Research/Original Articles

Increasing biocompatibility of scaffold made of Polyethersulfone (PES) through combining with polyaniline(PANI)

Faeze Pournaqi, Mahnaz Farahmand, Abdolreza Ardeshirylajimi

Archives of Advances in Biosciences, Vol. 7 No. 1 (2016), 11 January 2016, Page 1-6

      Today’s tissue engineering is an important and interested method to treatment of  bone lesions so tissue engineering specialists and orthopedic surgeons are forced to serve as a safe alternative to current methods.The introduction ofa scaffoldthathas thebestefficiencyisamajor challengeto scientistsand researchersin this field.The aim ofthisstudy is to investigatethe polyaniline(PANI) influence onbiocompatibilityof Polyethersulfone (PES)nanofibrousscaffold.Fabricated scaffold was structurally characterized using SEM microscope andtensile assay.Toinvestigate biocompatibility of nanofibers by MTT assay andDAPI staining, human mesenchymal stem cells were seeded on the surface of PES, PES-PANI and tissue culture polystyrene (TCPS) as control .SEM imagesshowed that thescaffoldswereflat and the average diameters ofthenanofiberswere 286 ± 588.In addition the results ofMTT assay andDAPI stainingshowedthe highestproliferation rate of cellswas observed in PES-PANIscaffoldcompared to the PES and TCPS as control.It can be concludedthatPANIwas improved three-dimensionalstructure ofPES nanofibers and causes to increase biocompatibility of PES bysupportproliferationandpenetrationof MSCs in the PESnanofibers andcould also bea good candidate forintroductionandusein the bone tissueengineeringapplication

The involvement of hippocampal CA3 TRP channels in anxiety and avoidance memory consolidation in rats tested in elevated plus maze

Shahram Zarrabian, Mohammad Nasehi, Mohammad-Reza Zarrindast

Archives of Advances in Biosciences, Vol. 7 No. 1 (2016), 11 January 2016, Page 7-12

    In the current study, we assessed the role of transient receptor potential (TRP) channels on avoidance memory and anxiety states in CA3 area of the hippocampus. We explored the anxiety and avoidance memory states using test-retest protocol in the elevated plus maze to understand whether TRP channels can affect the above mentioned states in CA3 area. To investigate the consolidation phase of memory, the drugs were injected into the CA3 region before the test. Our data showed that the application of SKF-96365 did not alter anxiety-like behaviors but induced avoidance memory impairment. It was revealed that CA3 TRP channels could affect the avoidance memory consolidation and their role must be considered in future research.

The antibacterial activity of Iranian plants extracts against metallo beta-lactamase producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains

Mohsen Heidary, Ali Hashemi, Hossein Goudarzi, Saeed Khoshnood, Mahdaneh Roshani, Hadi Azimi, Mehdi Goudarzi

Archives of Advances in Biosciences, Vol. 7 No. 1 (2016), 11 January 2016, Page 13-19

Metallo β-lactamases (MBLs) producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) isolates are becoming an escalating global threat. Among the antibiotics used to treat infections associated with P. aeruginosa, resistance to carbapenem is a serious therapeutic challenge. The aim of the present study was to detect MBL-producing P. aeruginosa and to evaluate the extracts of Urtica. dioica, Carum. copticum, and Zataria multiflora on these clinical pathogens. The study was performed on hospitalized burn patients during 2014. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was tested by broth micro dilution and disc diffusion methods. The MBLs were detected using combination disk diffusion test (CDDT) phenotypically. Then, PCR and sequencing methods were carried out to detect the MBL encoding genes. Among 83 imipenem resistant P. aeruginosa strains, 48 (57.9%) isolates were MBL-producing P. aeruginosa. PCR and sequencing methods confirmed that these strains were blaIMP-1positive genes, whereas none were positive for blaVIM genes. Hospitalized burn patients with MBL-producing P.aeruginosa infection had 4/48 (8.3%) mortality rate. It was demonstrated that C. copticum, U. dioica, and Z. multiflora extracts had significant antibacterial effects on regular and IMP-producing P. aeruginosa strains. The prevalence of MBL-producing P .aeruginosa isolates in burn patients is very high. In this study, all MBL-producing strains encode the blaIMP-1gene. Therefore, detection of MBL-producing strains has major importance in identifying drug resistance patterns in P. aeruginosa and in controlling of infections. In the current study, the extracts from C. copticum, U. dioica, and Z. multiflora had high antibacterial effects against β-lactamase producing P. aeruginosa isolates.


The Analysis of Iranian EFL Learners' Acquisition of the American, British and Australian Accents

Ramin Pouriran, Samad Sajjadi, Khashayar Pouriran, Elaheh Sajjadi

Archives of Advances in Biosciences, Vol. 7 No. 1 (2016), 11 January 2016, Page 20-26

Farsi and English are both Indo-European languages with similarities in their roots. As such, this experiment was conducted to understand which English accent (i.e. American, British or Australian accents) would be easier for Iranians to adapt. To answer this question, 30 medical students performed three different activities of (I) listening to audio texts in three accents, (II) taking part in an oral interview and (III) completing an attitude questionnaire. The activities examined comprehensibility of the accents the participants were subjected to, type of accent they themselves produced and their attitude toward the accents under study. As for the audio texts, the order of presenting the three accents to the subjects was counterbalanced in order to control the order effect. The data on audio materials were analyzed for comprehensibility, accentedness, intelligibility and acceptability. Regarding comprehensibility, American accent was the most comprehensible (85%). Considering accentedness, intelligibility and acceptability, the participants found American accent the least accented (70%), the most intelligible 80% and the most acceptable (95%). In the interviews, students' accents were closer to the American accent. 85 percent of the participants used American accent in their conversational exchanges. Those with British and Australian accents formed 10% and 5% respectively. Regarding attitude, also, the participants mostly (90%) preferred American accent over the British or Australian accents. Students' tendency to adapt American accent more openly is mainly rooted in a mentality that American accent is easiest for the brain to digest.


Evaluation of the Pharmaceutical theses of the government Universities of Tehran and Shahid Beheshti based on ISO 7144 during 2008 to 2012

Maryam Kazerani, Shiva Malgard, Maryam Shekofteh, Farid Zaeri, Naghmeh Khadembashi

Archives of Advances in Biosciences, Vol. 7 No. 1 (2016), 11 January 2016, Page 27-31

University theses and dissertations are among those credible sources of information which, with regard to their given status of value, and the use of update resources using the international regulations and standards, can be perfect sources for optimal recovery of information and can increase the scientific credibility. This study reviews the accordance of the Pharmaceutical theses of Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences and the University of Tehran with the ISO 7144 standards: 2008-2012. 765 pharmaceutical theses of Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences and the University of Tehran at both general and specialized levels were studied, using an analytical method.  Data collection was based on the checklist prepared according to ISO 7144 standards. The comparisons were performed based on the t-test, using SPSS software. The results manifested that the theses done at Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences adhered more to the ISO standards compared to the University of Tehran.  The study also revealed that the mean score of the adherence to the standards of ISO has been more in specialized theses than the general ones. Moreover, it suggests that, due to their scientific and practical nature, theses are among the most important sources, and therefore, the manner through which the data is inserted, is of utmost importance. The accordance of the studied theses of both general and specialized themes in both universities to ISO 7144 standards is below the %50 of the desired standard and has a long way to go to reach the desired status.

Comparison of generalized estimating equations (GEE), mixed effects models (MEM) and repeated measures ANOVA in analysis of menorrhagia data

Parisa Naseri, Hamid Alavi Majd, Nourossadat Kariman, Atefeh Sourtiji

Archives of Advances in Biosciences, Vol. 7 No. 1 (2016), 11 January 2016, Page 32-40

     Menorrhagia is one of the most common gynecological problem and leading causes of poor quality of life and iron deficiency anemia in women of reproductive age. Research in gynecological field relies heavily on repeated measure designs. Repeated measure studies are helpful in understanding how factors of interest change over time. Our goal is to apply statistical methods which are appropriate for analyzing repeated measure data such as gynecological data. Three statistical methods were performed by data collection from 100 patients with menorrhagia. One-hundred patients were randomly assigned to two groups, i.e. intervention group (Urtica Dioica and mefenamic acid) and control group (placebo and mefenamic acid) with an equal size of 50. In this study, generalized estimating equations (GEE) and mixed effects models (MEM) were used for analyzing menorrhagia data to determine the effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Urtica Dioica on Menorrhagia. Finally, these methods are compared to the conventional repeated measures ANOVA (RM-ANOVA).

Based on the results, the three methods are found to be similar in terms of statistical estimation, the amount of bleeding before and after treatment between and within groups was compared. Results showed the average amount of bleeding was reduced significantly (P˂0/001). The average menorrhagia score in the third month (second cycles after intervention) were 91.38(71.432) and 149.40(127.823) in Urtica Dioica and control groups, respectively. The difference between the two groups was statistically significant (p =0.036). Because their advantages, GEE and MEM should be strongly considered for the analysis of repeated measure data. In particular, GEE should be utilized to explore overall average effects. When in addition to overall average effects, subject-specific effects are of primary interest, MEM should be utilized. With respect to these methods, it seems the extract of Urtica Dioica can be effective in reducing the amount of menstrual bleeding in women of reproductive age with Menorrhagia.


In Vitro Study of Mebendazole (Anthelmintic drug) Effects on the Aspartate Aminotransferase (AST) Enzyme Activity of Hydatid Cyst Parasite

Zahra Naderloo, Ali Farahnak, Abolfasl Golestani, Mohamad Reza Eshraghian, Mohamad Bagher Molaei Rad

Archives of Advances in Biosciences, Vol. 7 No. 1 (2016), 11 January 2016, Page 41-47

Hydatid disease is caused by the larva of Echinococcus granulosus parasite. Mebendazole (MBZ) is used as an alternative choice for the treatment of the disease. Aspartate aminotransferase (AST) is an essential enzyme in amino acid metabolism. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the effect of MBZ on AST activity of hydatid cyst parasite in order to detect enzymatic parameter for drug efficiency. In the present study, AST activity was estimated in the extracts of untreated parasite (hydatid cyst protoscolices) and treated samples by MBZ (100 µg final concentration). Samples’ protein quantity and quality were detected by Bradford and sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) methods respectively. For the purpose of determining the significant difference between the two independent samples, t-test was conducted. The values of the assayed AST specific activities of treated and untreated parasite samples were measured as 0.18 and 1.53U/ml/mg protein respectively. The difference between AST activities mean values of the two groups proved to be significant (P<0.05). SDS-PAGE demonstrated protein band of 50 kDa for AST enzyme. Considering the effect of the MBZ drug on AST activity in parasite, it can be concluded that this enzyme is useful for improving the drug efficiency.

Review Article

Different physical delivery systems: An important approach for delivery of biological molecules in vivo

Afshin Khavari, Zahra Orafa, Mehrdad Hashemi, Noorieh Habibzadeh, Azam Bolhassani

Archives of Advances in Biosciences, Vol. 7 No. 1 (2016), 11 January 2016, Page 48-63

   Delivery of exogenous materials such as nucleic acids, peptides, proteins, and drugs into cells is an important strategy in modern cellular and molecular biology. Recently, the development of gene carriers for efficient gene transfer into cells has attracted a great attention. Furthermore, lack of effective drug delivery is one of the major problems of cancer chemotherapy. Many physical methods have been studied to enhance the efficiency of gene and drug delivery. These strategies help to cross the materials from membranes including needle injection, photodynamic therapy, jet injection, gene gun, electroporation, hydrodynamic injection, laser, magnetofection, and tattooing. The physical systems improve the transfer of genes from extracellular to nucleus by creating transient membrane pores using physical forces including local or rapid systemic injection, particle impact, electric pulse, ultrasound, and laser irradiation. The recent optimization techniques of transdermal patches could improve the transdermal drug delivery through the skin. Among different physical carriers, electroporation and gene gun are the most potent methods for gene transfection and drug delivery in vivo. However, the researchers have focused on enhancing their potency with the structural modifications. Regarding to numerous barriers for biomolecules delivery in cells, this review is concentrated on description and optimization of different physical delivery systems for gene or drug transfer across membrane.