Iranian Journal of Child Neurology,
Vol. 14 No. 4 (2020),
10 October 2020
Seizure is the most common neurologic event in the neonatal period when the immature, growing brain is vulnerable to various injuries. Seizure might be present as an atypical feature in neonates, which makes diagnosis a challenge. A vast majority of seizures are symptomatic due to an underlying cause, searching for etiology to remove them leads to more effective therapy. However, there is doubt about the diagnosis of seizures and the best treatment for them. Here, we reviewed articles related to diagnosis and treatment of neonatal seizures to evaluate the available evidence. The results showed that despite numerous studies on the topic, neither an implicit diagnosing method nor a therapeutic regime was proposed. It was also observed that phenobarbital prescription was reduced while newer anti-seizure medication such as levetiracetam was further prescribed. Seizure, the most common neurologic disorder in neonates, is a challenging topic for both neonatologists and neurologists. Since patients are critically ill, designing a randomized clinical trial appears not to be easy for neonates admitted to a neonatal intensive care unit. Moreover, both the diagnosis and treatment of seizures should be reevaluated based on neonatal characteristics. In the recent decade, new less harmful anti-seizure medications are being replaced with old ones.