Novel Probiotics and Prebiotics: How Can They Help in Human Gut Microbiota Dysbiosis?
Applied Food Biotechnology,
Vol. 3 No. 2 (2016),
16 March 2016
Background and Objectives: Novel probiotics and prebiotics designed to modulate the gut microbiota for improving health outcomes are in demand as the importance of the gut microbiota in human health is revealed. A review of the scientific literature regarding the current knowledge and novel species and novel oligosaccharides for the treatment of dysbiosis-associated diseases has been carried out due to their growing interest.
Results and Conclusions: The regulations governing introduction of novel probiotics and prebiotics vary by geographical region. Novel foods and foods with health claims fall under specific regulations in several countries. In European Union (EU), safety is assessed by novel food approval process and by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) established Quantitative Presumption of Safety (QPS) system for bacteria and other biologicals. Any messages on health benefits are covered by the European Regulation on Health Claims (ERHC), also assessed by EFSA. Examples of recent novel probiotics in EU include Clostridium butyricum, and Bacteroides xylanisolvens and examples of novel prebiotics include human milk oligosaccharides such as Lacto-N-neotetraose. Yacon root is an example on a previously novel prebiotic food which is allowed due to the reported existing cultivation and use in EU prior to the novel food regulation. Potential future candidates include further human milk oligosaccharides and bacteria such Faecalibacterium prausnitzii and Akkermasia muciniphila. Increasing knowledge on human intestinal microbiota and microbiota development enables the design of new more specific and hitherto unknown probiotics and prebiotics. Also understanding the microbe and microbe host interactions facilitates the search for novel probiotics and prebiotics.
- Health claims
- novel foods
How to Cite
Butel MJ. Probiotics, gut microbiota and health. Med Mal Infect. 2014; 44: 1-8.
Regulation (EU) 2015/2283 of the European parliament and of the Council of 25 November 2015 on novel foods, amending Regulation (EU) No 1169/2011 of the European Parliament and of the Council and repealing Regulation (EC) No 258/97 of the European Parliament and of the Council and Commission Regulation (EC) No 1852/2001.
Commission Regulation (EC) No 353/2008 (OJ L109, p11, 19/04/2008) of 18 April 2008 establishing implementing rules for applications for authorisation of health claims as provided for in Article 15 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006 of the European Parliament and of the Council. 2008.
van Best N, Hornef MW, Savelkoul PHM, Penders J. On the Origin of Species: Factors Shaping the Establishment of Infant’s Gut Microbiota. Birth Defects Res C Embryo Today. 2015; 105(4): 240-251.
D'Argenio V, Salvatore F. The role of the gut microbiome in the healthy adult status. Clin Chim Acta. 2015; 451: 97-102.
Subramanian S, Blanton LV, Frese SA, Charbonneau M, Mills DA, Gordon JI. Cultivating Healthy Growth and Nutrition through the Gut Microbiota. Cell. 2015; 161: 36-48.
Jordan F, Lauria M, Scotti M, Nguyen TP, Praveen P, Morine M, Priami C. Diversity of key players in the microbial ecosystems of the human body. Sci Rep. 2015; 5: 10.
Rodriguez JM, Murphy K, Stanton C, Ross RP, Kober OI, Juge N, Avershina E, Rudi K, Narbad A, Jenmalm MC, Marchesi JR, Collado MC. The composition of the gut microbiota throughout life, with an emphasis on early life. Microb Ecol Health Dis. 2015; 26: 26050-26050.
Cabrera-Rubio R, Carmen Collado M, Laitinen K, Salminen S, Isolauri E, Mira A. The human milk microbiome changes over lactation and is shaped by maternal weight and mode of delivery. Am J Clin Nutr. 2012; 96: 544-551.
Salminen S, Gibson GR, McCartney AL, Isolauri E. Influence of mode of delivery on gut microbiota composition in seven year old children. Gut. 2004; 53: 1388-1389.
Koenig JE, Spor A, Scalfone N, Fricker AD, Stombaugh J, Knight R, Angenent LT, Ley RE. Succession of microbial consortia in the developing infant gut microbiome. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011; 108: 4578-4585.
Fernandez L, Langa S, Martin V, Maldonado A, Jiménez E, Martín R, Rodríguez JM. The human milk microbiota: Origin and potential roles in health and disease. Pharmacol Res. 2013; 69: 1-10.
Ballard O, Morrow AL. Human Milk Composition Nutrients and Bioactive Factors. Pediatr Clin North Am. 2013; 60: 49-74.
Ottman N, Smidt H, de Vos WM, Belzer C. The function of our microbiota: who is out there and what do they do? Front Cell Infect Microbiol. 2012; 2 (104): 1-11.
Faith JJ, McNulty NP, Rey FE, Gordon JI. Predicting a Human Gut Microbiota's Response to Diet in Gnotobiotic Mice. Science. 2011; 333: 101-104.
Huttenhower C, Gevers D, Knight R, et al. Structure, function and diversity of the healthy human microbiome. Nature. 2012; 486: 207-214.
Arumugam M, Raes J, Pelletier E, Le Paslier D, Yamada T, Mende DR, Fernandes GR, Tap J, Bruls T, Batto JM, Bertalan M, Borruel N, Casellas F, Fernandez L, Gautier L, Hansen T, Hattori M, Hayashi T, Kleerebezem M, Kurokawa K, Leclerc M, Levenez F, Manichanh C, Nielsen HB, Nielsen T, Pons N, Poulain J, Qin J, Sicheritz-Ponten T, Tims S, Torrents D, Ugarte E, Zoetendal EG, Wang J, Guarner F, Pedersen O, de Vos WM, Brunak S, Doré J; MetaHIT Consortium, Antolín M, Artiguenave F, Blottiere HM, Almeida M, Brechot C, Cara C, Chervaux C, Cultrone A, Delorme C, Denariaz G, Dervyn R, Foerstner KU, Friss C, van de Guchte M, Guedon E, Haimet F, Huber W, van Hylckama-Vlieg J, Jamet A, Juste C, Kaci G, Knol J, Lakhdari O, Layec S, Le Roux K, Maguin E, Mérieux A, Melo Minardi R, M'rini C, Muller J, Oozeer R, Parkhill J, Renault P, Rescigno M, Sanchez N, Sunagawa S, Torrejon A, Turner K, Vandemeulebrouck G, Varela E, Winogradsky Y, Zeller G, Weissenbach J, Ehrlich SD, Bork P. Enterotypes of the human gut microbiome. Nature. 2011; 473(7346): 174-180.
McFarland LV. Use of probiotics to correct dysbiosis of normal microbiota following disease or disruptive events: a systematic review. BMJ Open. 2014; 4 (8): 1-18.
Kellow NJ, Coughlan MT, Reid CM. Metabolic benefits of dietary prebiotics in human subjects: a systematic review of randomised controlled trials. Br J Nut. 2014; 111: 1147-1161.
Ducatelle R, Eeckhaut V, Haesebrouck F, Van Immerseel F. A review on prebiotics and probiotics for the control of dysbiosis: present status and future perspectives. Animal. 2015; 9: 43-48.
Bindels LB, Delzenne NM, Cani PD, Walter J. Towards a more comprehensive concept for prebiotics. Nat Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2015; 12: 303-310.
Rautava S, Luoto R, Salminen S, Isolauri E. Microbial contact during pregnancy, intestinal colonization and human disease. Nat Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2012; 9: 565-576.
He F, Ouwehand AC, Isolauri E, Hashimoto H, Benno Y, Salminen S. Comparison of mucosal adhesion and species identification of bifidobacteria isolated fi-om healthy and allergic infants. FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol. 2001; 30: 43-47.
Gueimonde M, Latinen K, Seppo S, Isolauri E. Breast milk: a source of bifidobacteria for infant gut development and maturation? Neonatol. 2007; 92 (1): 64-66.
Le Chatelier E, Nielsen T, Qin J, Prifti E, Hildebrand F, Falony G, Almeida M, Arumugam M, Batto JM, Kennedy S, Leonard P, Li J, Burgdorf K, Grarup N, Jørgensen T, Brandslund I, Nielsen HB, Juncker AS, Bertalan M, Levenez F, Pons N, Rasmussen S, Sunagawa S, Tap J, Tims S, Zoetendal EG, Brunak S, Clément K, Doré J, Kleerebezem M, Kristiansen K, Renault P, Sicheritz-Ponten T, de Vos WM, Zucker JD, Raes J, Hansen T; MetaHIT consortium, Bork P, Wang J, Ehrlich SD, Pedersen O. Richness of human gut microbiome correlates with metabolic markers. Nature. 2013; 500: 541-546.
Jakobsdottir G, Nyman M, Fak F. Designing future prebiotic fiber to target metabolic syndrome. Nutrition. 2014; 30: 497-502.
Sarbini SR, Kolida S, Deaville ER, Gibson GR, Rastall RA. Potential of novel dextran oligosaccharides as prebiotics for obesity management through in vitro experimentation. Br J Nut. 2014; 112: 1303-1314.
Bisgaard H, Li N, Bonnelykke K, Chawes BL, Skov T, Paludan-Müller G, Stokholm J, Smith B, Krogfelt KA. Reduced diversity of the intestinal microbiota during infancy is associated with increased risk of allergic disease at school age. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2011; 128: 646-652.
Abrahamsson TR, Jakobsson HE, Andersson AF, Bjorksten B, Engstrand L, Jenmalm MC. Low gut microbiota diversity in early infancy precedes asthma at school age. Clin Exp Allergy. 2014; 44: 842-850.
Ling Z, Li Z, Liu X, Cheng Y, Luo Y, Tong X, Yuan L, Wang Y, Sun J, Li L, Xiang C. Altered Fecal Microbiota Composition Associated with Food Allergy in Infants. Appl Environ Microbiol. 2014; 80: 2546-2554.
Penders J, Stobberingh EE, Van den Brandt PA, Thijs C. The role of the intestinal microbiota in the development of atopic disorders. Allergy. 2007; 62: 1223-1236.
Compare D, Nardone G. The role of gut microbiota in the pathogenesis and management of allergic diseases. Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci. 2013; 17: 11-17.
Hill C, Guarner F, Reid G, Gibson GR, Merenstein DJ, Pot B, Morelli L, Canani RB, Flint HJ, Salminen S, Calder PC, Sanders ME. The International Scientific Association for Probiotics and Prebiotics consensus statement on the scope and appropriate use of the term probiotic. Nat Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2014; 11: 506-514.
Belizario JE, Napolitano M. Human microbiomes and their roles in dysbiosis, common diseases, and novel therapeutic approaches. Front Microbiol. 2015; 6: 1-16.
Gosalbez L, Ramon D. Probiotics in transition: novel strategies. Trends Biotechnol. 2015; 33: 195-196.
Kumar H, Salminen S, Verhagen H, Rowland I, Heimbach J, Bañares S, Young T, Nomoto K, Lalonde M. Novel probiotics and prebiotics: road to the market. Curr Opin Biotechnol. 2015; 32: 99-103.
Dobson A, Cotter PD, Ross RP, Hill C. Bacteriocin Production: a Probiotic Trait? Appl Environ Microbiol. 2012; 78: 1-6.
Andrade MER, Araujo RS, de Barros PAV, Soares AD, Abrantes FA, Generoso Sde V, Fernandes SO, Cardoso VN. The role of immunomodulators on intestinal barrier homeostasis in experimental models. Clin Nutr. 2015; 34: 1080-1087.
Khurshid M, Aslam B, Nisar MA, Akbar R, Rahman H, Khan AA, Rasool MH. Bacterial munch for infants: potential pediatric therapeutic interventions of probiotics. Future Microbiol. 2015; 10: 1881-1895.
EFSA BIOHAZ Panel (EFSA Panel on Biological Hazards). Statement on the update of the list of QPS-recommended biological agents intentionally added to food or feed as notified to EFSA. 2: Suitability of taxonomic units notified to EFSA until March 2015. EFSA J. 2015; 13(6): 4138.
Remely M, Hippe B, Geretschlaeger I, Stegmayer S, Hoefinger I, Haslberger A. Increased gut microbiota diversity and abundance of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii and Akkermansia after fasting: a pilot study. Wien Klin Wochenschr. 2015; 127(9-10): 394-398.
Schneeberger M, Everard A, Gomez-Valades AG, Matamoros S, Ramírez S, Delzenne NM, Gomis R, Claret M, Cani PD. Akkermansia muciniphila inversely correlates with the onset of inflammation, altered adipose tissue metabolism and metabolic disorders during obesity in mice. Sci Rep. 2015; 5: 1-14.
Petrof EO, Gloor GB, Vanner SJ, Weese SJ, Carter D, Daigneault MC, Brown EM, Schroeter K, Allen-Vercoe E. Stool substitute transplant therapy for the eradication of Clostridium difficile infection: 'RePOOPulating' the gut. Microbiome. 2013; 1: 1-12.
Allen-Vercoe E, Petrof EO. Artificial stool transplantation: progress towards a safer, more effective and acceptable alternative. Expert Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2013; 7: 291-293.
Pineiro M, Asp NG, Reid G, Macfarlane S, Morelli L, Brunser O, Tuohy K. FAO Technical Meeting on Prebiotics. J Clin Gastroenterol. 2008; 42(2): 156-159.
Gibson GR, Scott KP, Rastall RA, Tuohy KM, Hotchkiss A, Dubert-Ferrandon A, Gareau M, Murphy EF, Saulnier D, Loh G, Macfarlane G, Delzenne N, Ringel Y, Kozianowski G, Dickmann G, Lenoir-Wijnkoop I, Walker C, Buddington R. Dietary prebiotics: current status and new definition. Food Sci Tech Bull Funct Foods. 2010; 7 (1): 1-19.
Gibson GR, Probert HM, Van Loo J, Rastall RA, Roberfroid MB. Dietary modulation of the human colonic microbiota: updating the concept of prebiotics. Nut Res Rev. 2004; 17: 259-275.
Ait-Aissa A, Aider M. Lactulose: production and use in functional food, medical and pharmaceutical applications. Practical and critical review. Int J Food Sci Technol. 2014; 49: 1245-1253.
Allsopp P, Possemiers S, Campbell D, Saldana Oyarzabal I, Gill C, Rowland I. An exploratory study into the putative prebiotic activity of fructans isolated from Agave angustifolia and the associated anticancer activity. Anaerobe. 2013; 22: 38-44.
Moreno-Vilet L, Garcia-Hernandez MH, Delgado-Portales RE, Corral-Fernandez NE, Cortez-Espinosa N, Ruiz-Cabrera MA, Portales-Perez DP. In vitro assessment of agave fructans (Agave salmiana) as prebiotics and immune system activators. Int J Biol Macromol. 2014; 63: 181-187.
Rastall RA, Gibson GR. Recent developments in prebiotics to selectively impact beneficial microbes and promote intestinal health. Curr Opin Biotechnol. 2015; 32: 42-46.
Polari L, Ojansivu P, Makela S, Eckerman C, Holmbom B, Salminen S. Galactoglucomannan Extracted from Spruce (Picea abies) as a Carbohydrate Source for Probiotic Bacteria. J Agric Food Chem. 2012; 60: 11037-11043.
Choque Delgado GT, Cunha Tamashiro WMdS, Marostica Junior MR, Moreno YMF, Pastore GM. The 1. Butel MJ. Probiotics, gut microbiota and health. Med Mal Infect. 2014; 44: 1-8.
Gustafsson K, Willebrand E, Welsh M. Absence of the adaptor protein Shb potentiates the T helper type 2 response in a mouse model of atopic dermatitis. Immunology. 2014; 143: 33-41.
Rautava S, Kainonen E, Salminen S, Isolauri E. Maternal probiotic supplementation during pregnancy and breast-feeding reduces the risk of eczema in the infant. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2012; 130: 1355-1360.
Fiocchi A, Pawankar R, Cuello-Garcia C, Ahn K, Al-Hammadi S, Agarwal A, Beyer K, Burks W, Canonica GW, Ebisawa M, Gandhi S, Kamenwa R, Lee BW, Li H, Prescott S, Riva JJ, Rosenwasser L, Sampson H, Spigler M, Terracciano L, Vereda-Ortiz A, Waserman S, Yepes-Nuñez JJ, Brożek JL, Schünemann HJ. World Allergy Organization-McMaster University Guidelines for Allergic Disease Prevention (GLAD-P): Probiotics. World Allergy Organ J. 2015; 8 (4): 1-13.
Osborn DA, Sinn JKH. Prebiotics in infants for prevention of allergy. The Cochrane database of systematic reviews. 2013; issue 3: 1-60.
Cani PD. Gut microbiota and obesity: lessons from the microbiome. Brief Funct Genomics. 2013; 12: 381-387.
Gerritsen J, Smidt H, Rijkers GT, de Vos WM. Intestinal microbiota in human health and disease: the impact of probiotics. Genes Nutr. 2011; 6: 209-240.
Kalliomaki M, Collado MC, Salminen S, Isolauri E. Early differences in fecal microbiota composition in children may predict overweight. Am J Clin Nutr. 2008; 87: 534-538.
Isolauri E, Rautava S, Collado MC, Salminen S. Early microbe contact in defining child metabolic health and obesity risk. In: Hester LGaR, ed. Obesity: Intergenerational Programming and Consequences: Springer, In press.
Gerard P. Gut microbiota and obesity. Cell Mol Life Sci. 2016; 73: 147-162.
Collado MC, Isolauri E, Laitinen K, Salminen S. Distinct composition of gut microbiota during pregnancy in overweight and normal-weight women. Am J Clin Nutr. 2008; 88: 894-899.
- Abstract Viewed: 3122 times
- PDF Downloaded: 2480 times