Social Determinants of Health,
Vol. 4 No. 1 (2018),
10 June 2018
Background: The prevalence of Chronic Energy Deficiency (CED) in Indonesia reached 24.2% in 2013. The present study aimed to identify the determinants of CED in pregnant women.
Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted between July 2016 - July 2017 in Jeneponto Regency. The standard used in Indonesia categorizes CED when MUAC <23.5 cm while the normal value is considered as ³23.5 cm. A total 616 respondents were selected using proportional stratified non-random sampling. The independent variables were socio-economic, food intake, and environmental factors. Anthropometric data including Middle-Upper Arm Circumference (MUAC) was measured using MUAC tape. In addition, SECA digital weight scale was used to measure weight and Microtoice for height. Data were collected using structured questionnaires and the results were double input to ensure validity of data. Data analyses used were chi-square and logistic regression run in PASW Statistics for Windows, Version 18.0.
Results: The results showed that the prevalence of CED is quite high (n=131) (21.3%). The variables that contributed to the CED occurrence were age (OR=2.662, 95%CI=1.785-3.968, P<0.001) and education level (OR=0.505, 95%CI=0.340-0.751, P=0.001). Multivariate analysis showed only educational level and latrines availability became the determinant factors of CED in pregnant women (P<0.05). After controlling low carbohydrates and protein intake, there was no statistically significant variable as determinant factor of CED among pregnant women.
Conclusion: The present study concludes that age and education level are potential to be determinant factors for CED. Attempts should be made to prevent the impact of CED on pregnant women. The government needs to provide the proper program to overcome impact and prevalent of CED.