Effect of Chitin and Chitooligosaccharide on In vitro Growth of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG and Escherichia coli TG
Applied Food Biotechnology,
Vol. 5 No. 3 (2018),
5 July 2018
Background and Objective: Given the rising tendency of using insects as food, research regarding the food safety issues and health implications of edible insects are necessary. Insects have an external skeleton that is mainly composed of chitin- a nontoxic, fiber-like polysaccharide. Chitin and its derivative compounds can take part in maintaining healthy gut microbiota, by promoting or inhibiting the growth of several gut bacteria depending on the chitinous substrate. Healthy composition of gut microbiota can prevent intestinal disease states and food digestion problems. The aim of the study is to characterize the impact of chitin and chitooligosaccharides on the growth of two gut bacteria Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG and Escherichia coli TG, to provide further understanding on possible outcomes of consuming insects.
Materials and Methods: Micro plate wells were prepared with tryptone soy broth in 0.5 and 0.1% wv-1 chitin concentrations and in 0.5, 0.1, and 0.05% wv-1 chitooligosaccharide concentrations. Bacteria were added and the growth parameters of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG and Escherichia coli TG were obtained by measurement of optical density at 600 nm in 37°C.
Results and Conclusion: Chitooligosaccharides enhanced the growth of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG and inhibited the growth of Escherichia coli TG in the lowest tested concentration of 0.05% wv-1. Chitin completely inhibited the growth of both bacteria in the lowest tested concentration of 0.1% wv-1. Chitooligosaccharides appear promising as potential prebiotic compounds associated with insect food products. Chitin has a strong antibacterial effect on tested bacteria. However, the In vitro results should be verified in well-designed human studies.
- ▪ Chitin ▪ Chitooligosaccharide ▪ E. coli ▪ Insect foods ▪ Lactobacillus
How to Cite
Tomberlin JK, van Huis A, Benbow ME, Jordan H, Astuti DA, Azzollini D, et al. Protecting the environment through insect farming as a means to produce protein for use as livestock, poultry, and aquaculture feed. Journal of Insects as Food and Feed 2015 12/07; 2018/01;1(4):307-309.
United Nations Global Compact, KPMG. Sustainable development goals industry matrix. 2016.
Rumpold BA, Schlüter OK. Nutritional composition and safety aspects of edible insects. Molecular Nutrition & Food Research 2013;57(5):802-823.
Osimani A, Garofalo C, Milanovic V, Taccari M, Cardinali F, Aquilanti L, et al. Insight into the proximate composition and microbial diversity of edible insects marketed in the European Union. European Food Research and Technology 2017 07/01;243(7):1157-1171.
Finke MD. Estimate of chitin in raw whole insects. Zoo Biol 2007;26(2):105-115.
Sipponen MH, Mäkinen OE, Rommi K, Heiniö R, Holopainen-Mantila U, Hokkanen S, et al. Biochemical and sensory characteristics of the cricket and mealworm fractions from supercritical carbon dioxide extraction and air classification. European Food Research and Technology 2018 01/01;244(1):19-29.
Bubler S, Rumpold BA, Jander E, Rawel HM, Schluter OK. Recovery and techno-functionality of flours and proteins from two edible insect species: Meal worm (Tenebrio molitor) and black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens) larvae. Heliyon 2016 12/16;2(12):e00218.
Goycoolea FM, Argüelles-Monal W, Peniche C, Higuera-Ciapara I. Chitin and chitosan. Developments in Food Science 2000;41:265-308.
Paoletti MG, Norberto L, Damini R, Musumeci S. Human gastric juice contains chitinase that can degrade chitin. Annals of nutririon and metabolism 2007;51(3):244.
White BA, Lamed R, Bayer EA, Flint HJ. Biomass Utilization by Gut Microbiomes. Annu Rev Microbiol 2014;68:279-296.
Flint HJ, Bayer EA, Rincon MT, Lamed R, White BA. Polysaccharide utilization by gut bacteria: potential for new insights from genomic analysis. Nat Rev Micro 2008 print;6(2):121-131.
Lee H, Park Y, Jung J, Shin W. Chitosan oligosaccharides, dp 2–8, have prebiotic effect on the Bifidobacterium bifidium and Lactobacillus sp. Anaerobe 2002 12;8(6):319-324.
Hayashi K, Fujimoto N, Kugimiya M, Funatsu M. The Enzyme-Substrate Complex of Lysozyme with Chitin Derivatives. Journal of Biochemistry 1969 March 01;65(3):401-405.
Skujins J, Pukite A, McLaren AD. Adsorption and reactions of chitinase and lysozyme on chitin. Mol Cell Biochem 1973 Dec 15;2(2):221-228.
Musumeci S, Paoletti MG. Role of chitinases in human stomach for chitin digestion: AMCase in the gastric digestion of chitin and chit in gastric pathologies. In: Musumeci S, Paoletti MG, editors. Binomium Chitin-Chitinase: Recent Issues. 1st ed. New York: Nova Biomedical Books; 2009. p. 339-358.
Ohno M, Kimura M, Miyazaki H, Okawa K, Onuki R, Nemoto C, et al. Acidic mammalian chitinase is a proteases-resistant glycosidase in mouse digestive system. Scientific Reports 2016 10/31;6:37756.
Choi CR, Kim EK, Kim YS, Je JY, An SH, Lee JD, et al. Chitooligosaccharides decreases plasma lipid levels in healthy men. Int J Food Sci Nutr 2012 Feb;63(1):103-106.
Ylitalo R, Lehtinen S, Wuolijoki E, Ylitalo P, Lehtimaki T. Cholesterol-lowering properties and safety of chitosan. Arzneimittelforschung 2002;52(1):1-7.
Liao F, Shieh M, Chang N, Chien Y. Chitosan supplementation lowers serum lipids and maintains normal calcium, magnesium, and iron status in hyperlipidemic patients. Nutr Res 2007 3;27(3):146-151.
Muzzarelli RAA. Chitins and Chitosans as Immunoadjuvants and Non-Allergenic Drug Carriers. Marine Drugs 2010;8(2):292-312.
Lee CG, Da Silva CA, Lee J, Hartl D, Elias JA. Chitin regulation of immune responses: an old molecule with new roles. Curr Opin Immunol 2008 12;20(6):684-689.
Tomida H, Fujii T, Furutani N, Michihara A, Yasufuku T, Akasaki K, et al. Antioxidant properties of some different molecular weight chitosans. Carbohydr Res 2009 9/8;344(13):1690-1696.
Yang Eun-Jin, Kim Jong-Gwan, Kim Ji-Young, Seong K, Nam L, Hyun Chang-Gu. Anti-inflammatory effect of chitosan oligosaccharides in RAW 264.7 cells. Open Life Sciences 2010 2017-05-17T11:38:38.685+02:00;5(1):95-102.
Bae M, Shin HS, Kim E, Kim J, Shon D. Oral administration of chitin and chitosan prevents peanut-induced anaphylaxis in a murine food allergy model. Int J Biol Macromol 2013 10;61:164-168.
Shen K, Chen M, Chan H, Jeng J, Wang Y. Inhibitory effects of chitooligosaccharides on tumor growth and metastasis. Food and Chemical Toxicology 2009 8;47(8):1864-1871.
Chae SY, Jang M, Nah J. Influence of molecular weight on oral absorption of water soluble chitosans. J Controlled Release 2005 2/2;102(2):383-394.
Zeng L, Qin C, Wang W, Chi W, Li W. Absorption and distribution of chitosan in mice after oral administration. Carbohydr Polym 2008 2/8;71(3):435-440.
Carroll I, Ringel-Kulka T, Siddle J, Ringel Y. Alterations in composition and diversity of the intestinal microbiota in patients with diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome. Neurogastroenterol Motil 2012 JUN;24(6):521.
Quigley E. Gut Bacteria in Health and Disease. Gastroenterology & Hepatology 2013 09;9(9):560-569.
Macfarlane GT, Macfarlane S. Bacteria, Colonic Fermentation, and Gastrointestinal Health. J AOAC Int 2012 JAN-FEB;95(1):50-60.
Lozupone CA, Stombaugh JI, Gordon JI, Jansson JK, Knight R. Diversity, stability and resilience of the human gut microbiota. Nature 2012 Sep 13;489(7415):220-230.
Fernandes JC, Tavaria FK, Soares JC, Ramos ÓS, João Monteiro M, Pintado ME, et al. Antimicrobial effects of chitosans and chitooligosaccharides, upon Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli, in food model systems. Food Microbiol 2008 10;25(7):922-928.
Benhabiles MS, Salah R, Lounici H, Drouiche N, Goosen MFA, Mameri N. Antibacterial activity of chitin, chitosan and its oligomers prepared from shrimp shell waste. Food Hydrocoll 2012 10;29(1):48-56.
Raut AV, Satvekar RK, Rohiwal SS, Tiwari AP, Gnanamani A, Pushpavanam S, et al. In vitro biocompatibility and antimicrobial activity of chitin monomer obtain from hollow fiber membrane. Designed Monomers and Polymers 2016 07/03;19(5):445-455.
Steer T, Carpenter H, Tuohy K, Gibson G. Perspectives on the role of the human gut microbiota and its modulation by pro- and prebiotics. Nutr Res Rev 2000 DEC;13(2):229-254.
Mateos-Aparicio I, Mengíbar M, Heras A. Effect of chito-oligosaccharides over human faecal microbiota during fermentation in batch cultures. Carbohydr Polym 2016 2/10;137:617-624.
Zheng L, Zhu J. Study on antimicrobial activity of chitosan with different molecular weights. Carbohydr Polym 2003 12/1;54(4):527-530.
Gerasimenko DV, Avdienko ID, Bannikova GE, Zueva OY, Varlamov VP. Antibacterial Effects of Water-Soluble Low-Molecular-Weight Chitosans on Different Microorganisms. Appl Biochem Microbiol 2004;40(3):253-257.
Shoaf K, Mulvey GL, Armstrong GD, Hutkins RW. Prebiotic galactooligosaccharides reduce adherence of enteropathogenic Escherichia coli to tissue culture cells. Infect Immun 2006;74(12):6920-6928.
Altamimi M, Abdelhay O, Rastall RA. Effect of oligosaccharides on the adhesion of gut bacteria to human HT-29 cells. Anaerobe 2016 6;39:136-142.
Jeon Y, Park P, Kim S. Antimicrobial effect of chitooligosaccharides produced by bioreactor. Carbohydr Polym 2001 1;44(1):71-76.
Je J, Kim S. Chitosan Derivatives Killed Bacteria by Disrupting the Outer and Inner Membrane. J Agric Food Chem 2006 09/01;54(18):6629-6633.
Muzzarelli RAA, Boudrant J, Meyer D, Manno N, DeMarchis M, Paoletti MG. Current views on fungal chitin/chitosan, human chitinases, food preservation, glucans, pectins and inulin: A tribute to Henri Braconnot, precursor of the carbohydrate polymers science, on the chitin bicentennial. Carbohydr Polym 2012 1/15;87(2):995-1012.
Ardila N, Daigle F, Heuzey M, Ajji A. Antibacterial Activity of Neat Chitosan Powder and Flakes. Molecules 2017;22(1):100.
Dutta J, Tripathi S, Dutta PK. Progress in antimicrobial activities of chitin, chitosan and its oligosaccharides: a systematic study needs for food applications. Revista de Agaroquimica y Tecnologia de Alimentos 2012 02/01; 2017/06;18(1):3-34.
- Abstract Viewed: 1407 times
- PDF Downloaded: 752 times