Review Article

Probiotic Supplements and Food Products: Comparison for Different Targets

Neda Mollakhalili Meybodi, Amir Mohammad Mortazavian, sara Sohrabvandi, Adriano G da Cruz, Reza Mohammadi

Applied Food Biotechnology, Vol. 4 No. 3 (2017), 21 June 2017, Page 123-132

Background and Objective: Currently, probiotics are mainly used in processed foods or nutritional supplements mainly due to their impact on health. The probiotic markets have a considerable share either in food or drug industry. In this article, drug supplements and food products containing probiotic microorganisms are considered in a comparative approach from different aspects including functional, efficacy, hedonistic and economical.

Results and Conclusion: However, the impact of ingesting probiotics via food products or drug supplements is not actually the same from consumer’s point of view as well as from clinical efficacy. Consumer attitudes appear to be reflected in expectations on nutritional, functional and health effects side and also from the point of nutrition economics.

Conflict of interest: The authors declare no conflict of interest.

Original Article

Isolation and Identification of an Indigenous Probiotic Lactobacillus Strain: Its Encapsulation with Natural Branched Polysaccharids to Improve Bacterial Viability

Nafiseh Sadat Foroutan, Fatemeh Tabandeh, Mahvash Khodabandeh, Naheed Mojgani, Amir Maghsoudi, Meisam Moradi

Applied Food Biotechnology, Vol. 4 No. 3 (2017), 21 June 2017, Page 133-142

Background and Objective: Probiotics have to reach their site of action in certain numbers in order to exhibit positive health effects. Encapsulation has shown remarkable enhancing effects on probiotic survival in simulated gastric conditions compared to free bacteria. The purpose of this study was identification and evaluation of a potential probiotic strain using encapsulation process by new carriers in order to improve probiotic viability during in vitro simulated conditions.

Material and Methods: A native Lactobacillus was isolated from yogurt, identified as Lactobacillus casei PM01 (NCBI registered) and analyzed for probiotic properties alongside established probiotic strains of Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 43556, and Lactobacillus rhamnosus ATCC 7469. Acid and bile resistance, adhesion to Caco-2 cells and antibiotic resistance were evaluated. Lactobacillus casei PM01 was encapsulated with alginate, chitosan and natural branched polysaccharides (pectin, tragacanth gum and gum Arabic) by using extrusion technique. Encapsulation efficiency, acidification activity and viability of entrapped Lactobacillus casei PM01 in simulated gastric pH were determined.

 Results and Conclusion: Based on the results, all the three strains could be considered as potential probiotics, and are good candidates for further in vitro and in vivo evaluation. The results showed that the survival of encapsulated Lactobacillus casei PM01 was significantly (p≤0.05) increased when it was incubated in simulated gastric pH. It can be concluded that indigenous Lactobacillus casei PM01 in encapsulated form is introduced as an efficient probiotic strain for using in dairy products.

Conflict of interest: The authors declare no conflict of interest.

High-yielding Wheat Varieties Harbour Superior Plant Growth Promoting-Bacterial Endophytes

Mehwish Yousaf, Yasir Rehman, Shahida Hasnain

Applied Food Biotechnology, Vol. 4 No. 3 (2017), 21 June 2017, Page 143-154

Background and Objective: The purpose of this study was to compare the endophytic microbial flora of different wheat varieties to check whether a better yielding variety also harbours superior plant growth promoting bacteria. Such bacteria are helpful in food biotechnology as their application can enhance the yield of the crop.

Material and Methods: Three wheat varieties (Seher, Faisalabad and Lasani) were selected, Seher being the most superior variety. endophytic bacteria were isolated from the histosphere of the leaves and roots at different growth phases of the plants. The isolates were analyzed for plant growth promoting activities. Isolates giving best results were identified through 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Statistical analysis was done using Microsoft Excel 2013. All the experiments were conducted in triplicates.

Results and Conclusion: The endophytes of Seher variety showed maximum plant growth promoting abilities. Among the shoot endophytes, the highest auxin production was shown by Seher isolate SHHP1-3 up to 51.9μg ml-1, whereas in the case of root endophytes, the highest auxin was produced by SHHR1-5 up to 36 μg ml-1. The bacteria showing significant plant growth promoting abilities were identified by 16S rRNA sequencing. Bacillus, Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria species were the dominant bacteria showing all the traits of plant growth promotion. It can be concluded that Seher variety harbours superior plant growth promoting endophytes that must be one of the reasons for its better growth and yield as compared to the other two varieties. The investigated results support possible utilization of the selected isolates in wheat growth promotion with respect to increase in agro-productivity. The application of such bacteria could be useful to enhance wheat yield and can help in food biotechnology.

Conflict of interest: The authors declare no conflict of interest.

Production of Probiotic Drink Using Pussy willow and Echium amoenum Extracts

Mahbobeh Eksiri, Leila Nateghi, Anosheh Rahmani

Applied Food Biotechnology, Vol. 4 No. 3 (2017), 21 June 2017, Page 155-165

Background and Objective: Nowadays, due to the lack of lactose and cholesterol, demand for consumption of non-dairy probiotic products is increasing. Probiotic drinks mixed with medicinal plant have great beneficial effect on human health. The main problems of non-dairy probiotic drinks are lack of nutrients for the growth of probiotics and bad taste of the product. The aim of this study was to produce a probiotic medicinal plant drink with favorable physicochemical, viability and sensory properties.

Material and Methods: Probiotic drink prepared by Pussy willow and Echium amoenum extract (0.5 % w v-1, for each extract or together), Lactobacillus casei and Lactobacillus rhamnosus (108 CFU ml-1), individually and their combination. Glucose and whey powder (0.2%) were used as a source of nutrition for the probiotics, and apple juice (20 and 30%) was added to improve the taste of drink. The level of glucose was adjusted to reach the brix of 13 g100 g-1. Ascorbic acid (0.05%) was used to improve micro-aerophilic conditions. The pH, acidity, glucose and viability of probiotic bacteria as well as the sensory properties of the prepared drink were investigated during 28 days at 4°C.

Results and Conclusion: Based on the results, the treatment containing L. casei, Pussy willow, Echium amoenum and 30% apple juice due to the highest probiotic viability and the treatment containing Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Pussy willow, Echium amoenum and 30% apple juice because of higher total acceptance score, proper pH and acidity values were selected as the best treatments.

Conflict of interest: The authors declare no conflict of interest.

Bioinformatics Evaluation of Plant Chlorophyllase, the Key Enzyme in Chlorophyll Degradation

Ebrahim Sharafi, Ali Dehestani, Jamshid Farmani, Ali Pakdin Parizi

Applied Food Biotechnology, Vol. 4 No. 3 (2017), 21 June 2017, Page 167-178

Background and Objective: Chlorophyllase catalyzes the hydrolysis of chlorophylls to chlorophyllide and phytol. Recently, several applications including removal of chlorophylls from vegetable oils, use in laundry detergents and production of chlorophyllides have been described for chlorophyllase. However, there is little information about the biochemical characteristics of chlorophyllases.

Material and Methods: 35 chlorophyllase protein sequences were obtained from the National Centre for Biotechnology Information database. All of the sequences were analyzed using bioinformatics tools for their conserved domain, phylogenetic relationships and biochemical characteristics.

Results and Conclusion: The overall domain architecture of chlorophyllases consisted of the esterases/lipases superfamily domain over their full length and the alpha/beta hydrolase family domain over the middle part of their sequences. Plant chlorophyllases could be classified into 4 clades. Molecular weight and pI of the chlorophyllases ranged 32.65-37.77 kDa and 4.80-8.97, respectively. The most stable chlorophyllase is probably obtained from Malus domestica. Chlorophyllases form Solanum pennellii, Triticum aestivum, Triticum urartu, Arabidopsis lyrata, Pachira macrocarpa, Prunus mume and Malus domestica were predicted to be soluble upon overexpression in Escherichia coli, Beta vulgaris and Chenopodium album chlorophyllases were predicted to form no disulfide bond. Chlorophyllases from Jatropha curcas, Amborella trichopod, Setaria italica, Piper betle, Triticum urartu and Arabidopsis thaliana were predicted to be in non-N-glycosylated form.

Conflict of interest: The authors declare no conflict of interest.

Background and Objective: Increasing survivability of probiotics in low pH juices and in gastrointestinal conditions is important for probiotic food industry. Nanofibers can reinforce the structure of entrapment matrices protecting probiotics in harsh conditions. This study investigated pectin-based bionanocomposites improved with nanochitin, nanolignocellulose and bacterial nanocellulose to introduce a prebiotic gastrointestinal-resistant matrix for enhancing the survival of Bacillus coagulans as a probiotic.

Material and Methods: The bionanocomposites with various compositions were designed using mixture design method. These were fabricated based on cross-linking of calcium ions with pectin for entrapment of Bacillus coagulans. The survivability of probiotic was evaluated at 4°C or 25°C over a 5-week storage in peach juice and under simulated gastrointestinal conditions.

Results and Conclusion: The prebiotic score of the pectin-nanochitin-nanolignocellulose (50:25:25% w w-1) was determined as 1.36. The survivability of Bacillus coagulans entrapped within the pectin-nanochitin-nanolignocellulose matrix was ~65% under gastrointestinal treatment. The surface structure of the matrix was relatively smooth coherent, compact and wrinkled due to the three-dimensional arrangement of the nanofibers of chitin and lignocellulose incorporated within pectin. The highest survivability of the entrapped bacteria was ~68% compared to the survivability of the free cell (~53%) at the end of 5-week storage period. After 21 day storage in the juice, the survivability of the entrapped bacteria treated under sequential digestion was ~58% as compared to that of the free cell (~43%). The present findings proposed a promising prebiotic matrix to protect probiotics in low pH fruit juice and the gastrointestinal tract.

Conflict of interest: The authors declare no conflict of interest.