Antioxidant, Antibacterial and Color Analysis of Garlic Fermented in Kombucha and Red Grape Vinegar
Applied Food Biotechnology,
Vol. 3 No. 4 (2016),
Background and Objective: Garlic, in different types, is a very common food ingredient all over the world. Traditionally, garlic is fermented in grape vinegar to produce garlic pickles; in this study, to produce a novel fermented food, garlic was fermented in kombucha beverage; then, antibacterial and chemical properties and color changes of garlics fermented in kombucha and vinegar were compared with each other and those of fresh garlic.
Material and Methods: Folin-Ciocalteu assay was performed to evaluate total phenolic contents; free radical scavenging activity was evaluated using 2,2- diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl. Disk diffusion method was performed to measure inhibitory activity against testing bacteria. A digital method was designed for color analysis. All data were statistically analyzed by ANOVA test at significant level of (p≤0.05).
Results and Conclusion: Fresh garlic extract had the highest inhibitory effect (mean 27.7 mm) against tested bacteria; kombucha fermented garlic showed bigger inhibition zone (mean 21.7 mm) than vinegar fermented garlic (mean 17.9 mm). Anti-staphylococcus aureus activity of fresh garlic was stronger than gentamycin and amoxicillin; inhibitory effect of garlic extracts against tested bacteria was significant in comparison with standard antibiotics. Fresh-garlic extract contained highest amount of phenolic contents; fermentation of garlic in kombucha decreased phenolic content of garlic bulbs by 1.92% and IC50 factor for antioxidant activity was 10.25% higher than fresh garlic; fermentation in vinegar reduced 21% of phenolic contents and IC50 obtained 47.4% higher than fresh garlic. Fermentation of garlic reduces the density of colors and luminosity, but the reduction in garlics fermented in vinegar is more than in kombucha. Appearance of vinegar fermented garlic changed to yellowish and kombucha inclined the color to reddish. Fermentation of garlic in kombucha provides better preservation of biological properties of garlic than in grape vinegar.
Conflict of interests: We declare that we have no conflicts of interests.
- color analysis
- phenolic content
How to Cite
Bozin B, Mimica-Dukic N, Samojlik I, Goran A, Igic R, Phenolics as antioxidants in garlic (Allium sativum L., Alliaceae). Food Chem. 2008; 111: 925-929. doi:10. 1016/j.foodchem.2008.04.071.
Corzo-Martı´nez M, Corzo N, Villamiel M, Biological properties of onions and garlic. Trends Food Sci Tech. 2007; 1-17. doi:10.1016/j.tif-s.2007.07.011.
Arzanlou M, Bohlooli S, Introducing of green garlic plant as a new source of allicin. Food Chem. 2010; 120: 179-183. doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2009: 1-0.004.
Baghaliana K, Ziaib SA, Naghavic MR, Naghdi Badib H, Khalighi A. Evaluation of allicin content and botanical traits in Iranian garlic (Allium sativum L.) ecotypes, Sci Hort. 2005: 103; 155–166. doi:10.1-016/j.scienta.2004.07.001.
Montaño A, Sánchez AH, Beato VM, López-López A, de Castro A. Pickling, Encyclopedia of Food and Health. 2016: 369-374. doi:10.1016/B978-0-12-38494 7-2.00545-6.
Anken RH, Kappel T. Histochemical and anatomical observations upon the tea fungus. Eur Arch Biol. 1992; 103: 219-222.
Battikh H, Bakhrouf A, Ammar E. Antimicrobial effect of Kombucha analogues. LWT-Food Sci Technol. 2012: 71-77. doi:10.1016/j.lwt.2011.12.033.
. Dufresne C, Farnworth E, Tea, kombucha and health: a review. Food Res Int. 2000: 33: 409-421. doi:10. 1016/S0963-9969(00)00067-3.
Greenwalt CJ, Steinkraus KH, Ledford RA. Komb-ucha, the fermented tea: microbiology, composition, and claimed health effects. J Food Prot. 2000: 63; 976-981.
Hartmann AM, Burleson LE, Holmes AK, Geist CR, Effects of chronic kombucha ingestion on open-field behaviors, longevity, appetitive behaviors, and organs in C57-BL/6 mice: a pilot study. Nutrition. 2000: 16; 755-761. doi: 10.1016/S0899-9007(00)-003 80-4.
Ebrahimi Pure A, Ebrahimi Pure M. Antioxidant and antibacterial activity of kombucha beverages prepared using banana peel, common nettles and black tea infusions. Appl Food Biotechnol. 2016: 3; 125-130.
Ebrahimi Pure A, Daraei Garmakhany A, Ebrahimi Pure M. The miracle of herbs: garlic, biological properties of Allium sativum, Saarbrücken - Germany: LAMBERT academic publishing, 2016: 41-42.
The European Committee on Antimicrobial Suscep-tibility Testing, Antimicrobial susceptibility testing-EUCAST disk diffusion method. 2015.
Shahidi F, Naczk M. Phenolics in Food and Nutraceuticals. Taylor & Francis, 2006: 487-488.
ADOBE. View histograms and pixel values. Available at: https://helpx.adobe.com/photoshop/using/viewing-histograms-pixel-values.html. Accessed 16 June 2016.
Sadeghian A, Ghazvini K, Antimicrobial activity of garlic extract against Shigella, Iran J Med Sci. 2002: 27; 142-144.
. Gull I, Saeed M, Shaukat H, Salam SM, Qaghir Z, Athar A. Inhibitory effect of Allium sativum and Zingiber officinale extracts on clinically important drug resistant pathogenic bacteria, Ann Clin Microbiol Antimicrob. 2012: 11; 1-8. doi: 10.1186/1476-0711-11-8.
Adetunde LA, Sackey I, Kombat EO, Issah N. Antimicrobial activities of heated extracts of garlic (Allium sativum) and Ginger (Zingiber officinale) on Some Selected Pathogens. Nat Sci. 2014: 12; 121-126.
Delaha EC, Garagusi VF. Inhibition of mycobacterial by garlic extract (Allium sativum). Antimicrob Agents Chemother, 1985: 27; 485-486. doi:10.1097/00006 454-198509000-00036.
Iwalokun BA, Ogunledun A, Ogbolu DO, Bamiro SB, Jimi-Omojola J. In vitro antimicrobial properties of aqueous garlic extract against multidrug-resistant bacteria and candida species from Nigeria. J Med Food. 2004: 7 (3); 327-333. doi:10.1089/jmf.2004.7.3-27.
Hur SJ, Leea SY, Kimb YC, Choib I, Kim GB, Effect of fermentation on the antioxidant activity in plant-based foods. Food Chem. 2014: 160; 346-356. doi:1-0.1016/j.foodchem.2014.03.112.
Couto JA, Campos FM, Figueiredo AR, Hogg TA, Ability of lactic acid bacteria to produce volatile phenols. Am J Enol Vitic. 2006: 57; 166-171.
Bossi A, Bonizzato L, Zapparoli G. Acidic extrac-ellular proteases from microrganisms of fairly acidic niche. Protein Pept Lett. 2006: 13; 37-41. doi:10.2174 /092986606777790647.
Velicanski A, Cventkovic D, Markov S, Character-istics of Kombucha fermentation on medicinal herbs from Lamiaceae family. Rom Biotech Lett. 2013: 18; 8034-8042.
Jayabalan R, Mariamuthu S, Swaminathan K, Chan-ges in content of organic acids and tea polyphenols during kombucha tea fermentation. Food Chem. 2007: 102; 392-398. doi:10.1016/j.foodchem. 2006.05. 032.
- Abstract Viewed: 2589 times
- Full article Downloaded: 1561 times