The Effect of Radio Frequency (RF) on Proteomics Pattern of Brain Tissue in male Wister Rats
Trends in Peptide and Protein Sciences,
Vol. 4 (2019),
28 January 2019
Radiated waves from mobile phones are in the Radio Frequency (RF) range, so those are unable to cause ionization and electron excitation. RF that are produced and emitted from sender antenna on the surface of mobile phone systems, ranges from 30 up to 300 GHz in electromagnetic wave spectrum. There is no complete information about the effects of RF on protein changes. For this purpose, we have examined the effects of RF waves on the changes in protein expression pattern of the brain. In this study, 10 heads of male Wistar rats, weighing between 200-250 g, were exposed to transmission antenna in 100-180 meter distance. Then, proteome of RF900 GHz exposed group and control group were extracted. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis evaluation and proteomics analysis was performed. Results showed altered proteome pattern due to radiation. Tissue exposed to nonstandard waves showed similar pattern of changes in the expression of some proteins, which have key roles in the induction of apoptosis. The expressions of key proteins including Bcl-2-A1, Bid, Neurofilament and Cytochrome Oxidase were decreased. Expression or suppression of apoptosis related proteins such as BCL-2 in rat brain proteome exposed to standard RF900 MHz (at 180m and beyond), can serve as a biomarker of brain activity, memory and sleep. RF radiated from transmission antenna in urban and standard spaces may not be carcinogenic, but, individuals exposed in nonstandard distances to those antennas (less than 180meter) may be at risk.
•Radio Frequency (RF) waves can affect the protein expression profile of the cell.
•Exposure to nonstandard RF waves changed the expression profile of apoptosis key proteins.
•Changes in the expression of Bcl-2-A1, Bid, Neurofilament and Cytochrome Oxidase under the RF was evident.
- 2D electrophoresis
- Radio Frequency waves
Aboul-Ezz, H. S., Khadrawy, Y. A., Ahmed, N. A., Radwan, N. M., and M.M. Bakry, (2013). "The effect of pulsed electromagnetic radiation from mobile phone on the levels of monoamine neurotransmitters in four different areas of rat brain." European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences, 17(13):1782-1788.
Ammari, M., Lecomte, A., Sakly, M., Abdelmelek, H., and R. de-Seze, (2008). "Exposure to GSM 900MHz electromagnetic fields affects cerebral cytochrome c oxidase activity." Toxicology, 250(1):70-74.
Bradford, M.M., (1976). "A rapid and sensitive method for the quantitation of microgram quantities of protein utilizing the principle of protein-dye binding." Analytical Biochemistry, 72:248-54.
Calvente, I., Fernandez, M. F., Villalba, J., Olea, N., and M. I. Nuñez, (2010). "Exposure to electromagnetic fields (non-ionizing radiation) and its relationship with childhood leukemia: a systematic review." Science of the Total Environment, 408(16):3062-3069.
Folch, J., Lees, M., and G.H. Sloane-Stanley, (1957). "simple method for the isolation and purification of total lipides from animal tissues." Journal of Biological Chemistry, 226(1):497-509.
Gherardini, L., Ciuti, G., Tognarelli, S., and C. Cinti, (2014). "Searching for the perfect wave: the effect of radiofrequency electromagnetic fields on cells." International journal of molecular sciences, 15(4):5366-87.
Guney, M., Ozguner, F., Oral, B., Karahan, N., and T. Mungan, (2007). "900 MHz radiofrequency-induced histopathologic changes and oxidative stress in rat endometrium: protection by vitamins E and C." Toxicology and Industrial Health, 23(7):411-420.
Hardell, L., and K.H. Mild, (2001). "Handheld cellular telephones and brain cancer risk." The Journal of the American Medical Association: JAMA, 285(14):1838.
Hashemi, M., Pooladi, M., and S.K. Razi Abad, (2014). "The investigation of changes in proteins expression (Apolipoprotein A1 and albumin) in malignant astrocytoma brain tumor." Journal of Cancer Research and Therapeutics, 10(1):107-11.
Hosseinyzadeh, Z., Shojaeefard, M., Ataeinejad, N., Pooladi, M., and M. Hooshiyar, (2015). "The investigation of the protective effects of hydroalcoholic extract of sea buckthorn (Hippophaerhamnoides L) in spermatogenesis of rat after exposure of Wi-Fi radiation." Journal of Paramedical Sciences, 4(2):1-9.
Hossmann, K.A., and D.M. Hermann, (2003). "Effects of electromagnetic radiation of mobile phones on the central nervous system." Bioelectromagnetics, 24(1):49-62.
Karimi, N., Bayat, M., Haghani, M., Saadi, H.F. and G.R. Ghazipour, (2018). "2.45 GHz microwave radiation impairs learning, memory, and hippocampal synaptic plasticity in the rat." Toxicology and Industrial Health, 21:748233718798976.
Khaghani-Razi-Abad, S., Hashemi, M., Pooladi, M., Entezari, M., and E. Kazemi, (2015). "Proteomics analysis of human oligodendroglioma proteome." Gene, 569(1):77-82.
Kilicalp, D., Deger, Y., and A. Cinar, (2009). "Effects of green tea on electrocardiography of guinea pigs exposed to electromagnetic field emitted by mobile phones." Journal of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Kafkas University (Kafkas Univ Vet Fak Derg Research), 15(6):823-828.
Kluck, R.M., Bossy-Wetzel, E., Green, D.R., and D.D. Newmeyer, (1997). "The release of cytochrome c from mitochondria: a primary site for Bcl-2 regulation of apoptosis." Science, 275(5303):1132-6.
Kochanek, A.R., Kline, A.E., Gao,, W.M., Chadha, M., Lai, Y., Clark, R.S., Dixon, C.E., and L.W. Jenkins, (2006). "Gel-based hippocampal proteomic analysis 2 weeks following traumatic brain injury to immature rats using controlled cortical impact." Developmental Neuroscience, 28(4-5):410-419.
Maskey, D., Kim, M., Aryal, B., Pradhan, J., Choi, I.Y., Park, K.S., Son, T., Hong, S.Y., Kim, S.B., Kim, H.G., and M.J. Kim, (2010). "Effect of 835 MHz radiofrequency radiation exposure on calcium binding proteins in the hippocampus of the mouse brain." Brain Research, 1313:232-241.
Muscat, J.E., Malkin, M.G., Thompson, S., Shore, R.E., Stellman, S.D., McRee, D., Neugut, A.I, and E.L. Wynder, (2000). "Handheld cellular telephone use and risk of brain cancer." Journal of the American Medical Association: JAMA. 284(23):3001-7.
National Research Council (US) (2011). "Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals." Washington (DC): National Academies Press (US), 8: 43-76.
Nylund, H., and R. Swanson, (1963). "An improved mobile dial telephone system." IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Communications, 12(1):32-8.
Paulraj, R., and J. Behari, (2006). "Protein kinase C activity in developing rat brain cells exposed to 2.45 GHz radiation." Electromagnetic biology and medicine, 25(1):61-70.
Pooladi, M., Montzeri, A.R., Nazarian, N., Taghizadeh, B., and M. Odoumizadeh, (2018). "Effect of WiFi waves (2.45 GHz) on aminotransaminases (ALP, ALT and AST) in liver of rat." Journal of Paramedical Sciences, 9(2):13-20.
Pooladi, M., Sobhi, S., Khaghani-Razi-Abad, S., Hashemi, M., Moradi, A., Zali, A.R., Mousavi, M., Zali, H., Rakhan, A., and M. Razaei-Tavirani, (2013). "The investigation of Heat Shock Protein (HSP70) expression change in human brain astrocytoma tumor." Iranian journal of cancer prevention, 6: 6-11.
Sepehrimanesh, M., Kazemipour, N., Saeb, M., Nazifi, S., and D.L. Davis, (2017). "Proteomic analysis of continuous 900-MHz radiofrequency electromagnetic field exposure in testicular tissue: a rat model of human cell phone exposure." Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 24(15):13666-13673.
Sepehrimanesh, M., Kazemipour, N., Saeb, M., and S. Nazifi, (2014). "Analysis of rat testicular proteome following 30-day exposure to 900 MHz electromagnetic field radiation." Electrophoresis, 35(23):3331-3338.
Szklarczyk, D., Franceschini, A., Wyder, S., Forslund, K., Heller, D., Huerta-Cepas, J., Simonovic, M., Roth, A., Santos, A., Tsafou, K.P., Kuhn, M., Bork, P., Jensen, L.J., and C. von Mering, (2015). "STRING v10: protein-protein interaction networks, integrated over the tree of life." Nucleic Acids Research, 43(Database issue): D447-52.
Yang, J., Liu, X., Bhalla, K., Kim, CN., Ibrado, A.M., Cai, J., Peng, T.I., Jones, D.P., and X. Wang, (1997). "Prevention of apoptosis by Bcl-2: release of cytochrome c from mitochondria blocked." Science, 275(5303):1129-1132.
Zhao, R., Zhang, S., Xu, Z., Ju, L., Lu, D., and G. Yao, (2007). "Studying gene expression profile of rat neuron exposed to 1800MHz radiofrequency electromagnetic fields with cDNA microassay." Toxicology, 235(3):167-75.
- Abstract Viewed: 108 times
- PDF Downloaded: 42 times