ISSN: 1735-1308

Instant 2021


Purpose: Transperineal template prostate biopsies (TPTPB) are now increasingly commonly performed for the diagnosis of prostate cancer. TPTPB are traditionally performed under general anaesthetic. However, this poses a significant strain on hospital theatre capacity. As such, local anaesthetic (LA) TPTPB are becoming more popular. We describe a novel technique in performing the standard TPTPB under LA in the outpatient setting.

Materials and Methods: Between February 2019- February 2021, 254 consecutive men (median age 69; range: 44-80 years) with a median PSA of 8.7 ng/ml (range: 2.2-76) underwent L/A TPTPB using our novel technique. This is whereby 50mls of 1% prilocaine was injected partially around the perineal skin and partially deep bilateral periprostatic areas. Multiple simultaneous prostate biopsies were then taken with the standard template grid and stepper.

Results: A total of 250/254 (98.4%) men underwent successful L/A TPTPB with a median visual analogue pain score of 4 (range: 2-8). The median prostate volume was 49cc (range: 14-240cc). The median number of cores taken were 18 (range: 14-24). A total of 163/250 men (65.2%) had a positive histology for prostate cancer with a median of 5 cores being involved with prostate cancer (range: 1-18). In addition, 101/163 men (62.0%) diagnosed with prostate cancer had either Gleason score 3+4=7 or greater. None experienced urosepsis and only 2/250 men (0.8%) had temporary urinary retention.

Conclusion: Our novel LA technique in performing the standard TPTPB is safe, feasible and well tolerated and associated with a high rate of prostate cancer detection.

An Update on Biochemical and Genomic Markers for Prostate Cancer

Reza Falahatkar, Gholamreza Mokhtari, Madjid Momeni-Moghaddam , Mojtaba Teimoori, Hamidreza Baghani Aal , Ardalan Akhavan, Siavash Falahatkar, Samaneh Esmaeili

Urology Journal, , , Page 6828

Purpose: Detecting prostate cancer, developing therapeutic plans after negative biopsies, and prognosis-based patient counseling can be challenging for many urologists dealing with prostate cancer-specific antigens. New Biomarkers advances made improvement for prediction of responses to therapeutic option and can tell us about survival and recurrence. In this review, we have assessed current and upcoming biomarkers that are opening a new era in diagnosing the disease.

Materials and Methods: We conducted a comprehensive literature review of studies describing prostate cancer biomarkers. Two independent investigators searched PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and Cochrane Databases to identify biomarkers in prostate cancer conducted a literature review.

Results: Recently, combining prostate cancer-specific biomarkers into a single test has gained increasing attention, especially since the introduction of genomic and molecular tools. The development of the Prostate Health Index (PHI), SelectMDx, and Confirm MDx have shown promising results for prostate cancer detection, in addition to risk stratification and biopsy avoidance.
Conclusion: Despite major improvements and innovations in prostate cancer biomarkers, application in current clinical practice is limited. However, these biomarkers have an important role in determining risk, preventing unnecessary prostate biopsies, and predicting prognoses. Additional confirmatory studies will be needed to fully understand the impact of prostate cancer-specific biomarkers.

Oncologic Outcomes Following Positive Surgical Margins in Patients who Underwent Open Versus Laparoscopic Partial Nephrectomy

Nasser Simforoosh, Fatemeh Simforoosh, Mehdi Dadpour, Hossein Fowzi Fard, Nasrin Borumandnia, Hamed Hasani

Urology Journal, , , Page 6858

Objectives: To evaluate oncological outcomes in patient with positive surgical margin (PSM) following partial nephrectomy (PN).

Material and methods: In this retrospective study, we enrolled the data of patients who underwent PN between 2008 and 2017. The inclusion criteria were a definite diagnosis of kidney tumor who underwent PN with at least one year follow up.

Results: From the 450 patients who underwent PN, The PSM was found in 35 (22 male/13 female) patients. 18/237 (7.6%) and 17/213 (7.9%) of them were in open and laparoscopic group, respectively. Clear cell RCC was the most prevalent pathology (18 patients) in the PSM patients. The mean time of follow up was 46±2.02 months. Recurrence was developed in 5 (14.2%) patients. There was no correlation between recurrence and sex (p=1.00), surgery type (p=0.658), age (p=0.869), tumor size (p= 0.069), pathology (p=0.258) and stage (p=0.744) in PSM patients. Recurrence free survival was similar between the open and laparoscopy groups in PSM patients (p=0.619).

Conclusion: Beside numerous advantages of minimally invasive techniques, laparoscopic approach would be comparable to conventional open partial nephrectomy in terms of oncologic outcomes. The rate of recurrence following partial nephrectomy in PSM patients is considerable and closely monitoring is mandatory.

Purpose: We aimed to investigate the effects of obturator nerve block (ONB) on obturator reflex, incomplete resection, perforation, progression and recurrence of tumor, presence of muscle tissue in the specimen, need for a second transurethral resection (TURBT) of bladder tumors, and postoperative complications in patients who underwent TURBT for intermediate-high risk lateral wall non-muscle invasive bladder cancers (NMIBC).

Material and Methods: Patients were assigned to one of two groups by drawing lots: ONB or none ONB. Early and late recurrence, tumor progression, obturator reflex beat, incomplete resection, perforation, presence of muscle layer in pathology, second TURBT application, operation time, postoperative hospital stay, and complications were compared between the two groups.

Results: The median follow-up time of the study was32 (23-41) months. Interquartile range (IQR) was 9. Tumor recurrence at the 3rd month cystoscopy controls was observed in 5 (9.8%) patients in the ONB group, while it was observed in 11 (20.8%) patients in the nONB group (p=0.01). Late tumor recurrence was observed in 10 patients (19.6%) in the ONB group, and in 20 patients (37.7%) in the nONB group (p=0.041). The RFS rate at 12th month was 84% in the ONB group, 69% in the nONB group, 79% in the ONB group at 36th month, and 58% in the nONB group at 36 months, the PFS rate was 94% in the ONB group, while it was 85% in the nONB group (p=0.041).

Conclusion: Our study showed that ONB decrease the early and late recurrence and increase recurrence free survival in patients with intermediate-high risk lateral wall bladder cancer.


Vaginal Mullerian cysts are usually small and asymptomatic. Occasionally, they are enlarged and mimic other anatomical disorders, such as anterior vaginal wall prolapse, middle compartment defects (enterocele, apical vaginal wall prolapse) or urethral diverticulum.  Herein we report a female case with a huge vaginal wall Mullerian cyst which was initially misdiagnosed as stage 4 cystocele. Pelvic MRI and cysto uerthroscopy revealed no communication between the cyst and adjacent structures. The cyst was completely excised through a vaginal approach. The pathologic evaluation revealed a benign Mullerian cyst lined with mucinous epithelium. Diagnostic approach to space occupying lesions in the vaginal cavity needs assessment by history, physical examination and appropriate imaging which are essential to prevent misdiagnosis and mistreatment.

As world is going through the COVID-19 pandemic, the mass vaccination of newly approved vaccines for COVID-19 has begun around the world. There has been some concern among the vaccine recipients regarding the potential effect of vaccine on male fertility. Does COVID-19 affect the male reproductive health? Does COVID-19 vaccine impair the sperm parameters?


The terminology of gonadal dysgenesis conditions is considerably abstruse and variable. Despite some efforts in the 2006 Chicago Consensus Statement on DSD , it is still difficult to assign a category and name for some distinct conditions in this document. The rest of the literature has used redundant and variable words, e.g. partial, pure, and complete gonadal dysgenesis suffering equivocality and redundancy, aggravating this inconclusiveness. We attempted to highlight this problem and propose an easier terminology blueprint.



The terminology of gonadal dysgenesis conditions is considerably abstruse and variable. Despite some efforts in the 2006 Chicago Consensus Statement on DSD , it is still difficult to assign a category and name for some distinct conditions in this document. The rest of the literature has used redundant and variable words, e.g. partial, pure, and complete gonadal dysgenesis suffering equivocality and redundancy, aggravating this inconclusiveness. We attempted to highlight this problem and propose an easier terminology blueprint.




An investigation into the Effects of Intravenous Vitamin C on Pulmonary CT Findings and Clinical Outcomes of Patients with COVID 19 Pneumonia A Randomized Clinical Trial

Shabnam Tehrani, Davood Yadegarynia, Alireza Abrishami, Hamideh Moradi, Babak Gharaei, Masoomeh Rauofi , Fatemeh Maghsoudi Nejad, Shahnaz Sali, Neda Khabiri

Urology Journal, , , Page 6863

Purpose:In late December 2019, a series of unexplained cases of pneumonia were reported in Wuhan, China. On January 12, 2020, the World Health Organization temporarily named the virus responsible for the emerging cases of pneumonia as the 2019 coronavirus. Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) due to Covid-19 has rapidly spread around the world, and while no specific treatment or vaccine has been reported, mortality rates remain high. One of the suggested treatments for cellular damage in the pathogenesis of ARDS caused by the coronavirus is the administration of high doses of intravenous vitamin C. Considering the paucity of literature on the therapeutic effects of high doses of intravenous vitamin C in patients with ARDS resulting from the coronavirus, this study was conducted to assess this therapeutic supplement in these patients.

Materials and Methods: This study was performed as a single-center clinical trial in patients with a documented diagnosis of COVID-19 pneumonia. 54 eligible patients with moderate to severe COVID-19 symptoms, based on specific inclusion and exclusion criteria, were included in the investigation and randomly divided into two groups. The control group consisted of 26 patients who received standard treatment, whereas the treatment group was comprised of 18 patients administered intravenous vitamin C at a dose of 2 g every 6 hours for 5 days in addition to standard treatment. Demographic characteristics, underlying diseases, length of hospital stay, and mortality rates were reviewed and collected. Oxygen saturation, respiratory rates, serum C Reactive Protein (CRP) levels, lymphopenia and lung parenchymal involvement on CT were investigated at the time of admission and on the sixth day after hospitalization. Finally, all variables were analyzed with IBM SPSS Statistics 23 software and a significant statistical difference was defined for all variables, P <0.05.

Results: Of these variables, the amount of oxygen saturation in the vitamin C group increased significantly from 86±5% on the first day of hospitalization to 90±3% on the sixth day of hospitalization (P value=0.02). Also, the respiratory rate in the vitamin C group decreased significantly from 27±3 on the first day of hospitalization to 24±3 on the sixth day of hospitalization (P value=0.03). Lung CT scans of patients in the two groups reported by two radiologists were also compared. Based on the report of the radiologists, the rate of lung involvement in the vitamin C group was significantly lower than in the control group at the end of treatment (P value=0.02).

Conclusion: Due to the effectiveness of high doses of intravenous vitamin C on reducing lung involvement and improving clinical symptoms, further studies with a larger sample size are recommended to demonstrate the effects of this drug supplement.

Purpose: To study the incidence, risk factors for developing asymptomatic venous thromboembolism and the compliance of patients on anticoagulants for asymptomatic venous thromboembolism (VTE) in nononcological urological medium-high risk inpatients, and build a risk assessment model (RAM) for early screening for asymptomatic VTE.

Materials and Methods: We conducted a retrospective analysis of 573 inpatients admitted to a nononcological urological ward of a tertiary hospital in China from January 1, 2017, to June 30, 2019. Data were collected using the electronic medical record system, and patients underwent a follow-up by phone 6 months after discharge.

Results: Among the 573 medium-high risk inpatients, 73 (15.4%) were diagnosed with VTE, including 20 (4.2%) symptomatic and 53 (11.2%) asymptomatic. Prior history of VTE, a history of anticoagulants or antiplatelet agents before admission, and D-dimer ≥ 1 were the potential risk factors identified for asymptomatic VTE. Patients with poor awareness of VTE and its dangers, and patients who lived more than 1 hour away from the hospital had a high probability of poor compliance with anticoagulation therapy after discharge. Using D-dimer (1.785 μg/ml), we built a RAM for the early diagnosis of asymptomatic VTE.

Conclusion: We found that patients with urinary nontumor VTE had low compliance with anticoagulation therapy after discharge. The key factors for determining asymptomatic VTE in nononcological urological inpatients included prior history of VTE, a history of taking anticoagulants or anti-platelet agents before admission, and D-dimer ≥ 1. Furthermore, we found that the threshold of D-dimer should be elevated to 1.785 μg/ml to predict asymptomatic VTE.