The Use of Nata de Coco Derived Bacterial Cellulose as a Potential Excipient for Directly Compressed Tablets
International Pharmacy Acta,
Vol. 3 No. 1 (2020),
14 December 2020
Introduction: Nata de coco is produced through the fermentation of coconut water using Acetobacter xylinum bacteria. Nata de coco is chemically high in fiber, consisting of bacteria-derived cellulose. Bacterial celluloses present a number of unique physical properties compared to plant celluloses including a relatively high purity and crystallinity, with mechanical strength. These properties lend Nata de coco to be extremely amenable to research.
Methods and Results: The current study attempts to assess the suitability of Nata de Coco derived bacterial cellulose in direct compression tablet formulation. Nata de coco, at various states of hydration, defined here as 0%, ‘low’ and ‘high’, achieved by both oven-drying and freeze-drying is incorporated into a low-dose loratadine powder blend for direct compression into tablets. The dissolution profile of these novel tablets was evaluated for release properties. The resulting tablets reveal freeze-drying, compared with oven-drying, markedly improve the properties of Nata de Coco for inclusion in a tablet formulation, producing tablets with improved disintegration times and dissolution profiles and retaining physical stability. Ovendried Nata de Coco, resulting in physically weaker tablets, with poor friability and hardness. The upper limit for water-content in both cases, similar to HPMC, appears to be 11%.
Conclusions: Freeze-dried Nata de Coco, therefore presents considerable promise for use as a tablet excipient to produce a rapid-release formulation.
- Nata de Coco
- Acetobacter xylinum
- Direct compression
How to Cite
Sheu F, Wang CL and Shyu YT. Fermentation of monascus purpureus on bacterial cellulose-nata and the colour stability of monascus-nata complex. Journal of Food Science. 2000;65: 342-345.
Chung Y and Shyu Y. The effects of pH, salt, heating and freezing on the physical properties of bacterial cellulose-nata. International Journal of Food Science & Technology. 1999; 34: 23-26.
Roberfroid M. Dietary fibre, inulin, and oligofructose: a review comparing their physiological effects. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition. 1993;33: 103-148.
Makoto S and Yasushi S. Recent advances in bacterial cellulose production. Biotech & Bioprocess Eng. 2005;10:1-8.
Zhou LL, Sun DP, Hu LY, Li YW and Yang JZ. Effect of addition of sodium alginate on the production bacterial cellulose by Acetobacter xylinum. J. Ind Microbiol Biotechnol. 2007;34: 483-489.
Brigid A, McKenna Mikkelsen D. Mechanical and structural properties of native and alkaline-treated bacterial cellulose produced by Gluconacetobacter xylinus strain ATCC 53 524. Cellulose. 2009;16:1047-1055.
Halib N, Amin MCIM and Ahmad I. Physicochemical properties and characterization of nata de coco from local food industries as a source of cellulose. Sains Malaysiana. 2012;41(2): 205–211.
Nakagaito AN, Iwamoto S and Yano H. Bacterial cellulose: The ultimate nano-scalar cellulose morphology for the production of high-strength composites. Appl Phys A. 2005;80: 93- 97.
Fontana JD, de Souza AM, Fontana CK, Torriani IL, Moreschi JC, Gallotti BJ, de Souza SJ, Narcisco GP, Bichara JA and Farah LF. Acetobacter cellulose pellicle as a temporary skin substitue. Appl. Biochem & Biotech. 1990;24(1): 253–264.
George J, Ramana KV, Sabapathy SN and Bring AS. Physico-mechanical properties of chemically treated bacterial (Aceto-bacter xylinum) cellulose membrane. World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology. 2005; 21:1323-1327.
Mormino R and Bungay H. Composites of bacterial cellulose and paper made with a rotating disk bioreactor. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2003;62: 503-506.
Schumann DA, Wippermann J, Klemm DO, Kramer F, Koth D, Kosmehl H, Wahlers T and Salehi-Gelani S. Artificial vascular implants from bacterial cellulose preliminary results of small arterial substitutes. Cellulose. 2009; 16: 877-885.
Ng CC and Shyu YT. Development and production of cholesterol-lowering Monascus-nata complex. World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology. 2004;20: 875–879.
Okiyam A, Motoki M and Yamanaka S. Bacterial cellulose II. Proceeding of the gelatinous cellulose for food materials. Food Hydrocolloids. 1992; 6: 479–487.
Norhayati P, Abd Hamid NI, Khairuddin N, Zahan KA, Seng KF, Siddique BM and Muhammad II. Effect of different drying methods on the morphology, crystallinity, swelling ability and tensile properties of Nata De Coco. Sains Malaysiana.2014;43(5): 767–773.
Mosquera MJ, Curia M, Souto C, Concheiro A, Martinez-Pacheco R and Gomez-Amoza JL. Effects of HPMC moisture content on hydrochlorothiazide release from HPMC-based tablets. International Journal of Pharmaceutics. 1996;135(1-2), 147-149.
- Abstract Viewed: 520 times
- PDF Downloaded: 169 times