Optimization of Vinegar Production from Nipa (Nypa fruticans Wurmb.) Sap Using Surface Culture Fermentation Process
Applied Food Biotechnology,
Vol. 6 No. 3 (2019),
Background and objective: Sap from nipa mangrove palms is rich in nutrition and chemical components. Currently, sap is used for production of fresh juice, syrup, molasses, alcohol and traditional vinegar. The aim of this study was to enhance nutritional values of nipa sap in highquality vinegar using surface culture fermentation.
Material and methods: Vinegar was produced from nipa sap using a two-step surface culture fermentation process including vinegar starter culture preparation and vinegar production. Vinegar acetic acid, residual alcohol and pH were optimized. Nipa sap vinegar from surface culture fermentation was compared to that from traditional methods for compliance with regulatory standards. Antioxidant activities (total phenolic content, 2, 2-diphenyl-2picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging and ferric reducing antioxidant power assays) and sensory of the product were assessed.
Results and conclusion: Acidity increased to 6.20% using surface culture fermentation at 2.9fold, compared to that using traditional methods (2.14%). Alcohol concentration included 11.9% during wine fermentation. The surface culture fermentation converted alcohol to acetic acid using Acetobacter aceti TISTR 354 in ten days. A good antioxidant activity was reported for the vinegar. Organoleptic properties scored more than “neither like nor dislike” in each attribute. Therefore, high quality vinegars could be produced from nipa sap using surface culture fermentation which could be scaled up in the future.
Conflict of interest: The authors declare no conflict of interest.
- ▪ Acetic acid ▪ Acetobacter sp ▪ Nipa sap ▪ Surface culture fermentation ▪ Vinegar
How to Cite
Ronald O Ocampo, Usita Normalina P. Improving the Quality of Nipa (Nypa fruticans) Wine. APJEAS. 2014: 24-27.
Tomlinson PB. The Botany of Mangroves. Cambridge University Press, New York. 1986: 413 pp.
Natalie W Uhl. Inflorescence and flower structure in Nypa fruticans (Palmae). Am J Bot. 1972;59: 729-743. doi: 10.2307/2441145
Baja-Lapis AC, David ME, Reyes CG, Audije BS. Asean’s 100 most precious plants. European Commission (Philippines). 2004
Md. Farid Hossain, Md. Anwarul Islam. Utilization of Mangrove Forest Plant: Nipa Palm (Nypa fruticans Wurmb.). AJAF. 2015;
(4): 156-160. doi: 10.11648/j.ajaf.20150304.16
Theerawitaya C, Samphumphaung T, Cha-um S, Nana Yamada N, Takabe T. Responses of Nipa palm (Nypa fruticans)
seedlings, a mangrove species, to salt stress in pot culture. Flora-Morphology, Distribution and Functional Ecology of Plants.
; 209(10); 597-603. doi.org/10.1016/j.flora.2014.08.004
Tsuji K, Ghazalli MNF, Ariffin Z, Nordin MS, Khaidizar MI, Dulloo ME, Sebas-tian LS. Biological and ethnobotanical characteristics
of nipa palm (Nypa fruticans Wurmb.): a review. Sains Malaysiana. 2011;40(12): 1407-1412.
Tamunaidu P, Saka S. Chemical characterization of various parts of nipa palm (Nypa fruticans). Ind. Crop Prod. 2011;34; 1423-
Aira EA Päivöke. Tapping practices and SAP yields of the NIPA palm (NIPA Fruticans) in Papua New Guinea. Agric, Ecosyst
Environ. 1985;(13): 59-72.
Miah MD, Ahmed R, Islam SJ. Indigenous Management Practices of Golpata (Nypa fruticans) in Local Plantations in Southern
Bangladesh. PALMS. 2003;47(4): 185-190.
Hamilton LS, Murphy DH. Use and management of nipa palm (Nypa fruticans, Arecaceae): a review. Econ Bot. 1988;42: 206-
Abiodun Omowonuola Adebayo-Oyetoro, Elizabeth Adenubi, Oladeinde Olatunde Ogundipe, Bolanle Olayinka Bankole and
Samuel Ayofemi Olalekan Adeyeye. Production and quality evaluation of vinegar from mango. Cogent Food & Agriculture.
;3: 1278193. doi.org/10.1080/23311932.2016.1278193
Saithong Pramuan, On-tom Khampapas and Muangnoi, Malai. Application of Surface Culture Fermentation Technique in
production of pineapple wine vinegar, proceeding of The 19th Food Innovation Asia Conference 2017 (FIAC 2017) Innovative
Food Science and Technology for Mankind: Empowering Research for Health and Aging Society 15-17 June 2017, Bitec
Bangna, Bangkok, Thailand. 2017.
AOAC. Official methods of analysis (16th ed.). Arlington VA, USA, Association of Official Analytical Chemists. 1990.
Lqbal S, MI Bhangar, F Anwar. Antioxidant properties and components of some commercially available varieties of rice bran in
Pakistan. Food Chem. 2005;93(2): 265-272. doi.10.1016/j.foodchem.2004.09.024
Brand-Williams W, Cuvelier ME, Berset C. Use of a free radical method to evaluate antioxidant activity. Lebensm.-Wiss. u.-
Technol. 1995;28: 25-30.
Benzie I, Strain J. The Ferric Reducing Ability of Plasma (FRAP) as a Measure of “Antioxidant Power: The FRAP Assay”.
Analytical Biochemistry. 1996;239: 70-76.
Singh R, Singh S. Design and development of batch type acetifier for wine-vinegar production. Indian J Microbiol. 2007; 47:153-159. doi. 10.1007/s12088-007-0029-3
Tesfaye W, Morales ML, Garcı´ a-Parrilla MC, Troncoso AM. Wine vinegar: Technology, authenticity and quality evaluation.
Trends Food Sci Technol. 2002;13: 12-21. doi.org/10.1016/S0924-2244(02)00023-7
Mohamad NE, Keong Yeap S, Beh BK, Romli MF, Yusof HM, Kristeen-Teo YW, Sharifuddin SA, Long K, and Alitheen NB.
Comparison of in vivo toxicity, antioxidant and immunomodulatory activities of coconut, nipah and pineapple juice
vinegars. Sci Food Agric 2018; 98: 534-540. doi:10.1002/jsfa.8491
Prasad N, Yang B, Kong KW, Khoo HE, Sun J, Azlan A, Ismail A, Romli Z B. Phytochemicals and antioxidant capacity from
Nypa fruticans Wurmb. fruit. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2013: 1-9. doi: 10.1155/2013/154606
Dung Van Nguyen, Harifara Rabemanolontsoa and Shiro Saka. Fed-batch fermentation of nipa sap to acetic acid by Moorella
Thermoacetica (f. Clostridium Thermoaceticum). Chem. Ind. Chem. Eng. 2017;23 (4): 507-514 .
Wankasi D, Horsfall Jr. M. and Spiff A.I. 2006. Sorption kinetics of Pb2+ and Cu2+ions from aqueous solution by Nipah palm
(Nypa fruticans Wurmb.) Shoot biomass. Elect. J. Biotechnol. 2006;(9): 587-592. doi.org/10.4067/S0717-34582006000500015
Chou C H, Liu CW, Yang DJ, Wu YH, and Chen YC. Amino acid, mineral, and polyphenolic profiles of black vinegar, and its lipid
lowering and antioxidant effects in vivo. Food Chem. 2015; (168): 63-69. doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2014.07.035
Richard L. Myers. The 100 most important chemical compounds: a reference guide. Greenwood Press. 2007: 352 pp.
- Abstract Viewed: 985 times
- PDF Downloaded: 811 times