 41.7% had nasal tip deformity, and 16.7% had other types of deformity. 94.4% had successful outcomes whether the technique and type of deformity had no effect on success of results (p > 0.05).

Conclusion: According to the obtained results and comparison with other studies, it may be concluded that rhinoplasty with dome cut is a successful method and various methods and deformities have no effect on the outcomes.

The Evaluation of Vitamin D Deficiency in Patients with Nasal Polyposis

Mahdi Khajavi, Shrin Golmohammadi, Mahbobe Oroei, Ali Asghar Peyvandi

Journal of Otorhinolaryngology and Facial Plastic Surgery, Vol. 6 No. 1 (2020), 12 September 2020

Background: Despite performing surgical treatment, chronic rhinosinusitis coexisting with polyposis has recurrent episodes. Considering the strong association between nasal polyposis and asthma, the role of Vitamin D deficiency has been demonstrated in most of the asthma attacks.

Purpose :To investigate the serum level of 25-hydroxy vitamin D in chronic rhino sinusitis among the patients with and without nasal polyposis.

Methods :In this cross-sectional study, we evaluated the vitamin D deficiency in 38 patients with nasal polyposis and 38 control patients, using immunoassay examination.  Data of the two groups were compared and analyzed via SPSS software version 18. The significant level was considered as less than 0.05.

Results: We found severe vitamin D deficiency in 47.4% of the polyposis patients, while this rate decreased to13.3% in the control group (p=0.004). Based on the age group classification, there was no statistically significant difference in terms of the vitamin D deficiency between the polyposis patients and control group (p=0.66).  

Conclusion: Vitamin D deficiency can be associated with the prevalence of nasal polyposis in the patients affected by chronic rhinosinusitis. Further studies can prove the essential role of vitamin D in pathogenesis of nasal polyposis.  

Trehalose increase proliferation and decrease apoptosis in hair cells induced by Hydrogen peroxides

Hojjat Allah Abbaszadeh , Atefeh Shirazi Tehrani, Somayeh Niknazar, Shahrokh Khoshsirat

Journal of Otorhinolaryngology and Facial Plastic Surgery, Vol. 6 No. 1 (2020), 12 September 2020 , Page 1-5

BACKGROUND: Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) a key reactive oxygen species, which is made through redox procedure, can induce oxidative damage to several biological macromolecules and play critical role in neurodegenerative diseases.

Aim: The current study examined the neuroprotective effect of Trehalose on hair cells death induced by H2O2.

Material and method: Hair cells were co-treated by Trehalose and H2O2. The effects of Trehalose on BAX/BCL2 expression ratio and cell viability were assessed by Real time PCR and MTT assay, respectively.

 Result:  The results of Real time PCR and MTT assay indicated that H2O2 induce cell death, and Trehalose have neuroprotective effect and decreases cell death.

Conclusion: Our data showed that Trehalose has the protective effect on hair cells death induced by H202

Review Article

Review of Unusual Presentations of COVID-19

Majid Samsami, Javad Zebarjadi Bagherpour, Hamed Tahmasbi, Arash Mohammadi Tofigh, Seyed Pouzhia Shojaee , Hamidreza Hatamabadi

Journal of Otorhinolaryngology and Facial Plastic Surgery, Vol. 6 No. 1 (2020), 12 September 2020 , Page 1-5

The world has faced the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic since the H1N1 influenza pandemic in 1918. The symptoms of this disease are spreading rapidly and affect almost all systems of the body. In addition to the common symptoms of the virus, numerous reports of rare symptoms of the virus have also been published. These atypical presentations can result in difficulty in diagnosing the disease. The aim of this work is to summarize “uncommon atypical presentations”, which have not received enough attention in descriptions of the disease presentation to date and the authors specifically discuss the important uncommon atypical presentations of COVID-19.

The effects of modern therapies on noise pollution affecting hearing loss: challenges and novelty

Hojjat Allah Abbaszadeh, Atefeh Shirazi Tehrani, Somayeh Niknazar, Shahrokh khoshsirat

Journal of Otorhinolaryngology and Facial Plastic Surgery, Vol. 6 No. 1 (2020), 12 September 2020 , Page 1-5

Background: Human reactions to noise pollution can have detrimental consequences for physical and mental health. Increased infection in the workplace or the surrounding area can cause deafness and its disorders, tinnitus, high blood pressure, coronary artery disease, and sleep disorders. Changes in the immune system and birth defects have also been attributed to exposure to noise pollution. Adverse effects and cardiovascular complications due to constant exposure to noise pollution prevent human blood pressure from experiencing a regular cycle of increase and decrease around the clock. The most important sources of such pollution are cars, airplanes, long-term exposure to loud music, and industrial noise. In the European Union, more than 10,000 people die each year due to the effects of noise pollution. The level of noise pollution during the night causes the production and permanent increase of cortisol, which increases the risk of heart attack.

Aim: The aim of this study was to review the results of research on the role of antioxidants and other protective agents against the destructive effects of free radicals on hearing loss and deafness.

Methods: In this research, using the desired keywords in valid databases (PubMed, Scopus, and Medline), articles from 2016 to 2020 were performed and then this study was written by studying the selected articles.

Results: The results showed that most of the pollution is caused by cars, airplanes, long-term exposure to loud music and industrial sounds, as well as protection and training methods, as well as the use of neurotrophic agents and antioxidants and cell therapy. Gene therapy is effective in treating deafness caused by infection.

Conclusion: The most appropriate method in the treatment of noise pollution and deafness is the prevention of areas with high noise and the use of antioxidants.

Gene Therapy in Hearing Loss Treatment: A Review

Atefeh Shirazi Tehrani, Hojjat Allah Abbaszadeh , Somayeh Niknazar, Shahrokh khoshsirat

Journal of Otorhinolaryngology and Facial Plastic Surgery, Vol. 6 No. 1 (2020), 12 September 2020 , Page 1-7

Background Hearing loss, which is highly heterogeneous, is the most common sensorineural disorder in humans. More than 50% of the causes of deafness are attributed to genetic factors. Numerous studies have shown the persistent negative impact of deafness on communication and quality of life. Therefore, action to optimize performance and maintain or improve hearing ability seems necessary. In so doing, interventions are performed after assessing hearing loss. The most important intervention is gene therapy; For several genetic diseases, gene therapy is a potential treatment that is being investigated. Gene therapy will restore the ability to hear by overcoming functional defects caused by genetic mutations. Furthermore, gene therapy might potentially be used to trigger the regeneration of hair cells by transferring genes required in the cochlea for hair cell differentiation.

Aim: We review recent research about hereditary hearing loss and technologies in animal.

Methods: In this study, we review current reports in clarifying genomics of hereditary hearing loss and technologies between 2014 and 2020 in PubMed, Scopus, and Google Scholar to create a gene therapy that may soon become a treatment choice. We also discuss recent research applied to animal models of hearing loss by gene therapy.

Conclusion: Gene therapy allows for the treatment of sensorineural hearing loss by restoring and/or preserving the inner ear cells functioning. Hopeful results from recent research have contributed to cochlear gene therapies being created for end-use in patients.