Evaluation of Carotenoids and Chlorophyll as Natural Resources for Food in Spirulina Microalgae
Applied Food Biotechnology,
Vol. 2 No. 1 (2015),
19 February 2015
AbstractMicroalgae can produce various natural products such as pigments, enzymes, unique fatty acids and vitamins that benefit humans. The objective of the study was evaluation of carotenoids (beta carotene, zeathanthin, lutein, lycopene and astaxanthin) and chlorophyll a in spirulina microalgae. Spirulina powder has been produced by Jordan’s method in Iran. Carotenoids were extracted from Spirulina platensis by adopting a method described by Reboul; then the sample was prepared and injected into a HPLC instrument with triplicate injection. Chlorophyll`s biomass content was determined by spectrophotometer. After assaying the curves of HPLC, the amount of chlorophyll a, astaxanthin, beta carotene, lycopene, zeaxanthin and lutein in spirulina was determined as 4.3±0.14, 0.21±0.02, 7393±2.76, 741±2.32, 6652±3.69 and 424±2.83 μg/ml respectively. Beta carotene account for 80% of the carotenoids present in spirulina after that zeaxanthin was most. At last, Spirulina was a good source for carotenoids as a pro-vitamin A in organisms.
- Spirulina Microalgae
- Chlorophyll a
How to Cite
- Beheshtipour H, Haratian P, Mortazavian AM, Khosravi-Darani K. Effects of Chlorella vulgaris and Arthrospira platensis addition on viability of probiotic bacteria in yogurt and its biochemical properties. Eur Food Res Technol. 2012; 235: 719–728.
- Hoseini SM, Khosravi-Darani K, Mozafari MR. Nutritional and medical applications of spirulina microalgae. Mini Rev Med Chem. 2013; 13: 1231-1237.
- Hosseini SM, Shahbazizadeh S, Khosravi-Darani K, Mozafari MR. Spirulina paltensis: Food and function. Curr Nutr Food Sci. 2013; 9: 189-193.
- Fadaei V, Eslami-Moshkenani F, Kosravi-Darani K. Effect of spirulina platensis powder on viability of lactococcus strains in probiotic yoghurt. Int J Biotechnol. 2013; 10: 511-513.
- Fadaei V, Mazinani S, Khosravi-Darani K. Influence of Spirulina platensis powder on viability of lactococcus strains in probiotic of
feta cheese containing mentha longifolial. Int Jou Bio and Biotech. 2013; 10 (3): 475-478.
- Fadaei V, Mohamadi-Alasti F, Khosravi-Darani K. Influence of Spirulina platensis powder on the starter culture viability in probiotic yoghurt containing spinach during cold storage. Eur. J. Exp. Bio. 2013; 3: 389-393.
- Soehili M, Mazinani S, Khosravi-Darani K. The potential health benefits of algae and micro algae in medicine: A Review on Spirulina Platensis. Curr Nutr Food Sci. 2011; 7: 279-285.
- Stahl W, Sies H. Bioactivity and protective effects of natural carotenoids. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2005; 101– 107.
- Mortensen A. Carotenoids and other pigments as natural colorants. Pure Appl Chem. 2006; 78: 1477–1491.
- Spolaore P, Joannis-Cassan C, Duran E. Isambert A. Commercial applications of microalgae. J Biosci Bioeng. 2006; 101: 87–96.
- Moorhead K, Capelli B. Nature’s Superfood. Aerial view of microalgae farm of Cyanotech Corporation, Kailua-Kona, Hawaii, 2011.
- Goh LP, Loh SP, Fatimah MY, Perumal K. Bioaccessibility of carotenoids and tocopherols in marine microalgae, Nannochloropsis sp. and Chaetoceros sp. Malays J Nutr. 2009; 15: 77-86.
- Gaurav D, Preet S, Dua K. Antioxidative and antiperoxidative effects of Spirulina platensis against cadmium induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Ann Biolog Res. 2012; 2: 121-127.
- Bogahawatte C. Production and application of Spirulina platensis rich in fatty acids, and vitamins. Int J Agr Env. 2013;1: 39-52.
- Khan Z, Bhadouria P, Bisen PS. Nutritional and therapeutic potential of spirulina, Curr Pharm Biotechnol. 2005; 6: 373-379.
- Hifney A, Issa AA, Fawzy MA. A biotic Stress induced production of beta carotene, allophycocyanin and total lipids in Spirulina sp. J Biol Earth Sci. 2013, 3: 54–64.
- Mala R, Karthik V, Sakthiselvan S, Saravanababu S. Milking of Spirulina platensis for the production of carotenoids by aqueous two phase bioreactor, Int J Chem. Sci. 2010; 8: 584-591.
- Mendiola JA, Señoráns FJ, Ibañez E, Jaime L, Reglero G. Supercritical fluid of microalgae Spirulina platensis chemo-functional characterization. MSc. Degree Thesis in Madrid University,pp. 98, 2008.
- El-Baky HHA, El Baz FK, El-Baroty GS. Characterization of nutraceutical compounds in blue green alga Spirulina maxima. J Med Plants Res. 2008; 2: 292-300.
- Rafiqul IM, Hassan A, Sulebele G, Orosco C, Roustaian P. Influence of temperature on growth and biochemical composition of Spirulina platensis and S. fusiformis. Iran Int J Sci. 2003; 4: 97-106.
- Gaese H. Chemical composition and potential application of Spirulina platensis biomass. Int J Agr Envir. 2012; 4:35-40.
- Jourdan P. Manual of small scale spirulina culture, Antenna Technologies, 2001.
- Chauhan UK, Pathak N. Effect of different conditions on the production of chlorophyll by Spirulina platensis. J Alg Biom Utln. 2010; 1: 89–99.
- Mackinney G. Absorption of light by chlorophyll solution. J Biol Chem. 1941; 140: 466-469.
- Reboul E, Richelle M, Perrot E, Desmoulins-Malezet C, Pirisi V, Borel P. , Bioaccessibility of carotenoids and vitamin E from their main dietary sources,J Agric Food Chem. 2006; 15;54(23):8749-55.
- Valderrama JO, Perrut M, Majewski W. Extraction of astaxantine and phycocyanine from microalgae with supercritical carbon dioxide. J Chem Eng Data. 2003; 48: 827-830.
- Sethu P. Studies on important phytochemicals and genetic transformation of the Cyanobacterium spirulina, Thesis of Mysore University, India. 2007.
- Kumar M, Kulshreshtha J, Singh GP. Growth and Pigment Profile of Spirulina platensis isolated from Rajasthan India. Res J Agr Sci. 2011; 2: 83-86.
- El-Baky HHA, El Baz F, El-Baroty GS. Enhancement of antioxidant production in Spirulina plantensis under oxidative stress. Am-Eurasian J Sci Res. 2007; 2: 170-179.
- Abstract Viewed: 1605 times
- PDF Downloaded: 553 times