Review Article

Mechanisms of Laser-Tissue Interaction: II. Tissue Thermal Properties

Mohammad Ali Ansari, Mohsen Erfanzadeh, Ezeddin Mohajerani

Journal of Lasers in Medical Sciences, Vol. 4 No. 3 (2013), 22 Tir 2013, Page 99-106

Laser-tissue interaction is of great interest due to its significant application in biomedical optics in both diagnostic and treatment purposes. Major aspects of the laser-tissue interaction which has to be considered in biomedical studies are the thermal properties of the tissue and the thermal changes caused by the interaction of light and tissue. In this review paper the effects of light on the tissue at different temperatures are discussed. Then, due to the noticeable importance of studying the heat transfer quantitatively, the equations governing this phenomenon are presented. Finally a method of medical diagnosis called thermography and some of its applications are explained.

Laser Application in Prevention of Demineralization in Orthodontic Treatment

Hooman Sadr Haghighi, Mahsa Skandarinejad, Amir Ardalan Abdollahi

Journal of Lasers in Medical Sciences, Vol. 4 No. 3 (2013), 22 Tir 2013, Page 107-110

One common negative side effect of orthodontic treatment with fixed appliances is the development of incipient caries lesions around brackets, particularly in patients with poor oral hygiene. Different methods have been used to prevent demineralization such as fluoride therapy and application of sealant to prevent caries. The recent effort to improve the resistance against the demineralization is by the application of different types of lasers. The purpose of this review article is discussing the effects of laser in prevention of demineralizationin orthodontic patients.

Original Article

In Vitro Study of Dentin Hypersensitivity Treated by 980-nm Diode Laser

Liu Ying, Jie Gao, Yan Gao, Shuaimei XU, Xueling Zhan, Buling Wu

Journal of Lasers in Medical Sciences, Vol. 4 No. 3 (2013), 22 Tir 2013, Page 111-119

Introduction: To investigate the ultrastructural changes of dentin irradiated with 980-nm diode laser under different parameters and to observe the morphological alterations of odontoblasts and pulp tissue to determine the safety parameters of 980-nm diode laser in the treatment of dentin hypersensitivity (DH).

Methods: Twenty extracted human third molars were selected to prepare dentin discs. Each dentin disc was divided into four areas and was irradiated by 980-nm diode laser under different parameters: Group A: control group, 0 J/cm²; Group B: 2 W/CW (continuous mode), 166 J/cm²; Group C: 3W/CW, 250 J/cm²; and Group D: 4W/CW, 333 J/cm². Ten additional extracted human third molars were selected to prepare dentin discs. Each dentin disc was divided into two areas and was irradiated by 980-nm diode laser: Group E: control group, 0 J/cm²; and Group F: 2.0 W/CW, 166 J/cm². The morphological alterations of the dentin surfaces and odontoblasts were examined with scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and the morphological alterations of the dental pulp tissue irradiated by laser were observed with an upright microscope.

Results: The study demonstrated that dentinal tubules can be entirely blocked after irradiation by 980-nm diode laser, regardless of the parameter setting. Diode laser with settings of 2.0 W and 980-nm sealed exposed dentin tubules effectively, and no significant morphological alterations of the pulp and odontoblasts were observed after irradiation.

Conclusions: Irradiation with 980-nm diode laser could be effective for routine clinical treatment of DH, and 2.0W/CW (166 J/cm²) was a suitable energy parameter due to its rapid sealing of the exposed dentin tubules and its safety to the odontoblasts and pulp tissue.

Assessing Health-Related Quality of Life with Antimicrobial Photodynamic Therapy (APDT) and Low Level Laser Therapy (LLLT) after Third Molar Removal

Goran Batinjan, Irina Filipović Zore, Ivana Rupić, Ivona Bago Jurič, Zvonimir Zore, Dragana Gabrić Pandurić

Journal of Lasers in Medical Sciences, Vol. 4 No. 3 (2013), 22 Tir 2013, Page 120-126

Introduction: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (APDT) and low level laser therapy (LLLT) on wound healing, pain intensity, swelling problems, halitosis and the postoperative usage of analgesics after surgical removal of lower third molars.

Methods: One hundred and fifty patients, randomly divided into three groups were selected (50 per each group). The P1 group received the APDT after a third molar surgery, the P2 group received the LLLT and the C group (control group) was without any additional therapy after surgery. A photoactive substance was applied in the APDT study group before suturing. After 60 seconds the photosensitive substance was thoroughly washed with saline water and the laser light was applied in two intervals (30 seconds each). The irradiation power was 50 mW while the wavelength was 660 nm. The laser therapy in P2 group was performed before suturing and the laser light was applied also in two intervals (90 seconds each), the irradiation power was 90 mW while the wavelength was the same as in the first group – 660 nm. Postoperative follow-ups were scheduled on the third and the seventh day in patients who received laser therapy.

Results: The results of the postoperative evaluation showed that there was a statistically significant difference in the postoperative wound healing, pain intensity, swelling problems, halitosis and analgesics intake between patients in all three groups (p<0.001). The patients that were subjected to APDT (P1) had the least postoperative problems. After the laser therapy (P1 and P2) wound healing was without any complications, opposite from the patients from the C group (p<0.001). Postoperative application of a laser therapy significantly reduced patient’s use of analgesics over the observed period of time (p<0.001).

Conclusion: Both modalities of laser therapy significantly reduced postoperative problems after surgical removal of third lower molars with the best results in both laser groups.

Effect of Air Abrasion and Erbium-Doped Yttrium Aluminum Garnet (Er: YAG) laser preparation on Shear Bond Strength of Composite to Dentin

Ayoub Pahlavan, Mobin Mehmanchi, Ladan Ranjbar Omrani, Nasim Chiniforush

Journal of Lasers in Medical Sciences, Vol. 4 No. 3 (2013), 22 Tir 2013, Page 127-130

Introduction: The aim of this study was to assess shear bond strength of composite to dentin after air abrasion and laser treatment.

Methods: 40 human extracted molars divided into 4 groups (n=10) received the following treatments. Group 1: carbide bur, Group 2: air abrasion with aluminum oxide 50 μm, Group 3: irradiated with Erbium-Doped Yttrium Aluminum Garnet (Er: YAG) laser (150 mJ/20Hz), Group 4: irradiated with Er:YAG laser (150 mJ/20Hz)+ air. Specimens in all groups were chemically etched with phosphoric acid 37% and treated with bonding agent (single bond 3M). Then, composite build-up was performed by tygon tube. After storage in distilled water at 37°c for one week, all specimens were subjected to a shear bond strength test with universal testing machine. Data were analyzed with ANOVA and T-Test.

Results: The mean and standard deviation of shear bond strength of the 4 groups were 20.8±6.76, 14.98±3.98, 11.43±4.36 and 14.95± 3.18 MPa, respectively.

Conclusion: Air abrasion after laser treatment improved the shear bond strength.

Photothrombosis of Corneal Neovascularization by Photodynamic Therapy Utilizing Verteporfin and Diode Laser

Aziza Ahmed Hassan, Dina Foad Ghoneim, Amr EL-Dib, Salwa Ahmed Abdelkawi, Ahmed Medhat Abdel-salam

Journal of Lasers in Medical Sciences, Vol. 4 No. 3 (2013), 22 Tir 2013, Page 131-139

Introduction: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of photodynamic therapy in the treatment of experimental corneal neovascularization (NV) with benzoporphyrin derivative (BPD).

Methods: One group was considered as control (n=6 eyes) then, corneal NV was induced in 30 New Zealand male rabbits (n=60 eyes) by placing 7.0 silk sutures at midstromal depth approximately1mm from the limbus. Fifteen rabbits with corneal NV were left without any treatment, and 15 rabbits were subjected to photodynamic therapy (PDT) by intravenous injection with Verteporfin at a dose of 1.5 mg /Kg. Diode laser (660 nm) was applied after 15minutes for 5 minutes with a power of 50 mW/cm2. All rabbits were successively followed up by slit lamp examination for periods of 1 day, 1, 2, 3 and 4 weeks. Three rabbits were selected and sacrificed weekly (n=6 eyes each) and the corneas were isolated for histopathological examination.

Results: The results of slit lamp examination indicated the gradual regression of the cornea neovascularization 4 weeks of PDT. Furthermore, regression of corneal neovascularization was documented clinically by decrease number and length of blood vessels and by histopathological examination.

Conclusion: PDT with Verteporfin can provide efficacious treatment of corneal neovascularization.

Micromorphological Evaluation of Dentin Treated with Different Desensitizing Agents

deise osmari, ana carolina de oliveira ferreira, Mariana De Carlo bello, alexandre henrique susin, ana cecília correia aranha, marcela marquezan, bruno lopes da silveira

Journal of Lasers in Medical Sciences, Vol. 4 No. 3 (2013), 22 Tir 2013, Page 140-146

Introduction: The purpose of a desensitizing agent is a permanent coating or filling of dentin surface. Morphological analysis in vitro of this treated surface is essential to understand the interaction between desensitizing agent and hypersensitive dentin. The aim was to evaluate the morphology of four dentin surface treated with desensitizing agents.

Methods: This was an in vitro laboratory study, where fifteen specimens from extracted human premolars were obtained. The enamel was removed to expose the dentin surface, polished with silicon carbide abrasive papers and etched with 6% citric acid for 2 min. The specimens were randomly divided into 5 groups: G1 - without treatment (control) (C), G2 - fluoride varnish (FV), G3 - potassium oxalate (PO), G4 - 2-step self-etching adhesive system (AS), G5 - diode laser (DL). The specimens were cleaved in the lingualbuccal direction, prepared for analysis by Scanning Electron Microscope and the surface and interior of the dentinal tubules were observed at 1500× magnification.

Results: In the control group, the dentin etching promoted smear layer removal and exposure of dentinal tubules. In the group of fluoride varnish, a film was observed on the surface, with plugs of varnish into tubules. In the group of oxalate, partial obliteration of the tubular entrances was observed. In the group of the adhesive system, the tubules were obstructed through the formation of hybrid layer and a physical barrier on the surface. In the group of the diode laser, dentin melting and solidification with partial occlusion of dentinal tubules were observed.

Conclusions: All desensitizing agents evaluated demonstrated ability to modify the surface of dentin, with partial or total occlusion of dentinal tubules. Thus, it is suggested to do more clinical studies to verify the effectiveness of the findings.

Case Report

Defocused Irradiation Mode of Diode Laser for Conservative Treatment of Oral Hemangioma

Reza Fekrazad, Katayoun AM Kalhori, Nasim Chiniforush

Journal of Lasers in Medical Sciences, Vol. 4 No. 3 (2013), 22 Tir 2013, Page 147-150

Vascular lesions rise from abnormalities in blood vessels or endothelial proliferation. Capillary hemangiomas are formed by small capillaries surrounded by a layer of endothelial cells in a connective tissue stroma. Various treatments are used for these conditions like excisional surgery, sclerotherapy, and recently laser irradiation. In this case study, we report successful treatment of intraoral capillary hemangioma by gallium/aluminum/arsenide (GaAlAs) laser. A 29 year old woman with a red lesion on the upper side of the right maxillary premolar was referred to private dental office. The Diode laser with wavelength of 810 nm was selected for treatment of the lesion in defocused mode by output power of 4 W in continuous mode. No bleeding was observed during surgery which provided better vision for surgeon and resulted in a minimally invasive procedure. According to results, Diode laser can be considered as a conservative modality in treatment of oral capillary hemangioma, especially in the esthetic zone.