Discrepancy between Needle Biopsy and Radical Prostatectomy Gleason Score among Patients with Prostate Cancer
5 January 2019
Purpose: Gleason score (GS), as well as other prognostic and diagnostic modalities, can predict the possibility of tumor growth and metastasis during the life of patients with prostate cancer. Based on the prostate biopsy GS, clinicians choose the most appropriate therapy for managing patients. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to determine the discrepancy between needle biopsy and radical prostatectomy GS and to identify its predictive factors among the Iranian population.
Materials and Methods: A total of 1147 patients who underwent radical prostatectomy from 2009 to 2019 were initially enrolled in this study. After consideration of the inclusion and exclusion criteria, 439 patients were finally included. The demographic variables and clinical data including age, PSA level, prostate volume, PSA density, GS derived from ultrasonography-guided core needle biopsy specimen, and GS derived from radical prostatectomy specimen were collected from the medical records of patients with prostate adenocarcinoma and were reviewed by a urology resident. Statistical analysis was done by using the Social Sciences Software version 21.
Results: The average age of patients was 64.5 years (range 48‐84 years), and the average preoperative PSA level was 14.8 ng/mL. On histopathological examination, no changes in GS were observed in 237 (53.9%) patients, whereas GS was upgraded in 144 (32.8%) patients and downgraded in 58 (13.2%) patients at radical prostatectomy. The number of patients who had extracapsular extension, seminal vesicle invasion and positive lymph nodes was significantly higher in the upgraded group compared with the non-upgraded group.
Conclusion: In this study, there was a steady decrease in GS upgrading with the prostate size extending up to 49.7 g. There was also an association between downgrading and extending prostate size. Due to the greater risk of high-grade disease in men with small prostates, smaller prostate bulks are most probably upgraded after radical prostatectomy. A higher maximum percentage of involvement per core was an independent predictive factor of upgrading from biopsy grade 1 to grade ≥ 2. Our study showed that patients’ age was not predictive of upgrading, which is consistent with other studies. Also, we demonstrated a non-significant relationship between PSA level and upgraded GS. Findings in this study did not demonstrate a significant relationship between PSA level and upgrading.
- Gleason score; needle biopsy; prostate cancer; PSA; radical prostatectomy
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