ISSN: 1735-1308

Instant 2021


Purpose: To investigate whether a Percutaneous nephrostomy (PCN) has any impact on the success rate of shock wave lithotripsy (SWL) and to estimate the probability of stone-free in SWL patients with upper ureter stones.

Materials and Methods: Overall, 236 patients who underwent SWL for upper ureter stones between 2015 and 2019 were evaluated. Forty-nine patients who underwent PCN during SWL were identified. Medical data of the patients were retrospectively reviewed, and possible prognostic features were evaluated.

Results: Out of all patients, 147 patients were selected through propensity score matching. There were no significant differences between the PCN and no PCN groups, except for a lower stone-free rate (55.1% vs. 74.5%, p = .018) and one-session success rate (24.5% vs. 50.0%, p = .003) in the PCN group. In univariate analysis, a younger age, the female sex, a smaller size of stone, lower mean stone density (MSD), and absence of PCN were positive predictive factors of being stone-free in patients who underwent SWL. In multivariate analysis, a smaller size, lower MSD, and absence of PCN were positive predictive factors of being stone-free in patients who underwent SWL.

Conclusion: Stone size, MSD, and PCN were prognostic factors that influence the outcome of SWL. The presence of PCN during SWL is associated with adverse success rates in patients with upper ureter stones.


Purpose: Fournier’s gangrene (FG) is a serious, aggressive, and often fatal multi-organism infection that affects the soft tissues of the perineum, rectum, and external genitalia. This study aimed to analyse the treatment’s strategies of FG.

Materials and Methods: This was a retrospective study of 35 patients with a diagnosis of FG admitted between 2016 and 2021. The diagnosis of FG was established on a clinical basis. Data on patient’s age, sex, comorbidities, laboratory results (C-reactive protein (CRP), white blood cell (WBC), hematocrit (HCT), platelets (PLT), sodium, potassium, creatinine, procalcitonin, international normalized ratio (INR), and gangrene culture), extent of resection, antibiotics used, and hospitalisation time were obtained. The extent of resection was assessed on a scale of 1–5.

Results: The study group consisted of all men (n=35) aged 24–85 (mean, 58) years. In 13/35 (37%) patients, hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) combined with negative-pressure wound therapy (NPWT) was used as a treatment for wound healing in Fournier’s syndrome (group 1), and in 22/35 (63%) patients, open standard wound care was used (group 2). There were no fatalities in group 1, but four deaths (18%) were noted in group 2. The median extent of resection was 3 in group 1 and 2 in group 2. There was a correlation between the extent of resection and use of HBOT combined with NPWT. The hospitalisation time was much shorter in group 2 (mean, 23 days) than in group 1 (mean, 26 days).

Conclusion: HBOT and NPWT (group 1) showed advanced wound healing with a high efficiency rate. The longer median hospitalisation time in this group may be related to the severity of injury. 

Purpose: Bladder cancer is a common cancer in the world with the highest rates in Southern and Western Europe, North America, and Western Asia. It imposes a high economic burden to the health care system globally. The objective of this study is to provide the incidence of bladder cancer and its geographic distribution in Iran in 2014, 2015 and 2016.

Results: We registered 5817, 5662 and 6630 new bladder cancer cases in 2014, 2015 and 2016, respectively with men counting 82% of cases in every year. The ASR of bladder cancer in total Iranian population was 8.50 (95% CI: 8.28-8.72), 8.05 (95% CI: 7.83-8.27) and 8.74 (95% CI: 8.52-8.96) per 100,000 in those years. The male to female ratio was 5 every year. Kerman has the highest ASR in each of the years, respectively 15.49, 13.07 and 12.46, and Ilam has the lowest ASR during 2014 to 2015, respectively 4.27 and 3.50, and Sistan and Baluchestan has the lowest rate in 2016 (ASR:3.56) in both sexes.

Conclusion: The highest incidence of bladder cancer was observed in Central, southern and northwestern parts of Iran. Through the analysis of the incidence patterns and the identification of risk factors associated with it, steps can be taken towards prevention and control measures.

Prognostic Significance of the Neutrophil-to-Lymphocyte Ratio in Patients with Non-Muscle Invasive Bladder Cancer treated with Intravesical Bacillus Calmette–Guérin and the Relationship with the CUETO Scoring Model

Jae-Wook Chung, Jin Woo Kim, Eun Hye Lee, So Young Chun , Dong Jin Park, Kyeong Hyeon Byeon, Seock Hwan Choi, Jun Nyung Lee, Bum Soo Kim, Hyun Tae Kim, Eun Sang Yoo, Tae Gyun Kwon, Yun-Sok Ha, Tae-Hwan Kim

Urology Journal, , , Page 6765

Purpose: In this study, we evaluated the predictability of a modified Club Urológico Español de Tratamiento Oncológico (CUETO) scoring model and preoperative neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) in patients with non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC).

Materials and Methods: From August 2005 to May 2016, a total of 281 patients received intravesical bacillus Calmette–Guérin therapy after transurethral resection of a bladder tumor. The pathologic stage of all patients was Ta or T1. Of 281 patients, 84 (29.9%) experienced recurrence and 14 (5.0%) developed progression. The mean follow-up period was 46 months. The cut-off value for NLRs was 2.29.

Results: One hundred-eight patients (38.4%) displayed a high NLR (> 2.29). In Kaplan–Meier curve analysis, a high NLR was associated with lower recurrence-free survival (RFS) (P < .001) and progression-free survival (PFS) (P = .002). CUETO scores were associated with RFS (P < .001), but not with PFS (P = .423). A combination of NLRs and the CUETO risk model correlated with RFS (P < .001) and PFS (P = .002). In multivariate analysis, female gender, concomitant carcinoma in situ (CIS), tumor number >3, recurrent tumors, and a high NLR were independent factors predicting recurrence (all P < .05). Concomitant CIS, recurrent tumors, and a high NLR were independent factors for predicting progression (all P < .05).

Conclusion: In patients with NMIBC, an NLR >2.29 was identified as a significant factor for predicting tumor recurrence and progression. Inclusion of preoperative NLR enhanced the accuracy of the CUETO model to predict disease progression.

Purpose: To explore the ccRCC clinical and immune characteristics correlated with IL-23 expression level and build pre-operative prediction models based on contrast CT scans.

Materials and Methods: The study included the cancer genome atlas kidney renal clear cell carcinoma cases to build a bioinformatics cohort. The cases with qualified contrast CT images were selected as radiographic and radiomics cohort. The IL-23 expression level groups were defined by median-based thresholding. The clinical characteristics were compared between groups. The impacts of IL-23 on immune microenvironment composition were measured via the CIBERSORT. Two radiologists evaluated the pre-operative contrast CT images. The radiomics features were automatically extracted. IL-23 group-specific radiographic and radiomics features were collected and used for prediction model establishment via Orange Data Mining Toolbox. P < 0.05 was set as statistically significant.

Results: For total, 530 ccRCC cases were included. The IL-23 group was significantly associated with survival, histologic grade, AJCC tumor stage, AJCC cancer stage, and plasma calcium level. Except for Treg and other T cells, IL-23 showed correlation with NK cell, mast cell, monocyte infiltration. Axial length was the only significant radiographic measurement between IL-23 groups. The radiomics features established an IL-23 group prediction model with the highest 10-fold cross-verification AUC of 0.842.

Conclusion: The clear cell renal cell carcinoma IL-23 expression level had prognosis and immune microenvironment correlation and could be predicted by pre-operative radiomics features.

Purpose: Transperineal template prostate biopsies (TPTPB) are now increasingly commonly performed for the diagnosis of prostate cancer. TPTPB are traditionally performed under general anaesthetic. However, this poses a significant strain on hospital theatre capacity. As such, local anaesthetic (LA) TPTPB are becoming more popular. We describe a novel technique in performing the standard TPTPB under LA in the outpatient setting.

Materials and Methods: Between February 2019- February 2021, 254 consecutive men (median age 69; range: 44-80 years) with a median PSA of 8.7 ng/ml (range: 2.2-76) underwent L/A TPTPB using our novel technique. This is whereby 50mls of 1% prilocaine was injected partially around the perineal skin and partially deep bilateral periprostatic areas. Multiple simultaneous prostate biopsies were then taken with the standard template grid and stepper.

Results: A total of 250/254 (98.4%) men underwent successful L/A TPTPB with a median visual analogue pain score of 4 (range: 2-8). The median prostate volume was 49cc (range: 14-240cc). The median number of cores taken were 18 (range: 14-24). A total of 163/250 men (65.2%) had a positive histology for prostate cancer with a median of 5 cores being involved with prostate cancer (range: 1-18). In addition, 101/163 men (62.0%) diagnosed with prostate cancer had either Gleason score 3+4=7 or greater. None experienced urosepsis and only 2/250 men (0.8%) had temporary urinary retention.

Conclusion: Our novel LA technique in performing the standard TPTPB is safe, feasible and well tolerated and associated with a high rate of prostate cancer detection.

An Update on Biochemical and Genomic Markers for Prostate Cancer

Reza Falahatkar, Gholamreza Mokhtari, Madjid Momeni-Moghaddam , Mojtaba Teimoori, Hamidreza Baghani Aal , Ardalan Akhavan, Siavash Falahatkar, Samaneh Esmaeili

Urology Journal, , , Page 6828

Purpose: Detecting prostate cancer, developing therapeutic plans after negative biopsies, and prognosis-based patient counseling can be challenging for many urologists dealing with prostate cancer-specific antigens. New Biomarkers advances made improvement for prediction of responses to therapeutic option and can tell us about survival and recurrence. In this review, we have assessed current and upcoming biomarkers that are opening a new era in diagnosing the disease.

Materials and Methods: We conducted a comprehensive literature review of studies describing prostate cancer biomarkers. Two independent investigators searched PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and Cochrane Databases to identify biomarkers in prostate cancer conducted a literature review.

Results: Recently, combining prostate cancer-specific biomarkers into a single test has gained increasing attention, especially since the introduction of genomic and molecular tools. The development of the Prostate Health Index (PHI), SelectMDx, and Confirm MDx have shown promising results for prostate cancer detection, in addition to risk stratification and biopsy avoidance.
Conclusion: Despite major improvements and innovations in prostate cancer biomarkers, application in current clinical practice is limited. However, these biomarkers have an important role in determining risk, preventing unnecessary prostate biopsies, and predicting prognoses. Additional confirmatory studies will be needed to fully understand the impact of prostate cancer-specific biomarkers.

Oncologic Outcomes Following Positive Surgical Margins in Patients who Underwent Open Versus Laparoscopic Partial Nephrectomy

Nasser Simforoosh, Fatemeh Simforoosh, Mehdi Dadpour, Hossein Fowzi Fard, Nasrin Borumandnia, Hamed Hasani

Urology Journal, , , Page 6858

Objectives: To evaluate oncological outcomes in patient with positive surgical margin (PSM) following partial nephrectomy (PN).

Material and methods: In this retrospective study, we enrolled the data of patients who underwent PN between 2008 and 2017. The inclusion criteria were a definite diagnosis of kidney tumor who underwent PN with at least one year follow up.

Results: From the 450 patients who underwent PN, The PSM was found in 35 (22 male/13 female) patients. 18/237 (7.6%) and 17/213 (7.9%) of them were in open and laparoscopic group, respectively. Clear cell RCC was the most prevalent pathology (18 patients) in the PSM patients. The mean time of follow up was 46±2.02 months. Recurrence was developed in 5 (14.2%) patients. There was no correlation between recurrence and sex (p=1.00), surgery type (p=0.658), age (p=0.869), tumor size (p= 0.069), pathology (p=0.258) and stage (p=0.744) in PSM patients. Recurrence free survival was similar between the open and laparoscopy groups in PSM patients (p=0.619).

Conclusion: Beside numerous advantages of minimally invasive techniques, laparoscopic approach would be comparable to conventional open partial nephrectomy in terms of oncologic outcomes. The rate of recurrence following partial nephrectomy in PSM patients is considerable and closely monitoring is mandatory.

Purpose: We aimed to investigate the effects of obturator nerve block (ONB) on obturator reflex, incomplete resection, perforation, progression and recurrence of tumor, presence of muscle tissue in the specimen, need for a second transurethral resection (TURBT) of bladder tumors, and postoperative complications in patients who underwent TURBT for intermediate-high risk lateral wall non-muscle invasive bladder cancers (NMIBC).

Material and Methods: Patients were assigned to one of two groups by drawing lots: ONB or none ONB. Early and late recurrence, tumor progression, obturator reflex beat, incomplete resection, perforation, presence of muscle layer in pathology, second TURBT application, operation time, postoperative hospital stay, and complications were compared between the two groups.

Results: The median follow-up time of the study was32 (23-41) months. Interquartile range (IQR) was 9. Tumor recurrence at the 3rd month cystoscopy controls was observed in 5 (9.8%) patients in the ONB group, while it was observed in 11 (20.8%) patients in the nONB group (p=0.01). Late tumor recurrence was observed in 10 patients (19.6%) in the ONB group, and in 20 patients (37.7%) in the nONB group (p=0.041). The RFS rate at 12th month was 84% in the ONB group, 69% in the nONB group, 79% in the ONB group at 36th month, and 58% in the nONB group at 36 months, the PFS rate was 94% in the ONB group, while it was 85% in the nONB group (p=0.041).

Conclusion: Our study showed that ONB decrease the early and late recurrence and increase recurrence free survival in patients with intermediate-high risk lateral wall bladder cancer.

Development and External Validation of a Prediction Model to Identify Candidates for Prostate Biopsy

Vinayak G Wagaskar, Anna Lantz, Stanislaw Sobotka, Parita Ratnani, Sneha Parekh, Ugo Giovanni Falagario, Li Li, Sara Lewis, Kenneth Haines III, Sanoj Punnen, Peter Wiklund, Ash Tewari

Urology Journal, , , Page 6852

Purpose: Prostate biopsies are associated with infectious complications and approximately 80% are either benign or clinically insignificant prostate cancer. Our aim is to develop and independently validate prediction model to avoid unnecessary prostate biopsies by predicting clinically significant prostate cancer (csPCa)

Materials and Methods: Retrospective analysis of single-center cohort (Mount Sinai Hospital, NY) of 1632 men who underwent systematic or combined systematic and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)/ultrasound fusion targeted prostate biopsy between 2014-2020. External cohort (University of Miami) included 622 men that underwent biopsy. Outcome for predicting csPCa was defined as International Society of Urologic Pathology (ISUP) Gleason grade  ³ 2 on biopsy. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed to build nomogram using coefficients of logit function. Nomogram validation was performed in external cohort by plotting receiver operating characteristics (ROC). We also plotted decision curve analysis (DCA) and compared nomogram-predicted probabilities with actual rates of csPCa probabilities in external cohort.    

Results: Of 1632 men, 43% showed csPCa on biopsy. PSA density, prior negative biopsy, and Prostate Imaging and Reporting Data System (PI-RADS) scores 3, 4, and 5 were significant predictors for csPCa. ROC for prediction of csPCa was 0.88 in external cohort. There was agreement between predicted and actual rate of csPCa in external cohort. DCA demonstrated net benefit using the model. Using the prediction model at threshold of 30, 35% of biopsies and 46% of diagnosed indolent PCa could be avoided, while missing 5% of csPCa.

Conclusion: Using our prediction model can help reduce unnecessary prostate biopsies with minimal impact on csPCa detection rates.


Vaginal Mullerian cysts are usually small and asymptomatic. Occasionally, they are enlarged and mimic other anatomical disorders, such as anterior vaginal wall prolapse, middle compartment defects (enterocele, apical vaginal wall prolapse) or urethral diverticulum.  Herein we report a female case with a huge vaginal wall Mullerian cyst which was initially misdiagnosed as stage 4 cystocele. Pelvic MRI and cysto uerthroscopy revealed no communication between the cyst and adjacent structures. The cyst was completely excised through a vaginal approach. The pathologic evaluation revealed a benign Mullerian cyst lined with mucinous epithelium. Diagnostic approach to space occupying lesions in the vaginal cavity needs assessment by history, physical examination and appropriate imaging which are essential to prevent misdiagnosis and mistreatment.

As world is going through the COVID-19 pandemic, the mass vaccination of newly approved vaccines for COVID-19 has begun around the world. There has been some concern among the vaccine recipients regarding the potential effect of vaccine on male fertility. Does COVID-19 affect the male reproductive health? Does COVID-19 vaccine impair the sperm parameters?


The terminology of gonadal dysgenesis conditions is considerably abstruse and variable. Despite some efforts in the 2006 Chicago Consensus Statement on DSD , it is still difficult to assign a category and name for some distinct conditions in this document. The rest of the literature has used redundant and variable words, e.g. partial, pure, and complete gonadal dysgenesis suffering equivocality and redundancy, aggravating this inconclusiveness. We attempted to highlight this problem and propose an easier terminology blueprint.



The terminology of gonadal dysgenesis conditions is considerably abstruse and variable. Despite some efforts in the 2006 Chicago Consensus Statement on DSD , it is still difficult to assign a category and name for some distinct conditions in this document. The rest of the literature has used redundant and variable words, e.g. partial, pure, and complete gonadal dysgenesis suffering equivocality and redundancy, aggravating this inconclusiveness. We attempted to highlight this problem and propose an easier terminology blueprint.




Assessment of the Prognostic Effect of Blood Urea Nitrogen to Serum Albumin Ratio in Patients with Fournier’s Gangrene in a Referral Center

Farzad Allameh, Saeed Montazeri, Vahid Shahabi, Seyyed Ali Hojjati, Amir Alinejad Khorram, Zahra Razzaghi, Sahar Dadkhahfar

Urology Journal, , , Page 6556

Purpose: To assess the prognostic effect of blood urea nitrogen to serum albumin ratio in patients with Fournier’s gangrene (FG) in a referral center in order to reduce the mortality of FG patients.

Materials and Methods: Patients with FG were admitted and enrolled consecutively in this study from March 2008 to April 2020. Statistical analysis was done to evaluate the differences between the two groups and to identify the best cutoff value to predict mortality and the need for intensive care.

Results: Of all 114 patients, 46 patients (40.35%) died in the course of hospitalization and 40 entered the study. No variable manifested a notable difference except for the BUN to albumin ratio, which was significantly different (P-value = 0.045). The ratio of BUN to albumin was not associated with any other variables and was independently a predictor of death in FG patients.

Conclusion: The ratio of BUN to albumin was significantly different among deceased and survived patients with FG. Therefore, more studies with a larger sample size are still needed to access this parameter properly.

The effect of Melatonin on Improving the benign Prostatic Hyperplasia Urinary Symptoms, a Randomized Clinical Trial

Amirreza Fotovat, Bahram Samadzadeh, Mohsen Ayati, Mohammad Reza Nowroozi, Seyed Ali Momeni, Samira Yavari, Ali Nasseri, Laleh Sharifi

Urology Journal, , , Page 6761

Purpose: to investigate the effect of melatonin along with tamsulosin in the improving the BPH urinary symptoms.

Materials and Methods: A total of 108 men with BPH symptoms, age of ≥50 years, and International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) ≥8 entered into the parallel group randomized, double-blind clinical trial with balanced randomization. Treatment group received of 3mg melatonin plus 0.4mg tamsulosin and control group received placebo plus 0.4mg tamsulosin. Patients and physicians were concealed by sealed and opaque envelopes. Symptoms were assessed at baseline and 1 month after treatment. Finally all scores at the initial and end of the study compared and analyzed using SPSS software.

Results: This study showed that adding melatonin to classic treatment of BPH patients with tamsulosin could significantly reduce the likelihood of nocturia by 2.39 times (95% CI: 1.07-5.32, OR = 2.39, p = 0.033) and could also reduce the frequency of urination by 2.59 times (95% CI: 1.15-5.84, OR = 2.59, p = 0.021). There was no statistically significant difference between the two groups in IPSS, intermittency, incomplete emptying, straining, urgency, and weak stream.

Conclusion: Melatonin plus tamsulosin treatment is associated with a significant improvement of nocturia and frequency in patients with benign proststic hyperplasia. However, it is necessary to do more studies.

An investigation into the Effects of Intravenous Vitamin C on Pulmonary CT Findings and Clinical Outcomes of Patients with COVID 19 Pneumonia A Randomized Clinical Trial

Shabnam Tehrani, Davood Yadegarynia, Alireza Abrishami, Hamideh Moradi, Babak Gharaei, Masoomeh Rauofi , Fatemeh Maghsoudi Nejad, Shahnaz Sali, Neda Khabiri

Urology Journal, , , Page 6863

Purpose:In late December 2019, a series of unexplained cases of pneumonia were reported in Wuhan, China. On January 12, 2020, the World Health Organization temporarily named the virus responsible for the emerging cases of pneumonia as the 2019 coronavirus. Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) due to Covid-19 has rapidly spread around the world, and while no specific treatment or vaccine has been reported, mortality rates remain high. One of the suggested treatments for cellular damage in the pathogenesis of ARDS caused by the coronavirus is the administration of high doses of intravenous vitamin C. Considering the paucity of literature on the therapeutic effects of high doses of intravenous vitamin C in patients with ARDS resulting from the coronavirus, this study was conducted to assess this therapeutic supplement in these patients.

Materials and Methods: This study was performed as a single-center clinical trial in patients with a documented diagnosis of COVID-19 pneumonia. 54 eligible patients with moderate to severe COVID-19 symptoms, based on specific inclusion and exclusion criteria, were included in the investigation and randomly divided into two groups. The control group consisted of 26 patients who received standard treatment, whereas the treatment group was comprised of 18 patients administered intravenous vitamin C at a dose of 2 g every 6 hours for 5 days in addition to standard treatment. Demographic characteristics, underlying diseases, length of hospital stay, and mortality rates were reviewed and collected. Oxygen saturation, respiratory rates, serum C Reactive Protein (CRP) levels, lymphopenia and lung parenchymal involvement on CT were investigated at the time of admission and on the sixth day after hospitalization. Finally, all variables were analyzed with IBM SPSS Statistics 23 software and a significant statistical difference was defined for all variables, P <0.05.

Results: Of these variables, the amount of oxygen saturation in the vitamin C group increased significantly from 86±5% on the first day of hospitalization to 90±3% on the sixth day of hospitalization (P value=0.02). Also, the respiratory rate in the vitamin C group decreased significantly from 27±3 on the first day of hospitalization to 24±3 on the sixth day of hospitalization (P value=0.03). Lung CT scans of patients in the two groups reported by two radiologists were also compared. Based on the report of the radiologists, the rate of lung involvement in the vitamin C group was significantly lower than in the control group at the end of treatment (P value=0.02).

Conclusion: Due to the effectiveness of high doses of intravenous vitamin C on reducing lung involvement and improving clinical symptoms, further studies with a larger sample size are recommended to demonstrate the effects of this drug supplement.

Purpose: To study the incidence, risk factors for developing asymptomatic venous thromboembolism and the compliance of patients on anticoagulants for asymptomatic venous thromboembolism (VTE) in nononcological urological medium-high risk inpatients, and build a risk assessment model (RAM) for early screening for asymptomatic VTE.

Materials and Methods: We conducted a retrospective analysis of 573 inpatients admitted to a nononcological urological ward of a tertiary hospital in China from January 1, 2017, to June 30, 2019. Data were collected using the electronic medical record system, and patients underwent a follow-up by phone 6 months after discharge.

Results: Among the 573 medium-high risk inpatients, 73 (15.4%) were diagnosed with VTE, including 20 (4.2%) symptomatic and 53 (11.2%) asymptomatic. Prior history of VTE, a history of anticoagulants or antiplatelet agents before admission, and D-dimer ≥ 1 were the potential risk factors identified for asymptomatic VTE. Patients with poor awareness of VTE and its dangers, and patients who lived more than 1 hour away from the hospital had a high probability of poor compliance with anticoagulation therapy after discharge. Using D-dimer (1.785 μg/ml), we built a RAM for the early diagnosis of asymptomatic VTE.

Conclusion: We found that patients with urinary nontumor VTE had low compliance with anticoagulation therapy after discharge. The key factors for determining asymptomatic VTE in nononcological urological inpatients included prior history of VTE, a history of taking anticoagulants or anti-platelet agents before admission, and D-dimer ≥ 1. Furthermore, we found that the threshold of D-dimer should be elevated to 1.785 μg/ml to predict asymptomatic VTE.