Immobilization of Phytase Producing Probiotics in Shrimp Chitosan Cross-linked by Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles and Assay its Antibacterial Activity
Applied Food Biotechnology,
Vol. 6 No. 3 (2019),
26 Tir 2019
Background and objective: Phytase is used in human and poultry additives. This enzyme is mostly produced by Aspergillus niger which is a plant pathogen. Phytase from probiotics is a good candidate for the food supplements.
Materials and methods: Bacillus coagulans, as a probiotic, was used for phytase and phosphatase activities on phytin agar and Pikovskayas Agar. The sodium dodecyl sulfatepolyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and zymogram analyses of the extracted phytase enzyme were carried out. Probiotic cells with phytase activity were immobilized on chitosan extracted from shrimp shells and the efficiency was investigated and analyzed using scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared.
Results and conclusion: In this study, Bacillus coagulans showed intracellular phytase activities from broken cells with Soluble Index of 2.5 on phytase specific media. Iron and zinc oxide nanoparticles accelerated the enzyme activity by 25%. Cells were precipitated using ZnO-chitosan nanoparticles and the enzyme activity was investigated on gels. Chelation of chitosan-metal ion increased the positive charge density of chitosan which was expected to enhance adsorption of zinc and teichoic acid on Gram-positive Bacillus coagulans; approved by SEM and FTIR. Cells immobilized on ZnO-chitosan promoted the enzyme activity by 28,800 U ml-1 gel. The entrapped cells were resistance to high temperature and pH. This complex not only included activities against Streptococcus agalactiae, but also dissolved insoluble phosphate and phytin, which has made this complex a good candidate for use as additive in human and animal foods.
Conflict of interest: The authors declare no conflict of interest.
- ▪ Chitosan immobilization ▪ Phytase ▪ Probiotic ▪ Zinc oxide nanoparticles
How to Cite
Ries EF, Alves Macedo G. Improvement of phytase activity by a new Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain using statistical optimization. Enzyme Res. 2011;2011:1-6.
Haros M, Carlsson N-G, Almgren A, Larsson-Alminger M, Sandberg A-S, Andlid T. Phytate degradation by human gut isolated Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum ATCC27919 and its probiotic potential. Int J Food Microbiol. 2009;135(1):7-14.
Afinah S, Yazid A, Anis Shobirin M, Shuhaimi M. Phytase: application in food industry. Int Food Res J. 2010;17(1):13-21.
Tischer W, Wedekind F. Immobilized enzymes: methods and applications. Biocatalysis-from discovery to application. 200: Springer; 1999: 95-126.
Zhang W, Xu F. Hierarchical composites promoting immobilization and stabilization of phytase via transesterification/silification of modulated alginate hydrogels. ACS Sustain Chem Eng. 2015;3(11):2694-2703.
Lata S, Rastogi S, Kapoor A, Imran M. Immobilization of Phytase produced by fungal strain Aspergillus heteromorphus MTCC 10685. Res J Pharm Biol Chem Sci. 2014;5(3):1615-1631.
Sirin Y, Akatin MY, Colak A, Saglam Ertunga N. Dephytinization of food stuffs by phytase of Geobacillus sp. TF16 immobilized in chitosan and calcium-alginate. Int J Food Prop. 2017;20(12):2911-2922.
Krajewska B. Application of chitin-and chitosan-based materials for enzyme immobilizations: a review. Enzyme Microb Technol. 2004;35(2):126-139.
Tharanathan RN, Kittur FS. Chitin — The Undisputed Biomolecule of Great Potential. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2003;43(1):61-87.
Badawy ME, Rabea EI, Marei GI. Preparation and characterizations of chitosan/citral nanoemulsions and their antimicrobial activity. Appl Food Biotechnol.2018;5(2):69-78.
Haros M, Bielecka M, Sanz Y. Phytase activity as a novel metabolic feature in Bifidobacterium. FEMS Microbiol Lett. 2005;247(2):231-239.
Khodaii Z, Natanzi MM, Naseri MH, Goudarzvand M, Dodsons H. Phytase activity of lactic acid bacteria isolated from dairy and pharmaceutical probiotic products. Int J Ent Pathog. 2013;1:12-16.
Nuobariene L, Arneborg N, Hansen ÅS, editors. Phytase active yeasts isolated from bakery sourdoughs. 9th Baltic Conference on Food Science and Technology “Food for Consumer Well-Being”; 2014. 223-227
Hirimuthugoda NY, Chi Z, Wu L. Probiotic yeasts with phytase activity identified from the gastrointestinal tract of sea cucumbers. S SPC Beche de Mer Inf Bull. 2007;26:31-33.
Moroni AV, Dal Bello F, Arendt EK. Sourdough in gluten-free bread-making: an ancient technology to solve a novel issue? Food Microbiol. 2009;26(7):676-684.
Hosseinkhani B, Emtiazi G, Nahvi I. Analysis of phytase producing bacteria (Pseudomonas sp.) from poultry faeces and optimization of this enzyme production. Afr J Biotechnol. 2009;8(17):4229-4232.
Sasirekha B, Bedashree T, Champa K. Statistical optimization of medium components for improved phytase production by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Int J Chem Tech Res. 2012;4:891-895.
Majidi NS, Emtiazi G, Esfahani SS. Flow Cytometry Detection of Bacterial Cell Entrapment within the Chitosan Hydrogel and Antibacterial Property of Extracted Chitosan. J Med Bacteriol. 2016;5(3-4):9-14.
Rodrı́guez H, Fraga R. Phosphate solubilizing bacteria and their role in plant growth promotion. Biotechnol Adv.1999;17(4):319-339.
Quan C, Zhang L, Wang Y, Ohta Y. Production of phytase in a low phosphate medium by a novel yeast Candida krusei. J Biosci Bioeng. 2001;92(2):154-160.
Bae H, Yanke L, Cheng K-J, Selinger L. A novel staining method for detecting phytase activity. J Microbiol Methods. 1999;39(1):17-22.
Onem H, Cicek S, Nadaroglu H. Immobilization of a thermostable phytase from Pinar melkior (Lactarius piperatus) onto magnetite chitosan nanoparticles. CyTA-J Food. 2016;14(1):74-83.
Qamar MU, Saleem S, Arshad U, Rasheed F, Ejaz H, Shahzad N, et al. Antibacterial Efficacy of Manuka Honey against New Delhi Metallo-β-Lactamase Producing Gram Negative Bacteria Isolated from Blood Cultures. Pakistan J Zool. 2017; 49(6): 1997-2003.
Khorasani AC, Shojaosadati SA. Improvement of Probiotic Survival in Fruit juice and under Gastrointestinal conditions using Pectin-Nanochitin-Nanolignocellulose as a Novel Prebiotic Gastrointestinal-Resistant Matrix. Appl Food Biotechnol. 2017;4(3):179-191.
Brena B, González-Pombo P, Batista-Viera F. Immobilization of enzymes: a literature survey. Immobilization of enzymes and cells. 1051: Springer; 2013: 15-31.
Peter MG. Applications and environmental aspects of chitin and chitosan. J Macromol Sci A. 1995;32(4):629-640.
Singla A, Chawla M. Chitosan: Some pharmaceutical and biological aspects‐an update. J Pharm Pharmacol. 2001;53(8):1047-1067.
Dutta PK, Ravikumar M, Dutta J. Chitin and chitosan for versatile applications. J Macromol Sci C. 2002;42(3):307-354.
Chávarri M, Marañón I, Ares R, Ibáñez FC, Marzo F, del Carmen Villarán M. Microencapsulation of a probiotic and prebiotic in alginate-chitosan capsules improves survival in simulated gastro-intestinal conditions. Int J Food Microbiol. 2010;142(1):185-189.
Quan C, Fan S, Ohta Y. Immobilization of Candida krusei cells producing phytase in alginate gel beads: an application of the preparation of myo-inositol phosphates. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol. 2003;62(1):41-47.
Vasile BS, Oprea O, Voicu G, Ficai A, Andronescu E, Teodorescu A, et al. Synthesis and characterization of a novel controlled release zinc oxide/gentamicin–chitosan composite with potential applications in wounds care. Int J Pharm. 2014;463(2):161-169.
- Abstract Viewed: 672 times
- PDF Downloaded: 776 times