Research/Original Articles


Anti-proliferative Effects Curcumin in Human Acute Lymphoblastic leukemia Cell Line

Maliheh Entezari, Sepideh Khatamsaz, Hossein Dehghani

Archives of Advances in Biosciences, Vol. 8 No. 2 (2017), , Page 1-5
https://doi.org/10.22037/jps.v8i2.15685

Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is one of the most common cancers among children. Although there have been tremendous treatments, none of them have led to a precise cure. The use of herbal medicines which are safe and non-toxic have been demonstrated in this study. Curcumin is a polyphenol, hydrophobic product that is derived from turmeric plant. Curcumin has anti-toxic, anti-bacterial, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer and anti-apoptosis properties. In recent years, extensive researches have been performed over the use of curcumin on cancers. In this study, CCRF-CEM cell line has been treated by curcumin. Rate of cytotoxicity of curcumin and the viability of the cells after treatment were evaluated by MTT assay and flow cytometry analysis. When different concentrations of curcumin were used upon the CCRF-CEM cell line at different times, it was found that curcumin effect depended on dose and time pattern. The results revealed that curcumin could induce apoptosis in CCRF-CEM cell line of acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

Scientometric Analysis of Medical and Non-Medical Highly Cited Papers of Iran in Essential Science Indicator (ESI)

Azade Haseli mofrad, Maryam Shekofteh, Maryam Kazerani

Archives of Advances in Biosciences, Vol. 8 No. 2 (2017), , Page 6-15
https://doi.org/10.22037/jps.v8i2.13762

The aim of the present research is to study scientometric indicators (the number of articles and citations, the mean citation per paper, H-index, Y-index, and the national and international collaboration) of medical and non-medical highly cited papers of Iran in the Essential Science Indicators (ESI). The research population is all highly cited articles of Iran in ESI during 2005 to 2015. Data was retrieved from ESI and was analyzed using descriptive statistics. Findings show that Iran has achieved the 35th global rank in terms of the number of highly cited articles. This rank encompasses % 0.1 of the highly cited medical subject areas and % 0.6 of the global portion in non-medical areas. The growth of highly cited papers in non-medical subject areas is more than medical subject ones. Y-index indicates that the role of authors in most highly cited articles in both medical and non-medical subject areas is either as the corresponding or the first author, with an inclination towards the first author. Most of Iran’s highly cited articles in the medical subject areas are based on international collaborations, but in the non-medical areas, they are based on national collaborations. The most international collaborations are with U.S, Canada and England, respectively. H-index of Iran is 141. As a whole, in quantitative and qualitative assessment, non-medical subject areas have a better status than medical subject areas. In general, it can be said that the status of scientific products and the international status of Iran is not satisfactory. Professional planning and policy should be taken into consideration by Iran.

 

Cytogenetic Abnormalities and Y Chromosome Microdeletions in Azoospermic and Oligospermic Infertile Males from West of Iran

Farhad Shaveisi-Zadeh, Kimia Davarian, Abolfazl Movafagh, Reza Mirfakhraie, Zahra Rostami-Far, Reza Alibakhshi, Hossain Abdi, Mitra Bakhtiari

Archives of Advances in Biosciences, Vol. 8 No. 2 (2017), , Page 16-23
https://doi.org/10.22037/jps.v8i2.15022

 

    About 15% of couples have infertility problems, half of which are related to male factors. Cytogenetic and genetic disorders account for about 10% of the male infertility problems. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency and types of both cytogenetic abnormalities and AZF microdeletions of Y chromosome in idiopathic azoospermic and oligospermic infertile men in west of Iran. In this case-control study, a total of 108 infertile men including 62 azoospermic and 46 oligospermic men were studied for the cytogenetic and AZF microdeletions. Moreover, 90 fertile men served as a control group. Detailed clinical and laboratory examination was done for all participants. Karyotyping was done on peripheral blood lymphocytes to detect the cytogenetic abnormalities; likewise, multiplex-PCR method was performed to identify the presence of microdeletion in AZFa, AZFb or AZFc regions. Chromosomal abnormalities were detected in 6.5% (7/108) of cases, including two oligospermic men with balanced autosomal rearrangements, one oligospermic and four azoospermic men with Klinefelter syndrome. Y chromosome microdeletions were detected in 4.6% (5/108) of infertile men (AZFc: 3.7%, AZFbc: 0.9%). No AZFa deletion was detected in any of the patients. No chromosomal abnormality and Y chromosome microdeletion was detected in control group. The prevalence of chromosomal abnormalities and Y chromosome microdeletions shows the importance of genetic factors in male infertility. The analysis of karyotype and Y microdeletions in infertile men provide a proper understanding about the causes of infertility, the choice of the appropriate assisted reproduction technique and reducing the risk of transmission of these genetic defects to the future generation. 

Biosynthesis of Silver Nanoparticles Using Mentha longifolia (L.) Hudson Leaf Extract and Study its Antibacterial Activity

Zahra Aghajani Kalaki, Raheleh Safaeijavan, Masumeh Mahdavi Ortakand

Archives of Advances in Biosciences, Vol. 8 No. 2 (2017), , Page 24-30
https://doi.org/10.22037/jps.v8i2.14432

In the present study, a simple, fast and eco-friendly biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using   Mentha langifolia leaf extract as the reducing agent was investigated. Nanoparticles forming were indicated by the color changes in solution and were confirmed by UV-Vis spectrum, FT-IR analysis and Scanning Electron Microscopic (SEM) micrograph. The average particle size of produced AgNPs was determined by dynamic light scattering (DLS) technique. Further, the antibacterial activity of synthesized AgNPs was evaluated against Streptococcus pneumonia and staphylococcus epidermidis as Gram-positive bacteria and Salmonella enterica and enterobacter aerogenes as Gram-negative bacteria. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of biosynthesized silver nanoparticles were determined. UV-Visible spectrophotometer showed absorbance peak in 340 nm. DLS analysis indicated that the average size of AgNPs is 21.1nm. The results of SEM showed that synthesized AgNPs are spherical in shape. The antibacterial activities of the silver nanoparticles were studied against subject bacteria. The present report explores a rapid, simple and economical route, without any hazardous chemicals as reducing or stabilizing agents to synthesis AgNPs and describes the antimicrobial activities of synthetized silver nanoparticles.

Ligand screening approach to find potential inhibitors of GP1 from Ebola Virus

Garshasb Rigi, Raham Armand, Ebrahim Torktaz

Archives of Advances in Biosciences, Vol. 8 No. 2 (2017), , Page 31-36
https://doi.org/10.22037/jps.v8i2.13549

Ebola is one of the members of filoviruses family. It causes severe hemorrhagic with the human mortality rate of 50-90%. In the initial steps of infection, it enters the host cell by Glyco protein1 (GP1). GP1 is a big subunit with the molecular weight of 130 kDa. Its N-terminal domain is responsible for attaching the host cell. In the present study, a database containing 100.000 drug like chemicals which was obtained from Zinc has been screened. The top successive hits were then analyzed regarding Lipinski rules, oral toxicity value and recorded biological properties. Finally, 3 new ligands were introduced as new theoretical inhibitors of Ebola virus entry. Hit #1 (Heptacyclo[18.7.0.02,10.03,8.011,19.012,17.021,26] heptacosa1(20),2(10),3,5,7,11(19),12,14,16,21,23,25-didecaene-9,18,27-trione) indicated the binding affinity of -10.7 kcal/mol with previous biological reports indicating no toxicity on human cell line. Hit#3 (1,1',3,3'-tetraethyl-5'-(4-nitrophenyl)spiro[1,3-diazinane-5,6'-5H-furo[2,3-d]pyrimidine]-2,2',4,4',6 pentone) with the binding affinity of -9.7 kcal/mol theoretically passed pharmacological filters and the toxicity class of 4 theoretically revealed that this hit also can be a potential anti GP1 agent. Moreover, hit#4(10-(Hydroxymethyl)-7,18-dimethoxy-6,17-dimethyl-21-methyl-11.21     diazapentacyclo[11.7.1.02,11.04,9.015,20]henicosa-4(9),6,15(20),17-tetraene-5,8,12,16,19-pentone) also indicated the binding affinity of -9.7 kcal/mol and was matched with Lipinski rules and the toxicity class 4, suggesting that it can be safe in low dose usage. Based on the pharmacological properties, hit #1, 3 and 4 are presented as the new hypothetical drugs against GP1. Moreover, hit#1 has previously been recorded as nontoxic activity on human cell line and makes it an appropriate candidate for further in vitro and in vivo studies.

A case study of energy absorption buildup factors in some human bones for gamma energies 30 keV to 1.5 MeV

Vishwanath P Singh, Seyed Pezhman Shirmardi, Reza Bagheri, Ruhollah Adeli, Mansoureh Tatari

Archives of Advances in Biosciences, Vol. 8 No. 2 (2017), , Page 37-49
https://doi.org/10.22037/jps.v8i2.15108

Human body consists of some tissues among which bone is one of the important living and growing tissue. In this research, energy absorption buildup factor (EABF) values of 27 types of bone have been computed for photon energy 0.03 to 1.5 MeV up to 40 mean free path (40mfp) penetration depths. The Inner bone tissue, Spongiosa and Male sternum had the largest values of EABF in low photon energies, and great differences below 150 keV photon energy were noted relative to the other bones. This study would be of utmost  importance for estimation of the effective dose to the human bones, radiation therapy and various medical applications.

 

Loss of Human Tyrosinase DOPA Oxidase Activity in Artificial M374 Arg and M 374 Lys Mutants

Roudabeh Behzadi Andouhjerdi, Majid Sadeghizadeh

Archives of Advances in Biosciences, Vol. 8 No. 2 (2017), , Page 50-56
https://doi.org/10.22037/jps.v8i2.15240

 

     Tyrosinase (Ec: 1.14.18.1) is a copper - containing enzyme which is distributed in all domains of life such as prokaryote, eukaryote, mammals, invertebrates and plants. Tyrosinase catalyzes the oxidation of monophenols to diphenols and diphenols to o-quinones . The tyrosinase crystallographic data shows two histidine -rich regions named CuA and CuB. A loop containing residues M374, S375 and V377 connects the CuA and CuB Centers. This loop is essential for stability of the enzyme. In this study, site directed mutagenesis was used for the replacement of M374 by Arginine and Lysine.in synthesized cDNA cloned in pET 28b (+) . These mutations don't affect the orientation of the Histidin 367(H367) side chain, resulting in loss of activity.

 

Review Article


National Health Information Network: Lessons Learned From the USA and the UK

Hamid Moghaddasi, Reza Rabiei, Farkhondeh Asadi, Ali Mohammadpour

Archives of Advances in Biosciences, Vol. 8 No. 2 (2017), , Page 57-70
https://doi.org/10.22037/jps.v8i2.15209

National Health Information Network (NHIN) is a network in which all health care organizations, government agencies and other health-related organizations are connected to each other to exchange information about health. Due to the necessity of a framework for NHIN development, in this paper, according to the literature review, a definition for NHIN framework was provided, and then the NHIN related projects were reviewed in the United States of America (USA) and the United Kingdom (UK), NHIN and National Programme for Information Technology in the NHS (NPfIT), respectively. The Review of NHIN framework in the countries studied show some similarities and differences in each dimension that are discussed in this framework. NHIN guiding principles in the NHS NPfIT were not regarded or were considered incomplete, compared to the US. NHIN architecture in the US is decentralized while it is centralized in the UK. Based on the review of NHIN framework, these two countries represent important points that can be used in many other countries. However, it can be said that the development of NHIN does not only mean the implementation of national system or systems, or the binding of local health information systems, but It also needs to build on a framework in which many of the issues related to the formation of NHIN would be considered; including the cooperation between government, private sector and stakeholders with regard to local, national and international needs.