Letter to Editor

Intraoperative Ultrasonography in Resection of Diffuse Glioma

Sayedali Ahmadi, Said Safari, Mojtaba Chardoli, Marjan Mirsalehi

International Clinical Neuroscience Journal, Vol. 8 No. 2 (2021), 27 Farvardin 2021, Page 51-52

Diffuse glioma is a primary brain tumor that originates from glial supportive cells and is the most common type of intra-axial brain tumor. Open tumor resection is the first step in the treatment of diffuse gliomas. The extent of resection (EOR) directly influences clinical outcomes in glioma surgery. However, resection of diffuse glioma is encountered with the problem of macroscopic and even microscopic similarity of normal brain and tumor. Furthermore, maximizing EOR requires attention because a mistake in identifying and preserving normal brain regions in complete resection can lead to catastrophic complications.

Schizophrenia: The Dark Side of Toxoplasmosis

Shahriar Eftekharian, Sara Rahmati Roodsari, Zahra Arab-Mazar, Mohsen Rahimi

International Clinical Neuroscience Journal, Vol. 8 No. 2 (2021), 27 Farvardin 2021, Page 53-54

Toxoplasma gondii is an intracellular parasite that has been associated with several mental disorders. It usually causes an inapparent primary infection. Found worldwide, T. gondii is capable of infecting virtually all warm-blooded animals.1-3
Schizophrenia is a neurological disorder characterized with long-term and devastating neuropsychological problems, usually presenting in adolescents or young adults. The disease affects almost 1.1% of the global population including all races and ethnic groups with an equal prevalence in both sexes.1 T. gondii seroprevalence is strongly associated with 12-month generalized anxiety disorder but not with other anxiety, depressive, or alcohol-related disorders. Because of the intracellular nature of some parasites, their treatment and development of new drugs is a major challenge for scientists.4 Recently, the use of nanoparticles and nano-scaffolds has suggested for the treatment of parasitic diseases, although limited research has been done in this regard.5-7

Review Article

Effect of Curcumin on Beta-Amyloid Plasma Level in Alzheimer Disease: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

Shima Mehrabadi, Azam Alinaghpour, Elham Zahedi

International Clinical Neuroscience Journal, Vol. 8 No. 2 (2021), 27 Farvardin 2021, Page 55-59

Alzheimer’s disease is known as a most common dementia disorder in the world. The famous hypothesis about the cause of this disease is beta-amyloid (Aβ ) accumulation in the brain. There is a widespread neuroinflammation in the patient’s brain, leading to neuronal apoptosis and brain atrophy. Curcumin is a well-known anti-inflammation and anti-oxidant ingredient. It can easily cross the blood-brain barrier. There are controversial results about the effects of curcumin on Aβ clearance and metabolism in Alzheimer’s disease and the elderly. The aim of this meta-analysis and systematic review was to review the effect of curcumin on Aβ clearance in clinical studies. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis on the three randomized clinical trials (RCTs) and one pilot study that assessed the effect of curcumin on Aβ plasma level in Alzheimer’s disease. For this purpose, we searched PubMed and Scopus databases up to December 2020. Our result showed there was no significant change in serum Aβ level (weighted mean difference [WMD]: 5.3, 95% CI: 0.78-9.97) following curcumin consumption in patients with Alzheimer’s disease. Further clinical trials should be done to evaluate the effects of curcumin in Aβ level in Alzheimer’s disease.

A Review of Cognitive Disorders in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder with Emphasis on Executive Functions and Brain Structures

Somayeh Roshannia, Somayeh Maleki-Karamolah, Zhamak Akhlaghi , Parastou Kordestani-Moghadam

International Clinical Neuroscience Journal, Vol. 8 No. 2 (2021), 27 Farvardin 2021, Page 60-66

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is one of the most common childhood neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by levels of attention deficit disorder, irregularity, or hyperactivity/impulsivity. Some research has shown that only a fraction of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and not all of them, suffer from performance-related impairments; but recently it has become clear that all people with this disorder are impaired in executive functions. In other words attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is fundamentally a developmental disorder of executive functions.

Poor inhibitory control, continuous attention deficit, problem-solving, and behavioral inhibition are cognitive deficits in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder that they are exhibit in tests related to executive functions. Evidences suggest differences in some executive functions, such as behavioral inhibition between boys and girls. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder has its neurobiological basis and most empirical evidence indicates delayed frontal lobe development in children with this disorder.

Therefore, the purpose of this study was to review cognitive disorders in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder with an emphasis on executive functions.





Original / Research Article

Effect of Nucleus Basalis Magnocellularis Lesions on Memory and Hippocampal Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor, IL-1β, Glucose, and Corticosterone Levels in Adult Rats

Nasrin Hosseini, Maryam Radahmadi, Hojjatallah Alaei , Shabnam Nadjafi

International Clinical Neuroscience Journal, Vol. 8 No. 2 (2021), 27 Farvardin 2021, Page 67-75


 Background: The nucleus basalis magnocellularis (NBM) sends projections to the hippocampus that are implicated in learning and memory formation. Despite ample evidence proposing that cognitive function impairment related to neurodegeneration, it may result from alteration of biochemical substances. We aimed to investigate the effects of NBM lesions on the hippocampal interleukin-1beta (IL-1β), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and corticosterone levels, as inflammation markers, and hallmarks of neurodegeneration, stress, and metabolic status.

Methods: Thirty-six male Wistar rats were randomly put in control, sham, and NBM-lesioned groups. After inducing the lesion using an intra-NBM injection of 10 μg ibotenic acid (5 μg/μL, each side) in rats, memory was estimated using the passive avoidance test. Moreover, serum and hippocampal IL-1β levels, as well as the hippocampal corticosterone, BDNF, and glucose levels were measured after 42 days.

Results: Findings indicated a significant impairment of retention at different intervals in the NBM-lesioned group. BDNF decreased whereas corticosterone, glucose, and IL-1β levels increased in the hippocampus. Also, the levels of serum IL-1β, hippocampal BDNF, corticosterone, and glucose had significant correlations with hippocampal IL-1β levels.

Conclusion: The synchronous alterations of some hippocampal factors, including BDNF, corticosterone, IL-1β, and glucose, caused by NBM lesion suggest that their interaction might play a significant role in neurodegeneration and relevant learning and memory impairments.

Evaluation of Iranian Students’ Mental Health: A Cross-sectional Survey

Meisam Akhlaghdoust, Poorya Davoodi, Atoosa Hashemi, Farzan Fathalizade, Matin Baghani, Fatemeh Kamalipoor, Yasaman Rajaee, Sara Mohammadi Doust, Tooba Ebadi Fard Azar, Faezeh Eslami, Farzaneh Ghasemi, Mahdi Akhlaghdoost

International Clinical Neuroscience Journal, Vol. 8 No. 2 (2021), 27 Farvardin 2021, Page 76-79

Background: Mental health is a significant problem in developed and developing countries which influences all aspects of life. We aimed to evaluate the status of Iranian students’ mental health.

Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed on 2052 elementary school students located in Tehran, Iran, in September 2018. We used the Census sampling method for sampling and the general health questionnaire comprising 28 items. For statistical analysis SPSS software, version 21 was used.

Results: A total of 2052 elementary school students (1373 girls and 679 boys) participated in this study. The mean ± standard deviation (SD) ages of the girls and boys were 14.1±1.7 and 13.9±1.1 years, respectively. The mean ± SD of anxiety, social dysfunction, and depression scores were 7.42±4.92, 7.35±3.33, 6.83±2.26 in the girls and 5.65±3.89, 6.30±3.09, 4.61±1.74 in the boys, respectively. The mean ± SD total scores in boys and girls were 20.48±12.31 and 27.90±14.66, respectively.

Conclusion: The mental health status of elementary school students was generally low, especially in male students.

Executive Function Assessment in Patients With Idiopathic Generalized Epilepsy: Applyingthe Frontal Assessment Battery

Marjan Asadollahi, Mahrooz Roozbeh, Amin Edalatkhah, Mehrdad Roozbeh, Nasim Mirzaei, Mohammad Rostami, Leila Simani

International Clinical Neuroscience Journal, Vol. 8 No. 2 (2021), 27 Farvardin 2021, Page 80-84


 Background: Executive dysfunction is seen in idiopathic generalized epilepsy (IGE). The Frontal Assessment Battery (FAB) is a short neuropsychological instrument designed in clinical settings to evaluate frontal lobe activity. We aimed to assess the clinical use of FAB in patients with IGE for to detect executive impairment.

Method: In this study, 30 patients with IGE and 30 age- and sex-matched healthy controls were included. The presence and severity of executive dysfunction was investigated with FAB. Cognitive flexibility, decision making, working memory, and general intelligence level were examined using Wisconsin Card Sorting Task (WCST), Iowa Gambling Task (IGT), N-back, and Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, respectively. In patients with IGE, FAB results were related to their neuropsychological task performance.

Results: The FAB score in patients with IGE was significantly lower compared to healthy participants. In motor programming tasks, patients with IGE performed substantially worse. However, no correlation was found between FAB and neuropsychological task and clinical characteristics.

Conclusion: Executive dysfunction was present in patients with IGE and FAB may be used in these patients as an effective tool for evaluating frontal lobe function.

Prevalence of Depression and Anxiety and Related Factors in Patients With Parkinson’s Disease

Mohammad Pir hayati , Navid Eydivandi , Mehran Khodashenas, Hamid Fallah

International Clinical Neuroscience Journal, Vol. 8 No. 2 (2021), 27 Farvardin 2021, Page 85-89

Background: Parkinson’s disease is a chronic and progressive disease in which patients show symptoms of psychiatric diseases such as anxiety and depression leading to decreased quality of life. So far, few studies have been done in this field in Iran.
Methods: The study is a cross-sectional study that investigates the prevalence of anxiety and depression and their related factors in patients with Parkinson’s disease. In this study, 74 patients with Parkinson’s disease and 74 healthy individuals were evaluated and using by Beck’s Depression and Anxiety Inventories.
Results: The prevalence of depression and anxiety in patients with Parkinson’s was 37.83% and 78.38%, respectively. The mean score of depression and anxiety was significantly higher in the patient group (P<0.001). Older age, female sex, a higher level of education and a longer duration of illness were significantly associated with more depression and anxiety (P<0.05). Multiple regression models showed that age was a predictive factor in depression. With respect to anxiety, age and duration of the disease were predictive factors.
Conclusion: The severity of depression and anxiety were significantly higher in patients with Parkinson’s disease compared to healthy individuals. Age and duration of the disease play a significant role in predicting the severity of depression and anxiety in such patients.

The Relationship Between Emotional Self-efficacy, Sensation Seeking, and the Quality of Child-Parent Relationships With Quality of Life Mediated by High-Risk Sexual Behaviors in Students

Farnoosh Sadat Etminan, Kobra Haji Alizadeh, Seyed Abdul Wahab Samavi

International Clinical Neuroscience Journal, Vol. 8 No. 2 (2021), 27 Farvardin 2021, Page 90-95

Background: Considering the importance of quality of life which is related to various physical, psychological, social, and political dimensions of the individual and the importance of the class which plays a decisive role in forming a successful and healthy society. Also, considering the importance of high-risk behaviors in today’s society and the harm that these behaviors create, five variables of quality of life, type of parent-child relationship and sensation seeking, self-efficacy, and high-risk sexual behaviors have been studied together.
Methods: The research method was descriptive-correlational with structural equation modeling (SEM). The statistical population included all male and female undergraduate students of Bandar Abbas Branch of Azad University who were studying in the first semester of the 2018-2019 academic year. 260 people were selected through purposive sampling. The inclusion criteria were being an undergraduate student, conscious satisfaction with the implementation method and research process. Data were gathered by the Child-Parent Relationship Quality Questionnaire (PCRS), Zuckerman Sensation Seeking Scale, Quality of Life Questionnaire, High-Risk Sexual Behaviors Questionnaire and Emotional Self-efficacy Scale. Data were analyzed using structural equations with Amos software, version 8.80.
Results: The path coefficient between high-risk sexual behaviors and quality of life was -0.84, which indicates the negative and inverse effect of high-risk sexual behaviors and quality of life. The path coefficient between the quality of the parent-child relationship and high-risk sexual behaviors was -0.86, which indicates the negative and inverse effect of the quality of the parent-child relationship and high-risk sexual behaviors.
Conclusion: High-risk sexual behaviors mediate the quality of the parent-child relationship and the quality of life of students.

Case Report

Covid-19; Neurological Findings in four pediatric patients.

Javad Akhondian, Farrokh Seilanian Toosi, Farah Ashrafzadeh, Narges Hashemi, Nazanin Saeedi Zand

International Clinical Neuroscience Journal, Vol. 8 No. 2 (2021), 27 Farvardin 2021, Page 96-98

Neurological involvement in COVID-19 infection is increasing all over the world. Neurological manifestations include headache, dizziness, stroke, seizure, encephalopathy, neuropathy, and skeletal muscle injury. While many patients with CNS involvement have normal neuroimaging, the others reveal significant abnormalities. In this article, we report four patients with neurological manifestations of the Covid-19 infection and its relevant abnormalities in brain magnetic resonance imaging.

A Giant Frontal Meningioma with Psychiatric Symptoms in a Young Woman: A Case Report

Hoai Dinh, Dang Thi Tran, Thi Mai Dieu Tran, Hai Duong Pham, Vinh Lac Nguyen, Thanh Minh Nguyen

International Clinical Neuroscience Journal, Vol. 8 No. 2 (2021), 27 Farvardin 2021, Page 99-102

Background:Frontal meningioma is often asymptomatic but patients might experience psychiatric symptoms. Since symptoms are atypical in giant meningioma, to the best of our knowledge, we present a rare clinical scenario.

Case Presentation: A 24-year old female patient with no medical history presented with two months of depressive symptoms, personality changes such as easy irritability, and feelings of frustration and mental depression, as well as forgetfulness and blurred vision. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed a well-defined markedly enhancing lesion in the left frontal region measuring 65 x 70 x 70 mm with mass effects to the adjacent brain tissue and associated surrounding edema which was pressed to the frontal horn of the lateral ventricle. The patient underwent frontal unilateral craniotomy and excision of the tumor. After surgery, the quality of life was improved.

Conclusion: Meningioma with psychiatric symptoms is quite rare. This clinical case helps clinicians avoid missing symptoms and use appropriate management strategies for patients with giant meningiomas.