Research/Original Articles


      Nitric oxide is an important vasorelaxant factor that it inhibits platelet adhesion and proliferation of smooth muscle cells. NO is synthesized from L-arginine by means of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) which is an isoform of  Nitric Oxide Synthase.In the present study, we examined  possible association between the 27 base pair (bp) repeat  polymorphism in intron 4 of the  eNOS3 gene and hypertension in an Iranian  population. 40 patients with hypertension and 40 healthy controls were included in the research.Genotyping was performed by polymorphism chain reaction (PCR). The frequency of 4a4a, 4a4b , 4b4b  genotypes  were  52.6% , 26.3%,  15.7% respectively  in hypertension groups .The frequency of 4a4a, 4a4b , 4b4b  genotypes  were 73.8% , 15.7% , 10.5% respectively  in   control  groups. The hypertensive patient group showed a significant higher frequency of the 4a allele compared to the controls (p<0.01).The present study showed a singificant  association between the eNOS3 gene polymorphism and hypertension in the Iranian population .

Investigation of genetic association between PRODH gene and schizophrenia in Iranian population

Saeid Rahman zadeh, Hamid Shahbaz Mohammadi, Morteza karimipour, Saeed Heidari keshel

Archives of Advances in Biosciences, Vol. 3 No. 1 (2012), 9 April 2012

Schizophrenia is a complicated, debilitative mental disorder. Evidence is emerging for the association of polymorphisms in PRODH gene and increased risk of schizophrenia. In the present research, we investigated relationship between of this gene and schizophrenia disease by means of a gene polymorphism using PCR-RFLP technique.150 persons suffering from acute Schizophrenia and 160 healthy persons volunteering for this project were bled. . Based on intended SNP, pair of primers was designed by Oligo7 program and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed by thermo cycler. Then the resulted reactive mixture was exposed to a special enzyme, which we had intended for our study. Finally, the fragments of enzyme cut were transferred on the gel (4%) and migration pattern of resulted components were compared in healthy and patient subjects , whereby obtaining genotypes of different persons in polymorphic position. We utilized SPSS 16.0 program for statistical investigation of the work and studied SNP 1945T>C and its relation with the disease in statistical population. Our findings showed a meaningful relation between the occurrence of this nucleotide mutation and its frequency in patients (given P value=0.00). Results of this work indicate that PRODH gene can be considered to be a significant candidate in our population as a factor influencing the occurrence of Schizophrenia.

Adenoviruses are recognized as common human pathogens that are responsible for a wide variety of infectious syndromes. Bone marrow transplant patients are prone to life threatening opportunistic infections like adenoviruses. The nested polymerase chain reaction has provided an alternative, sensitive diagnostic method for detection of Adenoviruses. In this study we developed PCR from hexon genes as rapid diagnostic method of Advs infections on different clinical samples. Adenovirus infections was defined as the presence of DNA in the blood, urine, stool, or respiratory lavage from bone marrow transplant patients. Two sets of primers (Group specific primers and internal primers) were required to optimize the PCR protocol. This highly sensitive method could detect different types of Advs in two separate sets of PCR. Therfore,DNA amplification in BMT patients would be valuable screening way to evaluate bone marrow transplant recipients. Early detection of Advs by PCR assay is important to asymptomatic infections or preventing aggressive antiviral thearapy.

Effect of hyperglycemic condition on observed surface area to volume ratio of human cancerous cells

Mohammad Hassan Naseri, Saeed Hesami Tackallou, Mostafa Rezaei Tavirani

Archives of Advances in Biosciences, Vol. 3 No. 1 (2012), 9 April 2012

The human blood basal glucose level is a completely controlled range. Information on the relationship between culture glucose concentration and changes in the cell's surface area, volume and surface area to volume (S/V) ratio are lacking. Cancerous epithelial-like cell lines SW480, SW742 and T-47D were cultured in mediums nourished with 4.7 mM per liter of glucose as the control group and three other groups with glucose concentrations of  9.4, 14.1 and 18.8 mM at 37 °C for 48hr. Digital images of cells were analyzed using the ImageJ software. Observed changes in surface area, volume, and surface area to volume (S/V) ratio were significantly (P<0.05) different between the control group and the X4 group (18.8 mM glucose) in the three cell lines tested. Cultured cells responded delicately but sharply to glucose elevation. The goal of this research is to show the dictating of changes via pathologic conditions in cellular levels that could be a good answer to changing the body metabolic parameters. Besides the S/V ratio could be studied as a variant parameter in other metabolic challenges.

The evaluation of Persian Thesauri of Health and Biomedical Sciences Based

Nadjla Hariri, Maryam Kazerani, Reza Moghaddam Kiya

Archives of Advances in Biosciences, Vol. 3 No. 1 (2012), 9 April 2012

Establishing order, integrity, consistency, and accuracy in thesauri as information storage and retrieval systems plays an important role in the organization of information. The deployment of universally accepted standards, therefore, facilitates the accomplishment of this goal. To achieve this goal, the ANSI /NISO Z 39.19 -2005 standard offers certain rules and principles for constructing controlled vocabularies, including the thesauri, with regard to four dimensions of form construction, semantic relationships, displaying controlled vocabularies, and management systems. These dimensions served as a basis in this study to evaluate the accuracy of vocabulary construction in three Persian Thesauri of Health and Biomedical Sciences, namely, the thesaurus of biological sciences, the thesaurus of health promotion and the thesaurus of medicine. The research method utilized in this study was the analytical survey method. A sampling method was also used to establish samples of the terms contained in the latest edition of every thesaurus. The research instrument used in this study was a checklist defined in Microsoft Excel. The samples for the four dimensions were entered in the checklist and were evaluated on the basis of the relevant standards. The results of the study revealed that the thesauri under study had not given due attention to the standards related to the management dimension. The level of observance of standards for this dimension was only 14% in all of the thesauri.  Regarding the dimension of displaying controlled vocabularies, the highest level of observance of the standards was 73% which belonged to the thesaurus of medicine, the lowest level was 54.5% which belonged to the thesaurus of biological sciences, and for the thesaurus of health promotion it was 59%. As for the dimensions of the semantic relations and form construction, the results of the study indicated a higher level of observance of the standards in the thesauri under study. Finally, it was concluded that possessing the required expertise, familiarity with the standards of thesauri construction, utilizing appropriate models, taking the needs of the end users into consideration are among the major factors that if observed could lead to the construction of more effective and efficient thesauri. 


A Study on Rodent Ectoparasites in the North district of Tehran, Iran

Kamran Pakdad, Nayeb Ali Ahmadi, Roya Aminalroaya, Noraier Piazak, masoud Shahmehri

Archives of Advances in Biosciences, Vol. 3 No. 1 (2012), 9 April 2012

Rodent ectoparasites seems have a main role in transmission of some zoonotic pathogens from commensal rats to human and pets such as leishmaniasis, plague, CCHF, etc. So rodents as the main reservoirs, are potential health dangers in human communities. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and frequency of identified ectoparasites in north of Tehran.Rodents were captured with live traps during 2007-2009. After transferring to the laboratory and identifying, their ectoparasites were collected and mounted for species identification by using valid keys. Sixty four rodents included two species: Rattus norvegicus (82.8%) and Mus musculus (17.2%) were captured. 1755 ectoparasites collected from 43 infested R.norvegicus were related to 5 genera and 6 species: Ornithonyssus bacoti (71.7%), Hoplopleura spp (17%), Hoplopleura oenomydis (11.3%), Polyplax spinulosa (3.8%), Nosopsyllus fasciatus (3.8%), and Ixodes ricinus (1.9%). 11 Mus musculus were free of ectoparasites. Among all arthropods, mites and ticks had the most (97.4%) and the least (0.1%) frequency in R.norvegicus, respectively. Also, Ornithonyssus bacoti was a prevalent species (71.7%) with mean abundant 32.2. I.ricinus with 1.9% prevalence was the least prevalent ectoparasites. 11 M.musculus were free of ectoparasites.

Co-citation scientific maps: A case study of medical sciences in Iran

Nadjla Hariri, Maryam Shekofteh, Ali Salahi Yekta

Archives of Advances in Biosciences, Vol. 3 No. 1 (2012), 9 April 2012

Visualization of scientific maps enhances the awareness and general recognition of the scientific domains and their structures. It facilitates the study of the existing situation and planning of the future researches as well. The present study sought to discover and generate the scientific map of medicine in Iran between 2003 and 2007. It also aimed to determine the most effective medical subject categories in the map generated. The study follows a scientometrics trend in which all published articles of Iran indexed in the Science Citation Index Expanded (SCIE) between 2003 and 2007 were retrieved. Then, these articles were limited to medical subject categories through the result analysis section of SCIE and 10247 articles were retrieved in medical subject categories as research population. NWB (Network Workbench Tool) software and ISI medical subject category co-citation were used for analyzing the articles in medicine and generating scientific maps. The scientific medical map showed that there were 61 nodes and 164 links with a weight ranging from 101 to 591. 31 nodes depicted one medical subject category, while the other nodes covered non-medical, or a combination of medical and non-medical subject categories. Medical subject categories with the highest impact included general and internal medicine, pharmacology and pharmacy, biochemistry and molecular biology, neurosciences, and research and experimental medicine. The strongest links were visible in general and internal medicine, with public, occupational, and environmental health; general and internal medicine with pharmacology and pharmacy; and pharmacology and pharmacy with neurosciences. The quantitative growth in medical articles alongside their quality is effective in scientific maps. It is necessary to encourage the categories with more effective and support the subject categories with the least impact to publish more articles and get more citation.


Review Article

Molecular focus in p63 and correlated human diseases

Mehrdad Hashemi, Faranak Jamshidian, Mohammad hassan Shamei

Archives of Advances in Biosciences, Vol. 3 No. 1 (2012), 9 April 2012

The p63 gene, a member of the p53 gene family, is expressed into at least six protein isoforms.The transcription factor p63 is a homologue of the tumor suppressor p53. Unlike p53, which is dispensable for normal development, p63 is critical for the development of stratified epithelial tissues such as epidermis, breast, and prostate. p63, , is transcribed from two different promoters giving rise to two different proteins: p63, a member of the p53 family, is transcribed from two different promoters giving rise to two different proteins: TAp63 that contains the N-terminal transactivation domain and ΔN that lacks this domain. p63 encodes multiple protein isoforms with both transactivating and transcriptional repressor activities that can regulate a wide spectrum of target genes. p63 is also implicated in tumor formation and progression in stratified epithelia, with evidence for both tumor suppressive and oncogenic properties.


Short Communication

     Ordinary Radiographic film sensitive emulsion is formed by crystals which are composed by millions of ions. According to the film texture, image constructive units number that interfere the image resolution are not increased more than a certain limitation in area unite. This innovation is to present an imaging system that to compare with common similar system has precedence such as highly image resolution, image edge sharpnessenhancement, contrast improvement, patient does reduction, rapid processing and cost decrease.

The "Xero" technique is different physical method for  imaging procedures in which instead of using the photochemical function, electrostatic effect has been used. The latent electrostatic images develop through toner powder, Because the toner powder particles are fine grain as small as a few compound molecules, Consequently, in the new method, image constructive units number which are described as the toner powder particles are much many more in number than crystals of radiographic films. Xeroradiophotography system is designed and constructed based on xero physical phenomenon in which image can be formed by taking advantage of both, X-Ray and visible light complex procedure for the purpose of X-Rays quality and patients body tissue side effect reduction at the time of exposure. This system has already been made as the first archetype in the world that is possible for optimum improving soon.