Screening for Genetically Modified Maize in Raw and Processed Foods Sold Commercially in Southern Nigeria Boarder States
Applied Food Biotechnology,
Vol. 3 No. 3 (2016),
28 June 2016
Genetically Modified (GM) foods hold the key to ending hunger and malnutrition in Africa. Due to the increasing number of GMOs cultivation and delay in the approval of biosafety law in Nigeria, it has become necessary to screen maize products in order to determine the identity of the consumed daily foodstuffs. In this study, DNA extraction from raw and processed maize foods sold commercially in Sourthen Nigeria was carried out using the cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) method, followed by qualitative PCR to detect genetically modified maize. The recombinant DNA target sequences were detected with primers highly specific for each investigated transgene such as CAMV35S, nopaline synthase (NOS) terminator, Bt-176 and NK603 genes separately. Certified reference materials were used as positive controls while 2008-DTMA-W-STR Federal University of Agriculture Abeokuta (FUNAAB) organic maize grains and absence of template DNA, served as negative control. Based on the gel electrophoresis results, Bt- 176 maize event for insect resistance was detected in two samples, with 420 bp and, the NK603 Maize event for herbicide tolerance was detected in 3 samples, with 320 bp fragments. The GM-positive samples were found in 4 imported raw maize samples, 4 cereal food brands (2 manufactured in Nigeria, 2 imported) and 3 imported canned corn brands. The results confirm that Nigerians are already consuming GM maize, despite the absence of a biosafety law.
- Genetically modified maize
- DNA extraction
- qualitative PCR
- NK603 Maize
- Bt- 176 maize
How to Cite
Vidhya, S. S., Ramanjini Gowada, P. H., Yogendra, K. N., Nigaraju, T. M., Salome, T. Detection of Genetically Modified cotton Seeds using PCR and Real- Time PCR. Indian J. of Biotechnology. 2011; 11, 176-181.
Yoke-Kqueen, C., Yee-Tyan, C., Siew-Ping, K. Son, R. Development of Multiplex-PCR for Genetically Modified Organism (GMO) Detection Targeting EPSPS and Cry1Ab Genes in Soy and Maize Samples. International Food Research J. 2011; 18: 512-519.
Kumar, R and Sinha, R. P. Colloidal Gold Based Dipstick Strip for Detection of Genetically Modified Crops and Produce International J. of Pharmacy and Biological Sciences. 2011; 0957-6299.
Zdjelar, G., Nikolić, Z., Vasiljević, I., Jovičić, D., Ignjatov, M., Milošević, D., Tamindžić, G. Detection of Genetically Modified Crops in Animal Feed in Serbia. Romanian Agricultural Research. 2014; no. 31, 1-7.
Alderborn, A., Sundström, J., Soeria-Atmadja, D., Sandberg, M., Andersson, H. C., Hammerling, U. Genetically modified plants for non-food or non-feed purposes: Straightforward screening for their appearance in food and feed. Food Chemcal and Toxicology. 2010; 48: 453-464.
Chaouachi, M., Nabi, N., Ben Hafsa, A., Mohamed, S. Z., Skhiri, F., Saïd, K. Monitoring of Genetically Modified Food and Feed in the Tunisian Market Using Qualitative and Quantitative Real-time PCR. Food Science and Biotechnology. 2013; 22(4): 1-10.
Paarlberg, R. GMO Foods and Crops: Africa`s Choice. New Biotechnology. 2010; 27(5): 609-613.
Pauli, U., Liniger, M., Zimmerman, A., Schrott, M., Extraction and Amplification of DNA from 55 Foodstuffs. Mitteilungen aus Lebensmitteluntersuchung und Hygiene. 2000; 91: 491-501.
Randhawa, G. J. and Firke, P. K. Detection of transgenes in genetically modified soybean and maize using polymerase chain reaction. 2006; Indian J.of Biotechnology 5: 510-513.
Ezequiel, M., Martı´n, I., R.., Rube´n H., Hugo R. P. Detection of BT transgenic maize in foodstuffs. Food Research International. 2006; 39 250–255
Hurst, C. D., Knight, A., Bruce, I. J. PCR Detection of genetically Modified Soya and Maize in Foodstuffs. Molecular Breeding. 1999; 5; 579-586
Al-Rousan, H., Al-Hmoud, N., Hayek, B., Ibrahim, M. A Study on the Occurrence of Genetically Modified Soybean and Maize Feed Products in the Jordanian Market. J. of Cell and Molecular Biology. 2010; 8: 87-94.
Sambrook, J. and Russell, D.W. Molecular Cloning: A Laboratory Manual. 3rd Edition.Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, New York. 2001; ISBN: 9780879695774, pp: 1-99.
Jasbeer, K., Son, R., Mohamad Ghazali, F., Cheah, Y. K. Real-time PCR evaluation of seven DNA extraction methods for the purpose of GMO analysis. International Food Research J. 2009;16: 329-341.
Mafra, I., Silva, S. A., Moreira, E. J.M.O., da Silva, C. S. F., Beatriz, M. and Oliveira, P. P. Comparative study of DNA extraction methods for soybean derived food products. Food Control. 2008; 19: 1183-1190.
Gryson, N., Messens, K. and Dewettinck, K. Evaluation and optimization of five different extractionmethods for soy DNA in chocolate and biscuits.Extraction of DNA as a first step in GMO analysis. J. of the Science of Food and Agiculture, 2004;84:1357-1363.
Pirondini, A., Bonas, U., Maestri, E., Visioli, G., Marmiroli, M. and Marmiroli, N. Yield an Amplificability of Different DNA Extraction Procedures for Traceability in the Dairy Food Chain. Food Control. 2010; 21: 663-668.
Ahmed, F. E. Application of Molecular Biology to Biomedicine and Toxicology. J. of Environmental Science Health. 2002; 11, 1–51.
Lih-Ching Chiueh, Yen-Ling Chen And Daniel Yang-Chih Shih. Study on the Detection Method of Six Varieties of Genetically Modified Maize and Processed Foods. J. of Food and Drug Analysis. 2002; 10: 25-33.
OECD. Consensus document on compositional considerations for new varieties of maize (Zea mays): Key food and feed nutrients, anti-nutrients and secondary plant metabolites. Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development,Paris.http://www.oecd.org/officialdocuments/displaydocumentpdf?cote=env/jm/mono 2002; 25&doclanguage=en
Gurinder, J. and Firk, P. K. Detection of Transgene in genetically Modified Soybean and Maize using Polymerase Chain Reaction. Indian J. of Biotechnology. 2006; 510-513.
Miraglia, M., Berdal, K., Brera, C., Corbisier, P., Holst- Jensen, A., Kok, E., Marvin, H.,Schimmel, H., Rentsch, J., Van Rie, J. and Zagon, J. Detection and Traceability of Genetically Modified Organisms in the Food Production. Food and Chemical Toxicology. 2004; 42:1157-1180.
Mehdizadeh M, Rabiei M, Alebouyeh M, Rastegar H. Labelling of GMO products and consumers rights. Iranian J. Medical Law. 2011; 5:175–188.
- Abstract Viewed: 631 times
- PDF Downloaded: 893 times