Effects of Salicylic Acid on Carotenoids and Antioxidant Activity of Saffron (Crocus sativus L.)
Applied Food Biotechnology,
Vol. 2 No. 4 (2015),
7 October 2015
Saffron (Crocus sativus L.), the most valuable medicinal food product, belongs to the Iridaceae family, which has been widely used as a coloring and flavoring agent. The stigmas contain three major compounds; crocins (carotenoid compound responsible for color), picrocrocin (responsible for taste) and safranal (responsible for odor). It has been used for medicinal purposes, as a spice and condiment for food and as a dye since ancient times. Numerous studies have shown crocins as main carotenoids of saffron to be capable of a variety of pharmacological effects, such as protection against cardiovascular diseases and inhibition of cancer cell development. Salicylic acid is a signaling molecule and a hormone-like substance that plays an important role in the plant physiological processes. Due to the importance of saffron as a valuable product, the aim of this study is to investigate the effect of salicylic acid application (0.01, 0.1 and 1 mM) on crocin and safranal content and antioxidant activity of stigmas. The results showed that salicylic acid application at 1 mM was the most effective treatment in increasing the crocin content and stronger antioxidant activity of stigmas, but it had a negative effect on safranal content; the highest quantity of this compound was observed in the control plants.
- Antioxidant activity
- Crocus sativus
- Salicylic acid
How to Cite
Abdullaev FI. Cancer chemopreventive and tumoricidal properties of saffron (Crocus sativus L.). Exp Biol Med. 2002; 227: 20-25.
Hosseinzadeh H, Younesi HM. Antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of Crocus sativus L. stigma and petal extracts in mice. BMC Pharmacol. 2002; 2: 7-12. DOI:10.1186/1471-2210-2-7
Assimopoulou A, Sinakos Z, Papageorgiou P. Radical scavenging activity of Crocus sativus L. extract and its bioactive constituents. Phytother Res. 2005; 19: 997-1000.
Lozano P, Castellar MR, Simancas MJ, Iborra JL. Quantitative high-performance liquid chromatographic method to analyse commercial saffron (Crocus sativus L.) products. J Chromatogr A. 1999; 830: 477-483.
Loskutov AV, Beninger CW, Hosfield GL, Sink KC. Development of an improved procedure for extraction and quantitation of safranal in stigmas of Crocus sativus L. using high performance liquid chromatography. Food Chem. 2000; 69: 87-95.
Bouvier F, Isner CJ, Dogbo O, Camara B. Oxidative tailoring of carotenoids: A prospect towards novel functions in plants. Trends Plant Sci. 2005; 10: 187-194.
Moraga AR, Nohales PF, Perez JA, Gomez GL. Glucosylation of the saffron apocarotenoid Christian by a glucosyltransferase isolated from Crocus sativus stigmas. Planta. 2004; 219: 955-966.
Ahmad B S, Malik A H, Wani Z A, Mohiuddin T, Shah Z, Abbas N, Ashraf N. Phytochemical analysis and antioxidant activity of different tissue types of Crocus sativus and oxidative stress alleviating potential of
saffron extract in plants, bacteria, and yeast. S Afr J Bot. 2015; 99: 80-87.
Harborne JB. The flavonoids: Advances in research since 1980. Chapman and Hall. UK. 1988.
Bouvier F, Backhaus R, Camara B. Induction and control of chromoplast specific carotenoids genes by oxidative stress. J Biol Chem. 1998; 273: 30651-30659.
Zarinkamar F, Tajik S, Soleimanpour S. Effects of altitude on anatomy and concentration of crocin, picrocrocin and safranal in Crocus sativus L. Aust J Crop Sci. 2011; 7: 831-838.
Karuppusamy SA. Review on trends in production of secondary metabolites from higher plants by in vitro tissue, organ and cell cultures. J Med Plants Res. 2009; 3: 1222-1239.
Amanullah MM, Sekar S, Vincent S. Plant growth substances in crop production. Asian J Plant Sci. 2010; 9: 215-222.
Ghasemzadeh A, Jaafar H, Karimi E, Ibrahim M. Involvement of salicylic acid on antioxidant and anticancer properties, anthocyanin production and chalcone synthase activity in ginger (Zingiber officinale roscoe) varieties. Int J Mol SCI. 2012; 13: 14828-14844.
Taguchi G, Yazawa T, Hayashida N, Okazaki M. Molecular cloning and heterologous expression of novel glucosyltransferases from tobacco cultured cells that have broad substrate specificity and are induced by salicylic acid and auxin. Eur J Biochem. 2001; 268: 4086-4094.
Brand-Williams W, Cuvelier ME, Berset C. Use of a Free radical method to evaluate antioxidant activity. Food Sci Technol. 1995; 28: 25-30.
Chen JY, Wen PF, Kong WF, Pan QH, Zhan JC, Li JM. Effect of salicylic acid on phenylpropanoids and phenyl-alanine ammonia-lyase in harvested grape berries. Postharvest Biol Technol. 2006: 40: 64-72.
Idrees M, Naeem N, Aftab T, Khan MMA. Salicylic acid mitigates salinity stress by improving antioxidant defense system and enhances vincristine and vinblastine alkaloids production in periwinkle. Acta Physiol Plant. 2011; 33: 987-999.
Turkyılmaz B, Aktas LY, Gu¨ven A. Salicylic acid induced some biochemical and physiological changes in Phaseolus vulgaris L. Sci Eng J Firat Univ. 2005; 17: 319-326.
Hashmi N, Masroor M, Khan A, Moinuddin, Idrees M, Aftab T. Exogenous Salicylic acid stimulates physio-logical and biochemical changes to improve growth, yield and active constituents of fennel essential oil. Plant Growth Regul. 2012; 68: 281-291.
Gharib F. Effect of salicylic acid on the growth, metab-olic activities and oil content of basil and marjoram. Int J Agri Biol. 2007; 9: 294-301.
Akhondzadeh BA, Ghoreishi SA. Noorbala AA, Akhondzadeh SH, Rezazadeh SH. Petal and stigma of Crocus sativus L. in the treatment of depression: A pilot double-blind randomized trial. J Med Plants. 2008; 7: 29-36.
Chen Y, Zhang H, Tian X, Zhao C, Cai L, Liu Y, Jia L, Yin HX, Chen C. Antioxidant potential of crocins and ethanol extracts of Gardenia jasminoides ELLIS and Crocus sativus L. A relationship investigation between antioxidant activity and crocin contents. Food Chem. 2008; 109: 484-492.
Ebrahimzadeh MA, Pourmmorad F, Hafezi S. Antioxidant activities of Iranian corn silk. Turk J Biol. 2008; 32: 43-49.
Zhu KX, Lian CX, Guo XN, Peng W, Zhou HM. Antioxidant activities and total phenolic contents of various extracts from defatted wheat germ. Food Chem. 2011; 126: 1122-1126.
Tepe B, Degerli S, Arslan S, Malatyali E, Sarikurkcu C. Determination of chemical profile, antioxidant, DNA damage protection and antiamoebic activities of Teucrium polium and Stachys iberica. Fitoterapia. 2011; 82: 237-246.
Kosar M, Goger F, Baser KHC. In vitro antioxidant properties and phenolic composition of saliva halophila hedge from turkey. Food Chem. 2011; 129: 374-379.
Singh RP, Murthy KNC, Jayaprakasha GK. Studies on the antioxidant activity of pomegranate (Punica granatum) peel and seed extracts using in vitro models. J Agr Food Chem. 2002; 50: 81-86.
Malarz J, Stojakowska A, Kisiel W. Effect of methyl jasmonate and salicylic acid on sesquiterpene lactone accumulation in hairy roots of Cichorium intybus. Acta Physiol Plant 2007; 29: 127-132.
Angaji SA, Mousavi SF, Babapour E. Antioxidants: a few key points. Ann Biol Res. 2012; 3: 3968-3977.
Kawabata K, Tung NH, Shoyama Y, Sugie S, Mori T, Tanaka T. Dietary crocin inhibits colitis and colitis-associated colorectal carcinogenesis in male ICR mice. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2012; 1-13. DOI:10.1155/2012/820415
Mashmoul M, Azlan A, Khazaai Mohd Yusof BN, Mohd NS. Saffron: a natural potent antioxidant as a promising anti-obesity drug. Antioxidant. 2013; 2: 293-308.
- Abstract Viewed: 981 times
- PDF Downloaded: 977 times