ISSN: 1735-1308

July-August 2021
Vol. 18 No. 04 (2021)


Ramadan Fasting and Kidney Stones: A Systematic Review

Mohsen Amjadi, Farzin Soleimanzadeh, Hamidreza Ghamatzadeh , Sakineh Hajebrahimi, Hossein Hosseinifard, Hanieh Salehi Pourmehr, Fateme Tahmasbi

Urology Journal, Vol. 18 No. 04 (2021), 20 September 2021 , Page 364-370

Purpose: Ramadan fasting in Muslims may contain several hours of abstaining from food and drinking in any
kind. This can potentially increase the risk of urinary stone disease. Current literature on possible effects of Ramadan fasting on urolithiasis is rather limited. Having the gap in scientific background, we decided to evaluate the available comparative information in this systematic review.
Materials and Methods: We included all studies comparing fasting and non-fasting conditions, studies evaluating stone formation and clinical manifestations of kidney stone disease. All the English studies published from January 1980 to the end of 2019 were included. The exclusion criteria were as followed: fasting out of Ramadan, non-comparative studies, animal studies, patients with bladder stones, and studies evaluating conditions that are only indirectly related to the stone formation or clinical manifestations of it. Applying the Joanna Briggs Institute (JBI) methodology for systematic review showed the quality of included studies was not high.
Results: Only five studies remained after exclusion. Meta-analysis was not applicable due to the diversity in methods and evaluated population.
Conclusion: Main trend of the included studies is toward showing no difference between fasting and non-fasting conditions in terms of renal stone formation. However, generalization of the findings to greater populations should be applied carefully considering the heterogeneity of results and quality of studies.

Association between Marital Status and Prognosis in Patients with Prostate Cancer: A Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies

Zhenlang Guo, Chiming Gu, Siyi Li, Shu Gan, Yuan Li, Songtao Xiang, Leiliang Gong, shusheng wang

Urology Journal, Vol. 18 No. 04 (2021), 20 September 2021 , Page 371-379

Purpose: The impact of marital status on the prognosis amongst patients diagnosed with prostate cancer remains controversial. Thus, a meta-analysis was performed to determine whether marital status can influence the prognosis in patients with prostate cancer.

Materials and Methods: Literature search of the MEDLINE, PsycINFO, Embase and Cochrane Library databases was conducted to identify eligible studies published before April 2020. Multivariate adjusted risk estimates and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were extracted and calculated using the random effects model.

Results: A total of 11 observational studies comprising 1,457,799 patients diagnosed with prostate cancer were identified. Results indicated that unmarried status (separated, divorced, widowed or never married) was associated with an increased risk of all-cause mortality (hazard ratio, HR = 1.39, 95% CI: 1.30–1.50; P < .001; I2 = 92.2%) compared with married status, especially for divorced and never-married patients. Similarly, being unmarried had an elevated risk of cancer-specific mortality (HR = 1.29, 95% CI: 1.17–1.41; P < .001; I2 = 82.5%) in patients with prostate cancer. A significant difference was also observed between unmarried status and shorter overall survival (HR = 1.37, 95% CI: 1.20–1.56; P < .001; I2 = 94.5%).

Conclusion: Results demonstrated that unmarried status is associated with a worse prognosis regarding mortality and survival in patients diagnosed with prostate cancer, particularly in divorced and never-married patients. Hence, further research should explore the potential mechanisms which can benefit the development of novel, more personalised management methods for unmarried patients with prostate cancer.

Purpose: To evaluate whether additional PFMT, which began before radical prostatectomy and resumes immediately after catheter removal, will significantly improve urinary incontinence after RP.

Materials and Methods: We reviewed articles obtained from MEDLINE, CENTRAL, EBSCOHost, CINAHL, and Elsevier from July – August 2020, which compared preoperative PFMT with postoperative PMFT or non-PFMT, with continence incidence parameters. There were no restrictions on the definition of incontinence, treatment regimens, and radical prostatectomy surgical approach. The risk of bias was assessed using the Cochrane Risk of Bias Assessment Tool. A meta-analysis was also carried out to pool the effect estimates.

Results: We included 12 eligible studies in this review, 11 of which we included in the meta-analysis. The PFMT initiated preoperatively significantly reduced the incidence of persistent urinary incontinence at 1, 3, and 6 months postoperatively with an OR of 0.58 (95% CI, 0.41–0.81), 0.57 (95% CI, 0.43–0.74), and 0.38 (95% CI, 0.17-0.83). There was no difference in improvement in patients' incontinence at 12 months postoperatively [OR = 1.31 (95% CI, 0.65-2.63)].

Conclusion: PFMT initiated before radical prostatectomy significantly reduced the incidence of urinary incontinence in the first, third, and sixth months postoperatively. At 12 months postoperatively, additional preoperative PFMT did not cause a significant difference in urinary incontinence incidence.


Minimally Invasive Surgeries in the Management of Renal Parapelvic Cysts: A Retrospective Comparative Study

Hualin Chen, Gang Chen, Yang Pan, Xiaoxiang Jin

Urology Journal, Vol. 18 No. 04 (2021), 20 September 2021 , Page 389-394

Purpose: To compare the efficiency and safety of two minimally invasive surgeries, laparoscopy and flexible
ureteroscopy (fURS), in the management of renal parapelvic cysts.

Materials and Methods: Between January 2013 and April 2019, patients who suffered from parapelvic cysts and
received fURS or laparoscopy at our hospital were recruited for this study. All patients underwent biopsies of the cyst wall. Primary outcome was treatment success, which was defined as symptomatic and radiological. During follow-up, telephone contact and CT scans were used to record any relevant symptoms and any recurrence, respectively.

Results: A total of 33 patients (22 in fURS; 11 in laparoscopy) were included in this study. Flank pain prior to the
procedures were reported by 14/22 patients and 6/11 in fURS and laparoscopy, respectively (P = .62), and patients had complete pain relief after the operation. The complication rate was significantly lower in the fURS group than in the laparoscopy group (P = .01). Minor complications were observed in 3/22 and 5/11 patients (Grade 1 and 2) in the fURS and laparoscopy group, respectively. All patients were controlled by conservative treatment. However, 1/11 major complication (Grade 3b) was detected in the laparoscopy group and managed by ureteroscopy to remove the obstruction under general anesthesia. Significant differences were found in operative time (P = .01) and postoperative hospital stay (P = .01), while medical expenses were similar between the two groups (P = .42). During follow-up, no recurrence was detected in CT scans.
Conclusion: In the management of parapelvic cysts, two minimally invasive surgeries were comparable in efficiency. However, fURS was superior to laparoscopic unroofing with regard to the complication rate, operative time, and postoperative hospital stay.


The Discrepancy between Needle Biopsy and Radical Prostatectomy Gleason Score in Patients with Prostate Cancer

Amir Reza Abedi, Abbas Basiri, Nasser Shakhssalim, Ghazal Sadri, Mahsa Ahadi, Seyyed Ali Hojjati, Samad Sheykhzadeh, sajjad askarpour, Saleh Ghiasy

Urology Journal, Vol. 18 No. 04 (2021), 20 September 2021 , Page 395-399

Purpose: Gleason score (GS), as well as other prognostic and diagnostic modalities, can predict the possibility of tumor growth and metastasis during the life of patients with prostate cancer. Based on the prostate biopsy GS, clinicians choose the most appropriate therapy for managing patients. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to determine the discrepancy between needle biopsy and radical prostatectomy GS and to identify its predictive factors among the Iranian population.

Materials and Methods: A total of 1147 patients who underwent radical prostatectomy from 2009 to 2019 were initially enrolled in this study. After consideration of the inclusion and exclusion criteria, 439 patients were finally included. The demographic variables and clinical data including age, PSA level, prostate volume, PSA density, GS derived from ultrasonography-guided core needle biopsy specimen, and GS derived from radical prostatectomy specimen were collected from the medical records of patients with prostate adenocarcinoma and were reviewed by a urology resident. Statistical analysis was done by using the Social Sciences Software version 21.

Results: The average age of patients was 64.5 years (range 48‐84 years), and the average preoperative PSA level was 14.8 ng/mL. On histopathological examination, no changes in GS were observed in 237 (53.9%) patients, whereas GS was upgraded in 144 (32.8%) patients and downgraded in 58 (13.2%) patients at radical prostatectomy. The number of patients who had extracapsular extension, seminal vesicle invasion and positive lymph nodes was significantly higher in the upgraded group compared with the non-upgraded group. 

Conclusion: In this study, there was a steady decrease in GS upgrading with the prostate size extending up to 49.7 g. There was also an association between downgrading and extending prostate size. Due to the greater risk of high-grade disease in men with small prostates, smaller prostate bulks are most probably upgraded after radical prostatectomy. A higher maximum percentage of involvement per core was an independent predictive factor of upgrading from biopsy grade 1 to grade ≥ 2. Our study showed that patients’ age was not predictive of upgrading, which is consistent with other studies. Also, we demonstrated a non-significant relationship between PSA level and upgraded GS. Findings in this study did not demonstrate a significant relationship between PSA level and upgrading.

Interobserver Variability in Assessment of Renal Mass Biopsies

Łukasz Nyk, Wojciech Malewski, Krystian Kaczmarek, Piotr Kryst, Michał Pyźlak, Aneta Andrychowicz, Tomasz Zabkowski

Urology Journal, Vol. 18 No. 04 (2021), 20 September 2021 , Page 400-403

Purpose: The main goal of this study was to assess the histopathological efficacy of renal mass biopsy and to check the concordance between pathological results and biopsy of the final specimen, as well as interobserver variability in the assessment of biopsy cores.

Materials and Methods: A hundred sets of core biopsies of postoperative specimens (renal masses) have been performed. Three core biopsies of the intact specimen had been performed once the kidney with the tumor, or the tumor alone were resected. The urologist aimed to obtain two cores from the peripheral sides of the tumor and one core from its center.

The surgical specimen was evaluated by a single pathologist, whereas biopsy samples were referred to three independent pathologists who were blinded to the final results of the renal mass biopsy.

Results: Nondiagnostic biopsy rates ranged from 13% to 22%. Sensitivity and specificity ranged 83-97% and 97-99% by excluding nondiagnostic results. The concordance between assessment of surgical specimen and biopsy in the Fuhrman grading system ranged 36.5-77.0%, respectively. Interobserver agreement between the three pathologists was substantial or moderate, depending on the tumor subtype. The Krippendorff's alpha coefficient, calculated by excluding the nondiagnostic results, was 0.28 (moderate agreement) for the Fuhrman grading system.

Conclusion: The agreement regarding grading of biopsies between three pathologists ranged from moderate to substantial. Therefore, a team of dedicated uropathologists should be engaged in final diagnosis of renal mass biopsy rather than single one before implementing the proper treatment.

Purpose: This work aims to investigate the effects of ΔNp63 gene down-expression on invasion of bladder carcinoma cells in vitro.

Materials and Methods: Bladder carcinoma cell lines UM-UC-3 and 5637 were cultured. The expression plasmids encoding ΔNp63 were constructed and transfected into UM-UC-3 and 5637 cells. The migration and adhesion of cells were detected. The expressions of ΔNp63 and invasion-related zonula occludens protein-1 (ZO-1) in cells were determined by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and western blot analysis. Confocal microscopy was used to observe the location of ZO-1 in cells.

Results: Results showed that the down-expression of ΔNp63 reduced the migration of UM-UC-3 and 5637 cells, decreased the heterogeneity adhesion, and increased homogeneous adhesion. After transfection with ΔNp63, the ZO-1 expression in cell membrane and cell cytoplasm was inhibited, also the ZO-1 mRNA and protein levels in cells were significantly decreased.

Conclusion: This study indicates thatΔNp63 gene down-expression can reduce the invasion of bladder carcinoma cells in vitro.

Influences of Different Operative Methods on the Recurrence Rate of Non-Muscle-Invasive Bladder Cancer

shoubin Li, Yi Jia, Chunhong Yu, Helong Xiao, Liuxiong Guo , Fuzhen Sun, Dong Wei, Panying Zhang , Jingpo Li, Junjiang Liu

Urology Journal, Vol. 18 No. 04 (2021), 20 September 2021 , Page 411-416

Purpose: To compare the influence of three operative approaches [transurethral en bloc resection of bladder tumor by pin-shaped electrode (pin-ERBT), transurethral resection of bladder tumor (TURBT) and transurethral holmium laser resection of bladder tumor (HoLRBT)] on the recurrence rate of non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) at low dimension (i.e. diameter below 3 cm).

Materials and Methods: A retrospective analysis was conducted for a total of 115 patients affected by solitary NMIBC, with a diameter <3 cm, who were submitted to operation between March 2013 to May 2017. The patients were divided according to the operative method applied (pin-ERBT, TURBT and HoLRBT groups, respectively). The 2-year recurrence rate was compared among the three groups, and multivariat Cox hazard model analysis was applied to analyze the influencing factor(s) for postoperative recurrence.

Results: The 2-year recurrence rate was 10.0% in ERBT, 38.5% in TURBT and 40.0% in HoLRBT group, with a significant difference (P =0.014). According to the Cox hazard model analysis, age(HR=1.058, 95% CI: 1.019~1.098,P=0.003), operative method(HR=2.974,6.508, 95% CI: 0.862~10.255,1.657~25.566, P=0.023), smoking(HR=2.399, 95% CI: 1.147~5.017, P=0.020) and pathological grade(HR=2.012,95% CI: 1.279~3.165, P=0.002) were risk factors for postoperative recurrence of bladder cancer.

Conclusion: Pin-ERBT can prominently decrease the postoperative recurrence rate of solitary NMIBC with a diameter <3 cm.

Multıparametric Prostate Magnetic Resonance Imaging Before Radical Prostatectomy: Can it Predict Histopathology?

Mehmet Sahin, Fuat Kizilay, Ezgi Guler, Banu Sarsik, Mustafa Harman, Serdar Kalemci, Adnan Simsir, Ibrahim Cureklibatir

Urology Journal, Vol. 18 No. 04 (2021), 20 September 2021 , Page 417-421

Purpose: We aimed to investigate the histopathological correlation of the suspected prostate malignancy detected in multiparametric prostate magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI).

Materials and Methods: The data of 93 patients underwent radical prostatectomy and had preoperative mpMRI were examined. Age and pre-operative Prostate-Specific Antigen value were retrospectively collected from patient files. The pathology specimens were examined again and post-operative ISUP grade group, other pathological findings (seminal vesicle invasion, lymph node involvement and extraprostatic extension), pre-operative mpMRI were re-examined and PIRADS score, extracapsular extension, seminal vesicle invasion, neurovascular bundle invasion, lymph node involvement and ADC values were recorded.

Results: 151 (92,07%) of 164 lesions detected in mpMRI were histopathologically correlated. 80% of patients with seminal vesicle invasion (P < 0.001), 28.8% of patients with extracapsular extension (P < 0.052) and 42.9% of patients with lymph node involvement (P = .001) in mpMRI were histopathologically correlated. A significant relationship was found between PIRADS scores and ISUP grade groups (P < 0.001). There was a negative correlation between ADC values and ISUP grade groups (P < 0.001).

Conclusion: Our study showed that the lesions detected by mpMRI showed a high histopathological correlation.

The Evaluation of the Relation between Bladder Cancer and Oxidative Stress Using NRF-2/KEAP-1 Pathway, Zinc and Copper Levels

Cagri Dogan, Cenk Murat Yazıcı, Murat Akgül, Polat Türker

Urology Journal, Vol. 18 No. 04 (2021), 20 September 2021 , Page 422-428

Purpose: It has been shown that the Copper and Zinc contribute to the structure of the antioxidant enzymes. In addition NRF-2 and KEAP-1 complex have powerful effect on the intracellular organization of the antioxidants. We evaluated the relation of Copper, Zinc, NRF-2 and KEAP-1 complex regarding to the oxidative stress with tumor stage - grade in patients with bladder cancer.

Materials and Methods: A total of 52 patients (32 bladder cancer and 20 control group) were included to the study. The demographic properties of groups were identical. Serum NRF-2, KEAP-1, Cu and Zn levels were compared by ELISA method between the groups and tissue NRF-2, KEAP-1, Cu and Zn levels were evaluated also by ELISA method at cancer patients.


Purpose: Concurrent valve ablation and bladder neck incision is suggested as an effective and safe treatment approach in posterior urethral valve children with prominent bladder neck. We evaluated chronic kidney disease risk factors in these children.

Materials and methods: We retrospectively reviewed medical records of children with posterior urethral valve and included those younger than 18 years old who underwent valve ablation and bladder neck incision at our institution. We recorded patient demographics, presenting symptoms, laboratory and radiographic data. Our primary outcome was chronic kidney disease defined as stage 3 chronic kidney disease or higher. Renal outcome risk factors such as preoperative vesicoureteral reflux and serum creatinine, age at diagnosis, adjuvant urinary diversion were analyzed.

Results: A total of 110 patients met our inclusion criteria. Median age at diagnosis was 10.4 months (range 14 days to 12 years). Prenatal diagnosis in 72.7% was the most common presentation. Mean follow-up duration was 3 years and 12(10.9%) patients progressed to chronic kidney disease. Preoperative serum creatinine greater than one mg/dL was the only factor associated with progression to chronic kidney disease.

Conclusion: In our group of children with posterior urethral valve ablation and bladder neck incision, initial creatinine value of greater than one mg/dL is more probably associated with renal impairment while; vesicoureteral reflux, age at diagnosis, presenting symptoms and adjuvant urinary diversion were not significant prognostic factors. Further randomized controlled evaluations are required to analyze the effects of concurrent valve ablation and bladder neck incision on renal outcome.


Effects of Sertraline on Spermatogenesis of Male Rats and its Reversibility after Terminating the Drug

Hamidreza Ghorbani, Alireza Akhavanrezayat, Lida Jarahi, Bahram Memar, Sakineh Amouian, Armin Attaranzadeh, Sadegh Ebrahimi

Urology Journal, Vol. 18 No. 04 (2021), 20 September 2021 , Page 434-438

Purpose: The purpose of this research was to studding the effects of Sertraline on spermatogenesis of male rats and whether these probable effects are constant or provisional after terminating the drug.

Materials and Methods: In this study, 32  two-month old male Wistar albino rats were equally divided into the Sertraline-treated and the control groups. The drug group was gavaged with Sertraline daily while the control group was gavaged with water at the same volume. After 80 days, half of the rats in each group were selected randomly for hormonal evaluations and bilateral orchiectomy. Histological and hormonal evaluations were performed. The remaining half of rats were kept alive for 90 more days without intervention and then underwent hormonal evaluation and bilateral orchiectomy in a similar fashion.

Results: There was no difference between the testes histology and pathology of the sertraline-treated and the control groups.  There was a significant decrease in serum FSH in the Sertraline-treated group compared to the control group (P <0.05). However, this decline appeared to be reversible following termination of exposure to Sertraline. FSH returned to pretreatment levels in the remaining treated rats following 90 days of treatment cessation.

 Conclusion: Within the time-frame studied, Sertraline can induce transitory changes in serum FSH of male rats without concomitant spermatogenic changes within the testes.  This hormonal change appears to be reversible following withholding of Sertraline. The long-term effect of Sertraline usage on hormonal status and spermatogenesis in rats needs further investigation. 


Purpose: Intravesical BCG (Bacillus Calmette–Guérin) therapy is indicated as an effective treatment for patients with non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer, despite associate with the side effects. In this study, the incidence of BCG therapy adverse effects was compared among three groups of patients who received celecoxib, phenazopyridine, and oxybutynin with placebo.

Materials and Methods: The randomized controlled clinical trial was conducted on four groups using the parallel group method. A checklist is used for weekly assessment of urinary symptoms, systemic symptoms of BCG therapy, and adverse drug reactions.

Results: The study included 120 patients, 10 female and 110 male. The mean age 59.65 ± 6.2 years. The results of multivariate analysis show that there is a significant decrease in urinary frequency for patients who received phenazopyridine (95% CI: 0.09, 0.31, OR = 0.17, P <.001) and also celecoxib group (95% CI: 0.10, 0.43, OR = 0.21, P <.001) compared to those in placebo group. Patients in celecoxib group (95% CI: 0.02, 0.07 ,OR = 0.04, P <.001), phenazopyridine (95% CI : 0.07, 0.37,OR=0.16, P <.001) and oxybutynin (95% CI: 0.02, 0.12,OR = 0.05, P <.001) were less likely to have urgency than those in placebo. Moreover, significant decrease was found for dysuria in the three treatment groups in comparison with placebo group.

Conclusion: According to the results, celecoxib, phenazopyridine and oxybutynin can effectively decrease the side effects of BCG immunotherapy compared to placebo. Among these three treatments, the most effective and safest treatment option is celecoxib.

Purpose: To determine the empirical usage of antibiotics and analyze the pathogen spectrum during the perioperative period of flexible ureteroscopic lithotripsy (FURSL) with a focus on levofloxacin.

Materials and Methods: This retrospective analysis included 754 patients who underwent FURSL successfully in our hospital from January 2015 to July 2019. All patients were indicated urine cultures and prescribed antibiotics during the perioperative period. Patients with negative preoperative urine cultures were divided into levofloxacin (LVXG) and non-levofloxacin groups (NLVXG) based on the empirical use of antibiotics. Operative time, the length of postoperative hospital stays and total hospital stays, total hospitalization costs, postoperative fever rate and removal rate of stones were compared. Patients with positive urine cultures were analyzed for  pathogen distribution and antibiotic resistance.

Results: In the empirical use of antibiotics among 541 cases with negative urine cultures, the prescription rate of levofloxacin was 68.95%. Compared to that in NLVXG, LVXG had a lower cost of antibiotics but higher postoperative fever rate and longer hospital stay. There were no significant differences in operative time, the total hospitalization costs and the removal rate of stones between the two groups. The top two common pathogens were Escherichia coli (36.11%) and Enterococcus faecalis (24.07%), with resistance rates of 74.36% and 71.15% to levofloxacin, respectively.

Conclusion: Levofloxacin might be no longer suitable as the first-line choice of clinical experience when performing FURSL in our center.

The Role of NPM1 in the Invasion and Migration of Drug Resistant Bladder Cancer

Chenshuo Luo, Ting Lei, Man Zhao, Qian Meng, Man Zhang

Urology Journal, Vol. 18 No. 04 (2021), 20 September 2021 , Page 452-459

Purpose: To study the difference of tumor progression caused by differential expression of NPM1 in drug-resistant bladder cancer.

Materials and Methods: The expression of NPM1 was analyzed by PCR and Western blot. NPM1 silencing bladder cancer cells (T24/DDP Lv-NPM1, PUMC-91/DDP Lv-NPM1) and overexpressing bladder cancer cells (T24/
DDP Lv5-NPM1, PUMC-91/DDP Lv5-NPM1) were established by lentivirus and limited dilution method. The
efficiency of gene interference was detected by fluorescence microscopy and Western blot. The migration ability and invasion ability of tumor in vitro were analyzed by wound healing assay and transwell cell invasion test, and the tumorigenic ability in vivo was judged by nude mouse tumorigenicity assay.

Results: Compared with the corresponding negative control group, both NPM1 silencing cell lines T24/DDP
Lv-NPM1 and PUMC-91/DDP Lv-NPM1 showed strong migration ability and high invasive ability. At the same
time, there was no significant difference in migration ability and the invasive cells proportion between NPM1
overexpressing cell line and related negative control group. NPM1 silencing bladder cancer cells had obvious
tumorigenicity in vivo.

Conclusion: NPM1 silencing cells had significant migration and invasion ability. The silencing of NPM1 will
accelerate tumorigenicity of drug resistant bladder cancer. Differential expression of NPM1 is of great value in
monitoring the progression of drug-resistant bladder cancer.

Holmium LASER in Comparison with Transurethral Resection of the Bladder Tumor for Non-muscle Invasive Bladder Cancer: Randomized Clinical Trial with 18-month Follow-up

Mohammad Reza Razzaghi , Mohammad Mohsen Mazloomfard, Mahmoud Yavar, Sheida Malekian, Pouria Mousapour

Urology Journal, Vol. 18 No. 04 (2021), 20 September 2021 , Page 460-465

Purpose: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of holmium LASER resection of the bladder tumor (HoLRBT) vs. transurethral resection of bladder tumor (TURBT) as the first treatment modality for non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC).

Materials and Methods: Eighty-eight patients with primary non-muscle invasive bladder cancer were allocated randomly in two groups who were treated with HoLRBT or TURBT. The intraoperative and postoperative characteristics and complications of the HoLRBT and TURBT groups were compared. The data of operation time, obturator nerve reflex rate, bladder perforation, bladder irrigation, catheterization time, hospital stay, and 1, 3, 6, 12, 18 months recurrence free survivals were considered in two groups.

Results: There was not significant difference in operative duration among the two groups. Compared with the TURBT group, HoLRBT group had less intraoperative and postoperative complications, including obturator nerve reflex, transient hematuria and postoperative bladder irritation. There were no significant differences among the two groups in the transfusion rate and occurrence of urethral strictures. Patients in the HoLRBT group had less catheterization and hospitalization time in comparison to those in the TURBT group. There were no significant differences in the overall recurrence rate among the TURBT and HoLRBT groups.

Conclusion: HoLRBT can be regarded as a safe and efficient method with several advantages over TURBT. HoLRBT can be used as an alternative procedure for TURBT in patients with non-muscle invasive bladder cancer.


Robotic Excision of the Vagina in a 46 XX DSD Male Patient. First Pediatric Report

Giovanni Torino, Ottavio Adorisio, Giovanni Cobellis, Francesca Mariscoli , Antonio Zaccara

Urology Journal, Vol. 18 No. 04 (2021), 20 September 2021 , Page 466-468

The Disorders of Sex Differentiation (DSD) represent a wide range of congenital anomalies of the genitalia. Surgical treatment of these cases may become a challenge. We present a case of a 16-year-old boy with 46 XX DSD, SRY negative, presented with persistent dribbling incontinence, recurrent UTI and perineal pain. Past medical history included right orchiectomy, laparoscopic excision of uterus, fallopian tubes and left streak gonad at another institution at the age of 2 years. The native vagina was left in place. VCUG confirmed the presence of the residual vagina (8 cm in maximum length), connected with the bulbar urethra. Robotic-assisted laparoscopy of the vagina was performed with satisfying short and long-term results.