Optimization of 2,6-Dimethoxy Benzoquinone Production through Wheat Germ Fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae
Applied Food Biotechnology,
Vol. 7 No. 3 (2020),
10 June 2020
Background and objective: Nowadays, anticancer effects of 2,6 dimethoxy benzoquinone are verified. Optimization of 2,6 dimethoxy benzoquinone content of fermented wheat germ extract was carried out by investigating effects of the various effective factors on wheat germ fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
Material and methods: Effects of controlling concentration of dissolved oxygen in fermentation media were studied on 2,6 dimethoxy benzoquinone content of fermented wheat germ extract. To increase the quantity of 2,6 dimethoxy benzoquinone in fermented wheat germ extract, simultaneous effects of four effective variables including wheat germ particle size, agitation rate, dry materials to water ratio and yeast to wheat germ ratio at three levels were investigated using Taguchi statistical design. Then, effects of fermentation time and increased scale on the content of 2,6 dimethoxy benzoquinone of fermented wheat germ extract were assessed using bench-scale fermenter. Concentration 2,6 dimethoxy benzoquinone was assessed using HPLC. Molecular weight patterns of the fermented wheat germ extract proteins and total protein of fermented wheat germ extract were assessed using gel electrophoresis and Kjeldahl methods, respectively.
Results and conclusion: Control of dissolved oxygen concentration of the fermentation process decreased 2,6 dimethoxy benzoquinone content to 0.135 mg g-1. Investigation effects of particle size of wheat germ, agitation rate, dry materials to water ratio and yeast to wheat germ ratio on 2,6 dimethoxy benzoquinone production showed that 2,6 dimethoxy benzoquinone concentration increased to 2.58 mg g-1 (dry material), one of the top concentrations ever reported. Effects of fermentation time in bench-scale bioreactor showed that the highest quantity of production was achieved within 16 h. Study of the protein patterns and total protein of fermented wheat germ extract and comparisons between these values and commercial samples showed that production improvement of 2,6 dimethoxy benzoquinone did not include significant effects on quality and quantity of proteins of fermented wheat germ extract. Results of this study demonstrated that fermentation conditions could significantly affect 2,6 dimethoxy benzoquinone contents of fermented wheat germ extract.
Conflict of interest: The authors declare no conflict of interest.
- ▪ 2
- 6-DMBQ ▪ Fermented wheat germ extract ▪ Taguchi method ▪ Fermentation of wheat germ
How to Cite
Brandolini A, Hidalgo A. Wheat germ: not only a by-product. Int J Food Sci Nutr 2012; 63:71–74.
Tuscano J, Lau D, O’donnell R, Ma Y. Fermented wheat germ proteins (FWGP) for the treatment of cancer. US Patent 9480725, 2016.
Hettiarachchy NS, Griffin VK, Gnanasambandam R. Preparation and functional properties of a protein isolate from defatted wheat germ. Cereal Chem 1996; 73 (3): 364–367.
Rizzello CG, Mueller T, Coda R, Reipsch F, Nionelli L, Curiel JA, Gobbetti M. Synthesis of 2-methoxy benzoquinone and 2, 6-dimethoxybenzoquinone by selected lactic acid bacteria during sourdough fermentation of wheat germ. Microb Cell Fact 2013; 12 (1):105. https://doi.org/10.1186/1475-2859-12-105.
Zhokhov SS, Broberg A, Kenne L, Jastrebova J. Content of antioxidant hydroquinones substituted by β-1, 6-linked oligosaccharides in wheat milled fractions, flours and breads. Food Chem 2010; 121 (3): 645–652.
Zheng ZY., Guo XN., Zhu KX, Peng W, Zhou HM. Artificial neural network-Genetic algorithm to optimize wheat germ fermentation condition: Application to the production of two anti-tumor benzoquinones. Food Chem 2017; 227: 264–270.
Xiaoyan M, Rokita SE. Role of oxygen during horseradish peroxidase turnover and inactivation. Biochem Bioph Res Co 1988; 157 (1): 160–165.
Đorđević TM, Siler Marinković SS, Dimitrijević-Branković SI. Effect of fermentation on antioxidant properties of some cereals and pseudo cereals. Food Chem 2010; 119 (3): 957–963.
Zhang JY, Xiao X, Dong Y, Wu J, Yao F, Zhou XH. Effect of fermented wheat germ extract with lactobacillus plantarum dy-1 on HT-29 cell proliferation and apoptosis. J Agri Food Chem 2015; 63 (9): 2449–2457.
Yoo JG., Kim MD. Production of 2-methoxy-1, 4-benzoquinone (2-MBQ) and 2, 6-dimethoxy-1, 4-benzoquinone (2, 6-DMBQ) from wheat germ using lactic acid bacteria and yeast. Food Eng Progr 2010; 14(4): 292-298.
Niu LY, Jiang ST, Pan LJ. Preparation and evaluation of antioxidant activities of peptides obtained from defatted wheat germ by fermentation. J Food Sci Technol 2013; 50 (1): 53–61.
Hidvegi M, Tomoskozine RF, Lapis K, Raso E, Szende B. Immunostimulatory and metastasis inhibiting fermented vegetal material. US Patent 6,355,474 B1, 2002.
Zheng Z, Guo X, Zhu K, Peng W, Zhou H. The optimization of the fermentation process of wheat germ for flavonoids and two benzoquinones using EKF-ANN and NSGA-II. RSC Advances 2016; 6 (59): 53821–53829.
Haraldsson AK, Veide J, Andlid T, Alminger ML, Sandberg AS. Degradation of phytate by high-phytase Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains during simulated gastrointestinal digestion, J Agri Food Chem 2005; 53 (13): 5438–5444.
Harinder K, Tiwana AS, Kaur B. Studies on the baking of whole wheat meals: Effect of pH, acids, milling and fermentation on phytic acid degradation, Adv Food Sci 1998; 20 (5-6): 181–189.
Lioger D, Leenhardt F, Demigne C, Remesy C. Sourdough fermentation of wheat fractions rich in fibres before their use in processed food. J Sci Food Agri 2007; 87 (7): 1368–1373.
Huang CJ, Lin H, Yang X. Industrial production of recombinant therapeutics in Escherichia coli and its recent advancements, J Ind Microbiol Biot 2012; 39 (3): 383–399.
Katina K, Laitila A, Juvonen R, Liukkonen KH, Kariluoto S, Piironen V, Landberg R, Poutanen PK Bran fermentation as a means to enhance technological properties and bioactivity of rye. Food Microbiol 2007; 24(2): 175–186.
Katina K, Salmenkallio-Marttila M, Partanen R, Forssell P, Autio K. Effects of sourdough and enzymes on staling of high-fibre wheat bread. LWT-Food Sci Technol 2006; 39 (5): 479– 491.
Garc’ia-Estepa RM, Guerra-Hernández E, Garc’ia-Villanova B. Phytic acid content in milled cereal products and breads. Food Res Int 1999; 32 (3): 217–221.
Salmenkallio-Marttila M, Katina K, Autio K. Effects of bran fermentation on quality and microstructure of high-fiber wheat bread. Cereal Chem 2001; 78(4): 429–435.
Türk M, Carlsson NG, Sandberg AS. Reduction in the levels of phytate during whole meal bread making; effect of yeast and wheat phytases. J Cereal Sci 1996; 23(3): 257–264.
Rizzello CG, Nionelli L, Coda R, Angelis MD, Gobbetti M. Effect of sourdough fermentation on stabilization, and chemical and nutritional characteristics of wheat germ. Food Chem 2010; 119(3): 1079–1089.
- Abstract Viewed: 133 times
- PDF Downloaded: 116 times