ISSN: 1735-1308

Instant 2022


Record and Appraisal of Endophytic Tumor Localization Techniques in Minimally Invasive Kidney-Sparing Procedures. A Systematic Review

Spyridon Paparidis, Eleftherios Spartalis, Eleftheria Mavrigiannaki, Nikolaos Ferakis, Konstantinos Stravodimos, Gerasimos Tsourouflis, Dimitrios Dimitroulis, Nikolaos I. Nikiteas

Urology Journal, , , Page 7056

Purpose: Review and efficacy assessment of techniques used for intraprocedural endophytic renal mass localization.

Materials and Methods: Advanced search was carried out on PubMed, Cochrane Library, Web of Science and Google Scholar databases up to August 2020. Eligibility criteria were set, according to PRISMA statement. OR (95 % CI) for identification or technical success, positive margins and recurrence, were calculated for completely endophytic tumors. Risk of Bias was evaluated using ROBVIS tool.

Results: 77 studies used for result synthesis, including 1,317 endophytic tumors, with 758 of them completely endophytic. 356 endophytic tumors treated laparoscopically and 598 robotically, using ultrasound-based methods, transarterial embolization, dual-source CT, invasive signage, 3D printing, and augmented reality variations. Identification success was 97.8-100%, positive margins 0-12.5 %  (completely endophytic: 95 % CI; 0.255-1.971, OR 0.709 in laparoscopic, 95 % CI ; 0.379-3.109, OR 0.086 in robotic partial nephrectomy), recurrences 0-3.9 % (completely endophytic: 0 recurrences in laparoscopic, 95 % CI ; 0.0917-2.25, OR 0.454, in robotic partial nephrectomy), and complications 0-60 % . 363 were treated with ablation techniques using CT-based methods, thermal monitoring, transarterial embolization, ultrasound guidance and invasive signage. Technical success was 33.4-100 % (completely endophytic: 95 % CI ; 0.00157-2.060, OR 0.0569 for invasive and 95 % CI ; 0.598-13.152, OR 2.804 for non-invasive localization techniques) and recurrences were 0-20%.

Conclusion: Ultrasound-based techniques showed acceptable identification success and oncologic outcomes in laparoscopic or robotic setting. Augmented reality, showed no superiority over conventional techniques. Near infrared fluoroscopy with intravenous indocyanine green, was incapable of endophytic tumor tracking, although when administered angiographic, results were promising, along with other embolization techniques. Percutaneous hook-wire or embolization coil signage, aided in safe and successful tracking of parenchymal isoechoic masses, but data are inadequate to assess efficacy.  CT-guidance, combined with ultrasound or thermal monitoring, showed increased technical success during thermal ablation, unlike ultrasound guidance that showed poor outcomes.

Purpose: Several randomized-controlled trials (RCTs) were performed to compare the efficacy of sexual intercourse or masturbation and no sexual activity in treating distal ureteral stones, indicating conflicting results. The meta-analysis was conducted to assess the role of sexual intercourse or masturbation in the treatment of distal ureteral calculi.

Materials and Methods: PubMed, Cochrane Library, EMBASE, Scopus,, and Web of Science were searched by October 2021. Men who were instructed of no sexual intercourse or masturbation, and only received standard symptomatic treatment are comparators. Relative risk (RR), weighted mean difference (WMD), and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using random or fixed effects models.

Results: Five RCTs including 500 subjects were analyzed in the study. Compared with controls, subjects in experimental group had significantly higher expulsion rate at 2nd and 4th week (95%CI: 1.334 to 2.638, RR: 1.876, I2 = 73.6%, P < .001; 95%CI: 1.148 to 1.752, RR: 1.418, I2 = 55.9%, P < .001), significantly decreased requirement for analgesic injections (95%CI: -1.071 to -.126, WMD: -.598, I2 = 90.3%, P = .013), and significantly shorter expulsion time (95%CI: -6.941 to -.436, WMD: -3.689, I2 = 83.7%, P = .026).

Conclusion: Performing sexual intercourse or masturbation 3 or 4 times a week can be an alternative treatment option of distal ureteral calculi (0-10 mm in size). However, more clinical evidence with better designs solving raised concerns is warranted.



Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy of flexible ureteroscopic lithotripsy (FURSL) based on the concept of enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS).

Materials and Methods: This study retrospectively analyzed 435 patients diagnosed with upper urinary calculi between 2017-2020 and categorized them into ERAS (ERAS management) and control groups (traditional management). The operative time, postoperative ambulation time, postoperative hospital stay, the total cost of hospitalization, postoperative complications, and stone removal rate between the two groups were subsequently compared.

Results: The FURSL procedure was successfully performed in 427 patients but failed in 4 patients of the ERAS group (n = 216) and 4 of the control group (n = 219). No postoperative complications occurred in either group except for fever and hematuria. There was no significant difference in postoperative fever and stone removal between the two groups (all P > .05). However, patients in the ERAS group had a shorter operative time, shorter postoperative ambulation time, less postoperative severe hematuria, shorter postoperative hospital stay, and lower total cost of hospitalization than those in the control group (all P < .05).

Conclusion: FURSL, based on the concept of ERAS, is safe and reliable for the treatment of upper urinary calculi, with rapid postoperative recovery and a low cost of hospitalization. It is worthy of clinical promotion.


Purpose: This study aimed to examine the short and long-term complications of thermocautery-assisted circumcisions with local anesthesia done in a sterile environment in operating room conditions, accompanied by literature.

Materials and Methods: The participants who consecutively underwent thermocautery-assisted circumcision with local anesthesia from June 2018 to May 2019 included in the study. They were one month-17 years old, same ethnic origin, in same location. The age groups were compared in terms of complications.

Results: The participant age and surgical duration means were 4.89 ± 2.08 (30 days-17 years) years old and 7.484 ± 1.524 (5-20 minutes) minutes, respectively. Complications were observed in fifty-three participants or 2.9% of the whole observation set. The participants under intervals of one six months and over 6 years of age had significantly lowered complication rates when compared to the other participants, and this comparison was statistically significant (P = 0.001).

Conclusion: The study results demonstrated that circumcision with thermocautery after local anesthesia viable, reliable, and effective method. It can be assumed that circumcisions in males especially may be effective in 1-6 months, and over 6 years of age. Parents choose this method because it is more appropriate and eliminates the risk of general anesthesia.

Temporary Renal Enlargement in Children with a First Episode of Febrile Urinary Tract Infection is a Significant Risk of Recurrent Infection

Shingo Ishimori, Junya Fujimura, Shohei Oyama, Tadashi Shinomoto, Satoshi Onishi, Kengo Hattori, Yo Okizuka, Atsushi Nishiyama, Hirotaka Minami

Urology Journal, , , Page 6892

Purpose: Although morphological renal abnormalities in children with febrile urinary tract infection (fUTI) have been showed a predictive factor for recurrent infection, there are no available data on recurrence regarding sonographic renal enlargement at first fUTI episode, especially focusing on whether renal enlargement is temporary or not.

Materials and Methods: This cohort study reviewed the medical records of children who underwent renal ultrasound during their first fUTI during 2005–2013 and who were aged <15 years at diagnosis. We defined a kidney as temporary enlarged when the kidney length was ≥2 standard deviation above normal renal length for that age on sonography or a difference of ≥1 cm in sonographic length between the right and left kidneys, following normal renal length after antibiotic treatment.

Results: A total of 132 children were enrolled, of whom 11 had sonographic temporary temporal renal enlargement during their first fUTI. After completing antibiotic therapy for a first fUTI episode, 20 (15%) children had fUTI recurrence. The clinical characteristics at first episode of fUTI were not significantly different between renal enlargement and nonrenal enlargement groups. Children with temporary renal enlargement at a first fUTI episode had significantly lower fUTI recurrence-free survival proportion than those with nonrenal enlargement according to the Kaplan–Meier method (p = 0.003)

Conclusion: Identification of temporary temporal renal enlargement as a predictor of recurrent fUTI may help identify children with a first episode of fUTI who will be warned of close monitoring.


The Oncological Outcomes of Neoadjuvant Gemcitabine plus Carboplatin versus Gemcitabine plus Cisplatin in Locally Advanced Bladder Cancer: A Retrospective Analysis

Bahram Mofid, Abolfazl Razzaghdoust, Mahdi Ghajari, Abbas Basiri, Mohammad-Reza Fattahi, Mohammad Houshyari, Anya Jafari, Farzad Taghizadeh-Hesary

Urology Journal, , , Page 6841

Purpose: Cisplatin-based neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) is the standard of care in non-metastatic muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC). There are limited data regarding the alternative choices for cisplatin-ineligible patients. This study has investigated the oncological outcomes of gemcitabine plus cisplatin (Gem/Cis) and gemcitabine plus carboplatin (Gem/Carbo) in this setting. 

Materials and Methods: One hundred forty consecutive patients with MIBC (cT2–T4a) receiving neoadjuvant Gem/Cis or Gem/Carbo before chemoradiation (CRT) or radical cystectomy (RC) were retrospectively evaluated between April 2009 and April 2019. Patients with ECOG performance status 2, creatinine clearance < 60 mL/min, hydronephrosis, ejection fraction < 50%, or single kidney received Gem/Carbo. The complete clinical response (cCR) and overall survival (OS) of NAC regimens were compared. Prognostic significance was assessed with Cox proportional hazards model.

Results: In total, 79 patients (56.4%) received Gem/Cis. The cCR was not significantly different between Gem/Cis and Gem/Carbo regimens (38.7% vs. 36.2%, P = .771). After NAC, 79 patients (56.4%) received CRT, and other cases underwent RC. After a median follow-up of 43 months, patients in the Gem/Cis group had significantly better OS than Gem/Carbo (median OS: 41.0 vs. 26.0 months, P = .008). Multivariable Cox proportional hazards models identified cT4a stage (95% confidence interval [95% CI]: 1.001–4.85, hazard ratio [HR] = 2.08, P = .03) and cCR (95% CI: 0.26–0.99, HR = 0.51, P = .04) as the only independent prognostic factors of OS, and ruled out the type of NAC regimen.

Conclusions:  The choice of NAC (between Gem/Cis and Gem/Carbo) is not the predictor of survival and both regimens had similar cCR.

Purpose: This study aimed to examine whether preoperative Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System v2 (PI-RADS v2) can predict pathological extracapsular extension (EPE) after radical prostatectomy. We also studied the preoperative factors which can predict EPE.

Materials and Methods: In our institute, 294 patients underwent robot assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP) between December 2012 and August 2016. In this era, we performed MRI after biopsy to determine clinical stage before surgery. PI-RADS v2 scores were retrospectively reviewed using biparametric MRI and EPE in pathological mapping of resected specimens for each lobe.

Results: In the excised specimen, EPE was observed in 73 lobes (12%). The percentage of EPE by PI-RADS v2 score was score ‘1’: 6% (17/297 lobes), ‘2’: 3% (1/33 lobes), ‘3’: 12% (8/67 lobes), ‘4’: 19% (27/139 lobes), and ‘5’: 38% (20/52 lobes). The higher the PI-RADS score, the higher the percentage of EPE (P <0.01). When classified as PI-RADS score ≥4 and <4, the positive predictive value (PPV) was 24.6% (47/191 lobes, 95%CI: 0.187 – 0.313) and negative predictive value (NPV) was 93.5% (371/397 lobes, 95%CI: 0.906 – 0.957). By multivariate analysis, positive biopsy core percentage ≥60%, and PI-RADS score ≥4 were independent factors for predicting EPE. The positive rate of EPE in lobes with zero, one and two factors (PI-RADS ≥4 and positive biopsy core percentage ≥60%) was 4%, 19%, and 38%, respectively.

Conclusion: PPV and NPV of PI-RADS ≥4 for predicting pathologic EPE were 24.6% and 93.5%, respectively. PI-RADS ≥4 and positive biopsy core percentage ≥60% were independent risk factors for predicting EPE. The positive rate of EPE in lobes with zero, one and two factors (PI-RADS ≥4 and positive biopsy core percentage ≥60%) was 4%, 19%, and 38%, respectively.

Purpose: To investigate the potential relationship between differential gene expression, biological function enrichment and disease prognosis affecting the sensitivity of prostate cancer radiotherapy by bioinformatics analysis.

Materials and Methods: Retrieve and obtain data on differential gene expression of prostate cancer radiosensitivity in the GEO database (GSM3954350, GSM3954351, GSM3954352), GER2 tool to screen and analyze the differential genes, Enrichr database for enrichment analysis of GO and KEGG, use Cytoscape software builds protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks and analyzes key genes.

Results: A total of 7043 differentially expressed genes were screenedout, including 3842 high expression genes and 3199 low expressed genes. The top 20 differentially expressed genes were selected for further analysis. Their biological functions are mainly enriched in the following aspects:“Cell communication” and “Signal transduction”; cytological components are mainlylocated outside the cell; molecular functions are enriched in structural molecular activity, receptor binding, serine-like peptidase activity, etc. The KEGG enrichmentanalysisshowedthat the differentially expressed genes were mainly enriched in the mismatch repair pathway, non-homologous terminal binding pathway and so on.Survival analysis showed that VGF gene was associated with the prognosis of prostate cancer patients receiving radiotherapy, and high expression of VGF significantly reduced progression-free survival(PFS) in these patients(HR=4.84, 95% CI: 1.34-17.5, P= .016).


Conclusion:This study identified key genes associated with radiation sensitivity in prostate cancer and verified the relationship between the VGF gene and patient prognosis

Construction of A Novel Ferroptosis-related Prognostic Risk Signature for Survival Prediction in Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma Patients

Fucai Tang, Jiahao Zhang, Langjing Zhu, Yongchang Lai, Zhibiao Li, Zeguang Lu, Zhicheng Tang, Yuexue Mai, Rende Huang, zhaohui He

Urology Journal, , , Page 6999

Purpose: Targeted ferroptosis is a reliable therapy to inhibit tumor growth and enhance immunotherapy. This study generated a novel prognostic risk signature based on ferroptosis-related genes (FRGs), and explored the ability in clinic for clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC).

Materials and Methods: The expression profile of mRNA and FRGs for ccRCC patients were exacted from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database. A ferroptosis-related prognostic risk signature was constructed based on univariable and multivariable Cox-regression analysis. Kaplan-Meier (KM) survival curves and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were performed to access prognostic value of riskscore. A nomogram integrating riskscore and clinical features was established to predict overall survival (OS). Based on differentially expressed genes between high- and low-OS groups with 5-year OS, function enrichment analyses and single-sample gene set enrichment analysis (ssGSEA) were investigated to immune status.

Results: A 9-FRGs prognostic risk signature was constructed based on 37 differentially expressed FRGs. ROC and KM curves showed that riskscore has excellent reliability and predictive ability; Cox regression disclosed the riskscore as an independent prognosis for ccRCC patients. Then, the C-index and calibration curve demonstrated the good performance of nomogram in training and validation cohort, and its predictive ability better than other features. Immune-related biological processes were enriched by function enrichment analysis, and the immune-related cells and functions were differential by ssGSEA between high- and low-OS groups.

Conclusion: Our study identified and verified a novel 9-FRGs prognostic signature and nomogram to predict OS, providing a novel sight to explore targeted therapy of ferroptosis for ccRCC.


Objective: In this study, we aimed to compare the frequency of lymphoceles that needed intervention in recipients who received kidneys from living versus deceased donors.

Materials and methods: The records of all patients who underwent kidney transplantation at the Labbafinejad Hospital from 2012 to 2021 were retrospectively reviewed to determine the incidence of lymphoceles that needed intervention for management.

Results: From March 2012 to April 2021, 1752 patients received kidney transplantation in Labbafinejad Hospital including 975 transplantations from living donors and 777 transplantations from deceased donors. Symptomatic lymphoceles were observed postoperatively in 23 patients. Symptoms included compressive effect on the ureter, hydroureteronephrosis of the transplanted kidney, frequency, urinary retention, infection,  abdominal discomfort, or rise in serum creatinine. Out of 23 patients who needed intervention for symptomatic lymphocele, 15 patients were recipients of living donors and 8 patients were recipients of deceased donors [1.53% versus 1.03%, P=.40]. Intervention consisted of open surgical drainage in 6 patients [4 recipients of living donors and 2 recipients of deceased donors], and nephrostomy insertion in 17 patients. Open operation was necessary in 5 (47%) patients in whom arterial anastomosis was made to the internal iliac artery versus 1 (9%) patient in whom the anastomosis was not made to the internal iliac artery (P=0.15).

Conclusion: Symptomatic lymphoceles which needed intervention were observed in low frequency (1.31%). Most cases can be managed by endoscopic drainage without relapse. Type of donation had no relationship with the need for open or endoscopic intervention in lymphoceles. A higher proportion of open surgeries to control lymphocele were observed in recipients in whom the internal iliac artery was used for arterial anastomosis however the difference was not statistically significant.


Purpose: To study the effect of female sexual abnormalities on the etiology of penile fracture, which is an important urological emergency.

Materials and Methods: The sexual function of the partners of patients with penile fracture (study group, n = 90) treated at our clinic and healthy women (control group, n = 90) were evaluated on a voluntary basis. In both groups, sexual function was evaluated with the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI). Each substance of the FSFI was evaluated separately by comparing both groups and the effect on the development of penile fracture was investigated.

Results: There was no difference in demographic and clinical characteristics between the study and control groups. Evaluation of sexual function with FSFI revealed that the scores of vaginal lubrication, orgasm, satisfaction, and pain subscales were lower in the study group (p < .001). Among these subscales, anorgasmia was determined as the factor with the largest effect on the development of penile fracture (OR = 7.333, 95% CI = 2.666–20.166, p < .001). No correlation was found between the largest dimension of penile fracture and FSFI total and subscale scores in the study group.

Conclusion: We believe that female vaginal dryness and dyspareunia in particular are factors which could cause the development of penile fracture during sexual intercourse. The treatment could prevent the development of penile fracture in the male.


Percutaneous sclerotherapy is a safe and effective treatment for renal parapelvic cysts. However, if the cyst is in communication with the adjacent renal pelvocalyceal system, sclerotherapy is contraindicated and alternative treatment should be considered. Here, we report a case of a patient with a symptomatic renal parapelvic cyst that was treated using a novel technique involving percutaneous new tract formation between the cyst and renal pelvis.