Poly(hydroxyalkanoates) for Food Packaging: Application and Attempts towards Implementation
Applied Food Biotechnology,
Vol. 1 No. 1 (2014),
AbstractPlastics are well-established for convenient and safe packaging and distribution of food and feed goods. At present, this special sector of the plastic market displays remarkably increasing quantities of its annual production. Caused by the ongoing limitation and strongly fluctuating prices of fossil feedstocks, classically used for plastic production, there is an evident trend to switch towards so-called “bio-plastics”. Especially for bulk applications such as food packaging, a broad implementation of “bio-plastics” constitutes a future-oriented strategy to restrict the dependence of global industry on fossil feedstocks, and to diminish current problematic environmental issues arising from plastic disposal. However, food packaging demands a great deal of the utilized packaging material. This encompasses tailored mechanical properties such as low brittleness and adequate tensile strength, a sufficient barrier for oxygen, CO2, and aromatic flavors, high UV-resistance, and high water retention-capacity to block the food´s moisture content, or to prevent humidity, respectively. Due to their hydrophobic character and the broad flexibility of their mechanical features, prokaryotic poly(hydroxyalkanoates) (PHAs) are considered as promising materials to compete with petro-plastics on the food-packaging market. Nevertheless, short-comings in particular aspects of their material performance and economics of their biosynthesis and purification constitute stumbling blocks on the long way towards broad implementation of PHAs for food packaging. This article discusses advantages and drawbacks of PHAs as food packaging materials, and demonstrates how desired properties can be improved by the designing of novel composite materials, and also encompassing techniques by applying nanoparticles.
- Composite materials
- Food packaging
- Packaging materials
- Poly(hydroxyalkanoates) (PHA)
How to Cite
Keshavarz T, Roy I. Polyhydroxyalkanoates: Bioplastics with a green agenda. Curr Opin Microbiol. 2010; 13: 321-326.
Shah A, Hasan F, Hameed A, Ahmed S. Biological degradation of plastics: A comprehensive review. Biotechnol Adv. 2008; 26: 246-265.
Braunegg G, Bona, Koller M. Sustainable polymer production. Polym-Plast Technol. 2004; 43: 1779-1793.
Chen GQ. Introduction of bacterial plastics PHA, PLA, PBS, PE, PTT, and PPP, Plastics from bacteria: Natural functions and applications. 2010; 14: 1-16.
Koller M, Salerno A, Muhr A, Reiterer A, Braunegg G. Polyhydroxyalkanoates: Biodegrad-able polymers and plastics from renewable resources. Mater Tehnol. 2013; 47: 5-12.
Verlinden RA, Hill DJ, Kenward MA, Williams CD, Radecka I. Bacterial synthesis of biodegrade-able polyhydroxyalkanoates. J Appl Microbiol. 2007; 102: 1437-1449.
Koller M, Gasser I, Schmid F, Berg G. Linking ecology with economy: Insights into polyhydroxy-alkanoate producing microorganisms. Eng Life Sci. 2011; 11: 222-237.
Khanna S, Srivastava AK. Recent advances in microbial polyhydroxyalkanoates. Process Biochem. 2005; 40:607-619.
Atlić A, Koller M, Scherzer D, Kutschera C, Grillo-Fernandes E, Horvat P, et al. Continuous production of poly ([R]-3-hydroxybutyrate) by Cupriavidus necator in a multistage bioreactor cascade. Appl Microbiol Biot. 2011; 91: 295-304.
Kunioka M, Tamaki A, Doi Y. Crystalline and thermal properties of bacterial copolyesters: Poly (3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) and poly (3-hydroxybutyrate-co-4-hydroxybutyrate). Macromolecules. 1989; 22: 694-697.
Martin DP, Williams SF. Medical applications of poly-4-hydroxybutyrate: A strong flexible absorbable biomaterial. Biochem Eng J. 2003; 16: 97-105.
Muhr A, Rechberger EM, Salerno A, Reiterer A, Schiller M, Kwiecień M, et al. Biodegradable latexes from animal-derived waste: Biosynthesis and characterization of mcl-PHA accumulated by Ps. citronellolis. React Funct Polym. 2013; 73: 1391–1398.
Muhr A, Rechberger EM, Salerno A, Reiterer A, Malli K, Strohmeier K, et al. Novel description of mcl-PHA biosynthesis by Pseudomonas chlororaphis from animal-derived waste. J Biotechnol. 2013; 165: 45–51.
Zinn M. Biosynthesis of Medium-Chain-Length Poly [(R)-3-hydroxyalkanoates]. Plastics from bacteria: Natural function and applications, Microbiology monograph. 2010; 14: 213-236.
Zhao W, Chen GQ. Production and characterization of terpolyester poly (3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate-co-3-hydroxyhexanoate) by recombinant Aeromonas hydrophila 4AK4 harboring genes phaAB. Process Biochem. 2007; 42: 1342-1347.
Koller M, Hesse P, Bona R, Kutschera C, Atlić A, Braunegg G. Biosynthesis of high quality polyhydroxyalkanoate co‐ and terpolyesters for potential medical application by the archaeon Haloferax mediterranei. Macromol Symp. 2007; 1: 33-39.
Williams SF, Martin DP. Applications of PHAs in Medicine and Pharmacy. Biopolymers Online. 2005.
Miguel O, Iruin JJ. Evaluation of the transport properties of poly (3‐hydroxybutyrate) and its 3‐hydroxyvalerate copolymers for packaging applications. Macromol Symp. 1999; 144: 427-438.
Koller M, Salerno A, Dias M, Reiterer A, Braunegg G. Modern biotechnological polymer synthesis: A review. Food Technol Biotech. 2010; 48: 255-269.
Dagnon KL, Thellen C, Ratto JA, D’Souza, NA. Physical and thermal analysis of the degradation of poly (3-hydroxybutyrate-co-4-hydroxybutyrate) coated paper in a constructed soil medium. J Polym Environ. 2010; 18: 510-522.
Siracusa V, Rocculi P, Romani S, Rosa MD. Biodegradable polymers for food packaging: A review. Trends Food Sci Tech. 2008; 19: 634-643.
Mensitieri G, Di Maio E, Buonocore GG, Nedi I, Oliviero M, Sansone L, et al. Processing and shelf life issues of selected food packaging materials. Trends Food Sci Tech. 2011; 22: 72-80.
Harding KG, Dennis JS, Von Blottnitz H, Harrison STL. Environmental analysis of plastic production processes: Comparing petroleum based polypropylene and polyethylene with biologically based poly-β-hydroxybutyric acid using life cycle analysis. J Biotechnol. 2007; 130: 57-66.
Koller M, Sandholzer D, Salerno A, Braunegg G, Narodoslawsky M. Biopolymer from industrial residues: Life cycle assessment of poly (hydroxyalkanoates) from whey. Resour Conserv Recy. 2013; 73: 64-71.
Shahzad K, Kettl K-H, Koller M, Titz M, Schnitzer H, Narodoslawsky M. Comparison of ecological footprint for bio based PHA production from animal residues utilizing different energy resources. Clean Technol Environ Pol. 2013; 15: 525-536
Koller M, Niebelschütz H, Braunegg G. Strategies for recovery and purification of poly [(R)‐3‐hydroxyalkanoates] (PHA) biopolyesters from surrounding biomass. Eng Life Sci. 2013; 13: 549-562.
Choi JI, Lee SY. Efficient and economical recovery of poly (3‐hydroxybutyrate) from recombinant Escherichia coli by simple digestion with chemicals. Biotechnol Bioeng. 1999; 62: 546-553.
Shishatskaya EI, Volova TG. A comparative investigation of biodegradable polyhydroxyalkanoate films as matrices for in vitro cell cultures. J Mater Sci: Materials in Medicine. 2004; 15: 915-923.
Koller M, Bona R, Chiellini E, Braunegg G. Extraction of short-chain-length poly-[(R)-hydroxyalkanoates] (scl-PHA) by the “anti-solvent” acetone under elevated temperature and pressure. Biotechnol Lett. 2013; 35: 1023-1028.
Furrer P, Panke S, Zinn M. Efficient recovery of low endotoxin medium-chain-length poly ([R-3-hydroxyalkanoate) from bacterial biomass. J Microbiol Meth. 2007; 69: 206-213.
Khosravi-Darani K, Vasheghani-Farahani E. Application of supercritical fluid extraction in biotechnology. Critic Rev Biotechnol. 2005; 25: 1-12. 34. Khosravi‐Darani K, Vasheghani‐Farahani, E, Shojaosadati SA, Yamini Y. Effect of process variables on supercritical fluid disruption of Ralstonia eutropha cells for poly (R‐hydroxybutyrate) recovery. Biotechnol Prog. 2004; 20: 1757-1765.
Khosravi-Darani K, Vasheghani-Farahani E, Yamini Y, Bahramifar N. Solubility of poly (β-hydroxybutyrate) in supercritical carbon dioxide. J Chem Eng Data. 2003; 48: 860-863.
Gas permeability (plastic films manometric). Electronic resource:
Packaging Technology. Electronic resource: http://packagingtech.net/31-barrier-polymers.html
Shogren R. Water vapor permeability of biodegradable polymers. J Environ Polym Deg. 1997; 5: 91-95.
Auras RA, Singh SP., Singh JJ. Evaluation of oriented poly (lactide) polymers vs. existing PET and oriented PS for fresh food service containers. Packag Technol Sci. 2005; 18: 207-216.
Sanchez-Garcia MD, Gimenez E., Lagaron JM. Novel PET nanocomposites of interest in food packaging applications and comparative barrier performance with biopolyester nanocomposites. J Plas Film Sheet. 2007; 23: 133-148.
Koller M, Bona R, Braunegg G, Hermann C, Horvat P, Kroutil M, et al. Production of polyhydroxyalkanoates from agricultural waste and surplus materials. Biomacromolecules. 2005; 6: 561-565.
Narayanan N, Roychoudhury PK, Srivastava A. L(+) lactic acid fermentation and its product polymerization. Electron J Biotechnol. 2004; 7: 167–178.
Khosravi-Darani K, Mokhtari ZB, Amai T, Tanaka K. Microbial production of poly (hydroxybutyrate) from C1 carbon sources. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2013; 97: 1407-1424.
Hermann-Krauss C, Koller M, Muhr A, Fasl H, Stelzer F, Braunegg G. Archaeal production of polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) co-and terpolyesters from biodiesel industry-derived by-products. Archaea. 2013; 2013: 1-10.
Cavalheiro JM, Raposo RS, de Almeida M, Teresa Cesario M, Sevrin C, Grandfils C, et al. Effect of cultivation parameters on the production of poly (3-hydroxybutyrate-co-4-hydroxybutyrate) and poly (3-hydroxybutyrate-4-hydroxybutyrate-3-hydroxyvalerate) by Cupriavidus necator using waste glycerol. Bioresour Technol. 2012; 111: 391-397.
Silva L, Taciro M, Ramos MM, Carter J, Pradella J, Gomez J. Poly-3-hydroxybutyrate (P3HB) production by bacteria from xylose, glucose and sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate. J Ind Microbiol Biotechnol. 2004; 31: 245-254.
Braunegg G, Genser K, Bona R, Haage G, Schellauf F, Winkler E. Production of PHAs from agricultural waste material. Macromolecular Symposia. 1999; 144: 375-383.
Mokhtari-Hosseini ZB, Vasheghani-Farahani E, Heidarzadeh-Vazifekhoran A, Shojaosadati SA, Karimzadeh R, Darani KK. Statistical media optimization for growth and PHB production from methanol by a methylotrophic bacterium. Bioresour Technol. 2009; 100: 2436-2443.
Stal LJ. Poly (hydroxyalkanoate) in cyanobacteria: An overview. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 1992; 103: 169-180.
Asada Y, Miyake M, Miyake J, Kurane R, Tokiwa Y. Photosynthetic accumulation of poly-(hydroxybutyrate) by cyanobacteria—the metabolism and potential for CO2 recycling. Int J Biol Macromol. 1999; 25: 37-42.
Wang B, Pugh S, Nielsen DR, Zhang W, Meldrum DR. Engineering cyanobacteria for photosynthetic production of 3-hydroxybutyrate directly from CO2. Metab Eng. 2013; 16: 68-77.
Pohlmann A, Fricke WF, Reinecke F, Kusian B, Liesegang H, Cramm R, et al. Genome sequence of the bioplastic-producing “Knallgas” bacterium Ralstonia eutropha H16. Nat Biotechnol. 2006; 24: 1257-1262.
Tanaka K, Miyawaki K, Yamaguchi A, Khosravi-Darani K, Matsusaki H. Cell growth and P (3HB) accumulation from CO2 of a carbon monoxide-tolerant hydrogen-oxidizing bacterium, Ideonella sp. O-1. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2011; 92: 1161-1169.
Bucci DZ, Tavares L, Sell I. PHB packaging for the storage of food products. Polym Test. 2005; 24: 564-571.
Bucci DZ, Tavares L, Sell I. Biodegradation and physical evaluation of PHB packaging. Polym Test. 2007; 26: 908-915.
Grillo Fernandes E, Pietrini M, Chiellini E. Thermo-mechanical and morphological characterization of plasticized poly(R-3-hydroxybutyric acid). Macromol Symp. 2004; 218:157–164.
Guinault A, Grandmontagne A, Sollogoub C, Miquelard-Garnier G, Jouannet D, Nguyen AS. The effect of thermoforming of PLA-PHBV films on the morphology and gas barrier properties. Key Eng Mat. 2012; 504: 1135-1138.
Fabra MJ, Lopez-Rubio A, Lagaron JM. High barrier polyhydroxyalcanoate food packaging film by means of nanostructured electrospun interlayers of zein. Food Hydrocolloid. 2013; 32: 106-114.
Pardo‐Ibáñez P, Lopez‐Rubio A, Martínez‐Sanz M, Cabedo L, Lagaron JM. Keratin–polyhydroxyalkanoate melt‐compounded composites with improved barrier properties of interest in food packaging applications. J Appl Polym Sci. 2014; 131(4). DOI: 10.1002/app.39947.
Koller M, Hesse P, Bona R, Kutschera C, Atlić A, Braunegg G. Potential of various archae‐ and eubacterial strains as industrial polyhydroxy-alkanoate producers from whey. Macromol Biosci. 2007; 7: 218-226.
Schmid M, Dallmann K, Bugnicourt E, Cordoni D, Wild F, Lazzeri A, et al. Properties of whey-protein-coated films and laminates as novel recyclable food packaging materials with excellent barrier properties. Int J Polym Sci. 2012; 2012:1-7.
Martínez-Sanz M, Villano M, Oliveira C, Albuquerque MG, Majone M, Reis M, et al. Characterization of polyhydroxyalkanoates synthesized from microbial mixed cultures and of their nanobiocomposites with bacterial cellulose nanowhiskers. N Biotechnol. 2014; 31: 364-376.
Casariego A, Souza BWS, Cerqueira, MA, Teixeira JA, Cru L, Díaz R, Vicente AA. Chitosan/clay films' properties as affected by biopolymer and clay micro/nanoparticles' concentrations. Food Hydrocolloids 2009; 23: 1895-1902.
Appendini P, Hotchkiss JH. Review of antimicrobial food packaging. Innov Food Sci Emerg Technol. 2002; 3: 113-126.
Cooksey K. Utilization of antimicrobial packaging films for inhibition of selected microorganisms. In S. Risch, ACS Symposium Series: Food Packaging: Testing Methods and Applications. 2000; 753: 17-25.
Goldberg S, Doyle R, Rosenberg M. Mechanism of enhancement of microbial cell hydrophobicity by cationic polymers. J Bacteriol. 1990; 172: 5650-5654.
Hany R, Böhlen C, Geiger T, Schmid M, Zinn M. Toward non-toxic antifouling: Synthesis of hydroxy-, cinnamic acid-, sulfate-, and zosteric acid-labeled poly [3-hydroxyalkanoates]. Biomacromolecules. 2004; 5: 1452-1456.
Kwiecień I, Adamus G, Bartkowia, A, Kowalczuk M. Synthesis and structural characterization at the molecular level of oligo (3-hydroxybutyrate) conjugates with antimicrobial agents designed for food packaging materials. Des Monomers Polym. 2014; 17: 311-321.
- Abstract Viewed: 3998 times
- PDF Downloaded: 2471 times