Articles can only be withdrawn by authors before the reviewing process.

Otherwise articles can be withdrawn if they contain errors or may have been accidentally submitted twice, or if they determined to violate the journals’ publishing ethics guidelines .

Occasionally, the articles may represent infringements of professional ethical codes, such as multiple submission, false claims of authorship, plagiarism, fraudulent use of data or the like.

The withdrawal letter must include the corresponding author and the submitting individuals’ signature explaining their decision and reason for withdrawal.