Original/Research Article

Predictive Factors of Mortality in Acute Amphetamine Type Stimulants Poisoning; a Review of 226 Cases

Mitra Rahimi, Somaieh Lookzadeh, Roxana Sadeghi, Kambiz Soltaninejad, Shahin Shadnia, Abdolkarim Pajoumand, Hossein Hassanian-Moghaddam, Nasim Zamani, Masoud Latifi-Pour (Author)

Archives of Academic Emergency Medicine, Vol. 6 No. 1 (2018), , Page e1

Introduction: Amphetamine type stimulants (ATS) such as amphetamine and methamphetamine (MA) are one of the most important causes of poisoning in the world.  In this study we aimed to define the predictive factors of mortality in acute ATS poisoning patients. Methods: This is a retrospective cross-sectional study on all cases with acute ATS poisoning who were referred to a referral center for poisoning, Tehran, Iran, from April 2011 to March 2014. Using patients’ medical records, demographic data, route of exposure, type and amount of ATS, the cause of poisoning, clinical presentations, and electrocardiogram (ECG) and laboratory findings, as well as patient’s outcomes were collected and analyzed regarding the independent predictive factors of mortality. Results: 226 cases with the mean age of 32.9 ± 10.9 years were studied (77% male). MA was the most abused ATS (97.4%) and the most frequent route of exposure was oral (55.3%). The mortality rate was 5.4%. There was a significant association between agitation (p = 0.002), seizure (p = 0.001), loss of consciousness (p < 0.001), creatine phosphokinase level (p = 0.002), serum pH (p = 0.002), serum HCO3 (p = 0.02), and PCO2 (p = 0.01) with mortality. However, serum HCO3 [OR=1.27 (95% CI: 1.07-1.50); p value=0.005], PCO2 [OR=0.89 (95% CI: 0.84-0.96); p value=0.002], and loss of consciousness [OR=0.019 (95% CI: 0.003-0.106); p value=0.000] were the only independent predictive factors of mortality. Conclusion: PCO2 ≥ 51 mmHg, serum bicarbonate ≤ 22.6 mEq/L, and loss of consciousness on admission could be considered as prognostic factors of mortality in acute ATS poisoning cases presenting to emergency department.

Urinary Neutrophil Gelatinase-Associated Lipocalin (NGAL) and Cystatin C in Early Detection of Pediatric Acute Kidney Injury; a Diagnostic Accuracy Study

Neamatollah Ataei, Sonbol Ameli, Mahmoud Yousefifard, Alireza Oraei, Fatemeh Ataei, Behnaz Bazargani, Arash Abbasi, Mostafa Hosseini (Author)

Archives of Academic Emergency Medicine, Vol. 6 No. 1 (2018), , Page e2

Introduction: There is a controversy regarding accuracy of neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) and Cystatin C in early detection of acute kidney injury (AKI). The present study aimed to compare the diagnostic value of two biomarkers in this regard.

Method: In the present diagnostic accuracy study, all children between the ages of 1 month to 14 years were entered. Pediatric Risk, Injury Failure, Loss, End-stage renal disease (pRIFLE) criteria was used for identification of children with AKI as the reference test. Blood samples were taken from all patients at baseline and 48 hours after admission to assess serum creatinine and Cystatin C level. In addition, a urine sample was obtained within 6 hours of admission in order to measure NGAL level. In the end, area under the receiving operating characteristics (ROC) curve, sensitivity, and specificity of urine NGAL (uNGAL) and Cystatin C in early detection of AKI were compared.

Results: Data from 96 children with the mean age of 27.31±36.24 months were entered (56.25% girls). Area under the ROC curve of uNGAL level in diagnosis of AKI in children was 0.91 (95% CI: 0.80 to 1.00) and area under the ROC of Cystatin C was 0.90 (95% CI: 0.77 to 1.00). Both tests had the same value in diagnosis of AKI (p=0.89). The best cut-off point of uNGAL for diagnosing AKI was 125 mg/L. uNGAL had a sensitivity and specificity of 0.92 (0.62 to 0.99) and 0.69 (0.57 to 0.78), respectively. The best cut-off point of serum Cystatin C level was 0.4 mg/L. Cystatin C had a sensitivity and specificity of 0.92 (0.62 to 0.99) and 0.64 (0.52 to 0.74), respectively.

Conclusion: The present study showed that uNGAL level has the same value as serum Cystatin C level in early diagnosis of AKI.

Pro-BNP versus MEDS Score in Determining the Prognosis of Sepsis Patients; a Diagnostic Accuracy Study

Majid Shojaee, Saeed Safari, Anita Sabzghabaei, Mostafa Alavi-Moghaddam, Ali Arhami Dolatabadi, Hamid Kariman, Soheil Soltani (Author)

Archives of Academic Emergency Medicine, Vol. 6 No. 1 (2018), , Page e4

Introduction: Pro-brain natriuretic peptide (Pro-BNP) can act as an independent predictor of mortality in septic patients. This study aimed to compare the diagnostic accuracy of pro-BNP and Mortality in Emergency Department Sepsis (MEDS) score in this regard.

Method: This cross-sectional study was conducted on > 14 years old sepsis patients of an emergency department (ED), during 2 years. The level of Pro-BNP and MEDS score were measured for all eligible patients and considering one-month mortality as reference, screening performance characteristics of the two tests were compared using SPSS 21 and STATS 11.

Results: 121 patients with the mean age of 75.87±11.82 years were studied (55.4% male). 85 (70.25%) patients had moderate to high probability of mortality according to MEDS score. The mean Pro-BNP levels of survivor and non-survivor patients were 489.69 ± 327.47 and 3954.98 ± 2717.85 pg/ml, respectively (p < 0.0001). Sensitivity and specificity of Pro-BNP (in 1000 pg/ml cut off) and MEDS score (in level 3) in prediction of 1-month mortality were 93.6 (83.7-97.9), 94.8 (84.7-98.6), 65.0 (51.9-76.3), and 98.2 (89.5-99.9), respectively. Area under the ROC curve of the two tests were 97.36 (95% CI: 92.92-94.48) and 92.31 (95% CI: 86.35-96.53), respectively (p = 0.0543).

Conclusion: Pro-BNP and MEDS score both have excellent diagnostic accuracy in predicting 1-month mortality of sepsis patients. However, considering the higher sensitivity as well as availability and ease of calculation, it seems that Pro-BNP can be considered an appropriate tool for screening patients with high risk of mortality following sepsis in ED.


Specialist Physicians’ Attitude towards Emergency Medicine; a Semi-Structured Qualitative Study

Shahrooz Tabrizi, Amir Nejati, Saharnaz Nedjat, Seyed Mojtaba Aghili (Author)

Archives of Academic Emergency Medicine, Vol. 6 No. 1 (2018), , Page e6

Introduction: The present study is a survey to assess the pros and cons of emergency medicine (EM) from the viewpoint of the scholars from other medicine disciplines to improve the efficiency of EM in the healthcare system. Methods: This is a semi-structured qualitative study. Face-to-face interviews with various physicians with different specialties were performed to gather information on their viewpoints. Study population was selected mainly based on their history of collaboration with emergency medicine specialists in several educational hospitals in Tehran, Iran. All interviews were recorded and then transcribed to paper. Data were mainly categorized and reported into four themes: 1) general aspects of emergency medicine, goals and policies 2) Management of emergency department 3) Educational aspects 4) therapeutic aspects. Results: 22 specialist physicians with the mean age of 47.3±7.6 years were studied (77.3% male). The average of their work experience as a specialist was 13.6±7.5 years. From the viewpoint of other experts, the establishment of EM and training of EM specialists is accompanied with relative disadvantages and advantages regarding goals and policies, patient management, therapeutic interventions and student education in the emergency department. Initiating resuscitation and maintaining hemodynamic stability and appropriate triage of the patients can add to the benefits of EM by preventing unreasonable hospitalization, and reducing the workload and difficulty of the work of other professionals working in the hospital. Conclusions: Based on the results of the current study, it seems that most Iranian specialist physicians have a positive attitude towards emergency medicine and think that emergency medicine could have beneficial effects for the health system and hospital management system.

Workplace Violence against Residents in Emergency Department and Reasons for not Reporting Them; a Cross Sectional Study

Gilava Hedayati Emam, Hossein Alimohammadi, Akram Zolfaghari Sadrabad, Hamidreza Hatamabadi (Author)

Archives of Academic Emergency Medicine, Vol. 6 No. 1 (2018), , Page e7

Introduction: Due to the stressful nature of emergency Department (ED), residents in ED are at risk of violence from patients or their associates. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of workplace violence against ED residents and the reasons for not reporting them. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on ED residents of three educational hospitals, Tehran, Iran, during 2015. The national questionnaire about workplace violence was used for data gathering. In addition, prevalence of reporting the violence and the reasons for not reporting them were determined. Results: 280 questionnaires were analyzed. The mean age of residents was 32.2 ± 4.6 years (58.4% female). 224 (80%) residents stated that they had not passed any educational courses on violence management. The most prevalent type of violence was verbal (90.7%) and patients’ associates (85.4%) were the most common source of aggression. The frequency of physical violence was higher in male aggressors (p = 0.001), resident age > 30 years (p = 0.044), aggressor age > 30 years (p = 0.001), and night shift (p = 0.001). The same trend was observed regarding verbal and racial-ethnic violence. There was no significant relationship between residents’ sex, resident's specialty, and presence of security and police with frequency of violence. 214 (76.4%) residents did not report the violence, and the main reasons for not reporting from their viewpoint were uselessness of reporting (37.4%) and insignificance of the violence (36.9%). Conclusion: Based on the findings of the present study more than 90% of ED residents had experienced at least one type of verbal, physical, or racial-ethnic violence during their shifts. It is necessary for residents in EDs to be trained about violence control and also report and follow these issues through legal channels.

Accuracy of Neck stiffness, Kernig, Brudzinski, and Jolt Accentuation of Headache Signs in Early Detection of Meningitis

Alireza Ala, Farzad Rahmani, Sima Abdollahi, Zahra Parsian (Author)

Archives of Academic Emergency Medicine, Vol. 6 No. 1 (2018), , Page e8

Introduction: The diagnostic value of clinical signs in early diagnosis of meningitis has been evaluated but the existing results are contradicting. The present study aimed to evaluate the accuracy of Kernig, Brudzinski, neck stiffness, and Jolt Accentuation of Headache (JAH) signs in this regard. Methods: In this diagnostic accuracy study, patients with suspected meningitis who were referred to the emergency department were examined regarding presence or absence of the mentioned clinical signs and screening performance characteristics of the signs were calculated. Cerebrospinal fluid analysis was used as the reference test. Results: 120 cases with mean age of 48.79 ± 21.68 years (18 – 93) were studied (63.3% male). Diagnosis of meningitis was confirmed for 45 (37.5%) cases. Neck stiffness (p < 0.001), Kernig (p < 0.001), Brudzinski (p < 0.001), and JAH (p < 0.001) had significantly higher frequency among patients with meningitis. The accuracy of neck stiffness, Kernig, Brudzinski, and JAH signs in early detection of meningitis were 0.676 (95% CI: 0.575-0.776), 0.667 (95% CI: 0.552-0.782), 0.720 (95% CI: 0.619-0.821), 0.749 (95% CI: 0.659-839), respectively. Conclusions: It seems that diagnostic value of JAH is higher than other clinical signs but the accuracy of all signs is in poor to fair range. JAH had the highest sensitivity and Kernig and Brudzinski had the highest specificity.

Dexmedetomidine-Fentanyl versus Midazolam-Fentanyl in Pain Management of Distal Radius Fractures Reduction; a Randomized Clinical Trial

Ali Arhami-Dolatabadi, Elham Memary, Majid Shojaee, Hossein Kamalifard (Author)

Archives of Academic Emergency Medicine, Vol. 6 No. 1 (2018), , Page e10

Introduction: Currently, using various combinations of narcotic and analgesic drugs has received attention for induction of sedation and analgesia due to their synergy in controlling pain and anxiety. The present study was designed with the aim of comparing dexmedetomidine-fentanyl combination with midazolam-fentanyl in this regard. Methods: In this randomized clinical trial, patients diagnosed with distal radius fracture who had visited the emergency department (ED) were allocated to either the group receiving the combination of fentanyl-midazolam or the one receiving dexmedetomidine-fentanyl for procedural sedation and analgesia (PSA) and were compared regarding analgesic characteristics, time to recovery and side effects. Results: 80 patients with the mean age of 42.08 ± 12.17 (18 - 60) years were randomly allocated to 2 groups of 40 (83.80% male). The 2 groups did not have a significant difference regarding baseline characteristics as well as pain severity.  Mean pain score at the time of procedure was 3.47 ± 1.37 in dexmedetomidine and 2.85 ± 1.05 in midazolam group (p = 0.025). In addition, time to recovery in dexmedetomidine and midazolam groups was 6.60 ± 1.86 minutes and 12.70 ± 1.70 minutes, respectively (p < 0.001). Out of the 9 patients who experienced treatment failure, 8 (88.90%) patients were in dexmedetomidine group and 1 (11.10%) was in midazolam group (p = 0.029). Absolute risk increase rate of treatment failure in case of using dexmedetomidine instead of midazolam was 17.50% (95%CI: 4.19 – 30.81) and number needed to harm was 6.00 (95% CI: 3.20 – 23.80). Conclusion: Although the combination of dexmedetomidine-fentanyl had a shorter time to recovery compared to midazolam-fentanyl for induction of sedation and analgesia, the treatment failure rate in case of using dexmedetomidine with 1 µg/kg increased 17.5% and about 1 out of each 6 patients needed a rescue dose.

Emergency Department Bedside Ultrasonography for Diagnosis of Acute Cholecystitis; a Diagnostic Accuracy Study

Babak Shekarchi, Seyed-Zia Hejripour-Rafsanjani, Nima Shekar-Riz-Fomani, Mojtaba Chahardoli (Author)

Archives of Academic Emergency Medicine, Vol. 6 No. 1 (2018), , Page e11

Introduction: Using bedside ultrasound in diagnosing acute cholecystitis in the emergency department (ED) can save time, help the decision making process and allocate resources wisely. This study aimed to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of bedside right upper quadrant (RUQ) ultrasonography in detection of acute cholecystitis. Method: In this diagnostic accuracy study, patients presenting to ED, suffering from RUQ pain in favor of acute cholecystitis underwent RUQ ultrasonography in emergency and radiology departments and interrater agreement between reports was calculated. Results: 342 patients with the mean age of 53.92 ± 11.18 (20 – 83) years were studied (63.2% female). The number of patients with at least one sonographic finding of acute cholecystitis were 53 (15.50%) and 48 (14.00%) based on ED and radiology reports (Kappa = 0.826). Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, as well as positive and negative likelihood ratios of bedside sonography were 89.58 (95%CI: 76.55 – 96.10), 96.59 (95%CI: 93.63 – 98.29), 81.13 (95%CI: 67.58 – 90.11), 98.26 (95%CI: 95.77 – 99.36), 4.30 (95%CI: 2.42 – 7.62) and 0.017 (95%CI: 0.007 – 0.041), respectively. Conclusion: There was a very good agreement between ED and radiology departments’ sonography reports regarding the presence or absence of acute cholecystitis. Sensitivity and specificity of bedside RUQ sonography were 89.58 and 96.59, respectively.

The Accuracy of Ultrasonography in Detection of Ulnar Collateral Ligament of Thumb Injuries; a Cross-Sectional Study

Babak Shekarchi, Mohammadreza Mokhdanzadeh-Dashti, Mostafa Shahrezaei, Ebrahim Karimi (Author)

Archives of Academic Emergency Medicine, Vol. 6 No. 1 (2018), , Page e15

Introduction: Timely diagnosis and treatment of traumatic injury to ulnar collateral ligament (UCL) of thumb is of special importance for preserving the full function of the hand. Therefore, the present study has been designed with the aim of evaluating the accuracy of ultrasonography in detection of these injuries. Methods: The present diagnostic accuracy study was performed on traumapatients over 15 years oldwho had clinical evidence of injury to UCL of thumb and were admitted to the emergency department. All patients were evaluated regarding injury to the mentioned ligament via ultrasonography and MRI and finally, the accuracy of ultrasonography in this regard was measured considering MRI as the reference test. Results: 20 individuals with the mean age of 38.60 § 13.45 (16 – 64) years were evaluated (60% male). Based on ultrasonography andMRI findings 7 (35%) individuals and 7 (35%), respectively had complete ligament rupture (kappa: 0.560 (95% CI: 0.179 – 0.942)). Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value, and positive and negative likelihood ratio of ultrasonography in detecting injuries of the mentioned ligament were 71.42 (30.25 – 94.88), 84.61 (53.66 – 97.28), 71.42 (30.25 – 94.88), 84.61 (53.66 – 97.28), 2.5 (0.71 – 8.82), and 0.18 (0.04 – 0.67), respectively. Conclusion: Based on the findings of the present study, performance of ultrasonography by a radiologist in the emergency department has 80% accuracy in detecting traumatic injuries of UCL of the thumb.

Emergency Medicine Resident versus Radiologist in Detecting the Ultrasonographic Signs of Acute Cholecystitis; a Diagnostic Accuracy Study

Javad Tootian Tourghabe, Hamid Reza Arabikhan, Ali Alamdaran, Hamid Zamani Moghadam (Author)

Archives of Academic Emergency Medicine, Vol. 6 No. 1 (2018), , Page e19

Introduction: Dependence of ultrasonography on the operator’s skill plays a major role in the differences between various studies in reporting its diagnostic accuracy. Therefore, the present study was done with the aim of comparing the ultrasonography findings performed by emergency medicine resident and radiologist in evaluation of acute cholecystitis. Methods: The present diagnostic accuracy study has been carried out on patients presenting to the emergency department with complaint of pain in the right upper quadrant of abdomen suspected with acute cholecystitis. All the patients underwent gallbladder ultrasonography by a trained emergency medicine resident and a radiologist and their findings were compared with surgical and pathology findings regarding gallstone and increased gallbladder wall thickness. Results: 51 patients with the mean age of 42.3±15.8 (17-81) years were analyzed (82.4% female). The overall agreement between emergency medicine resident and radiologist in ultrasonographic diagnosis of cholecystitis was 0.421 (95% CI: 0.118-0.724). Based on the pathology and surgical findings, acute cholecystitis was confirmed for all 51 (100%) patients. Meanwhile, based on the ultrasonographic report of radiologist and emergency medicine resident only 45 (88.2%) and 34 (66.7%) patients, respectively, were diagnosed with cholecystitis. Screening performance characteristics of ultrasonography by radiologist for detection of gallbladder stone (p = 0.010) and gallbladder wall thickness (p < 0.0001) were significantly better than emergency medicine resident. Conclusion: The screening performance characteristics of ultrasonography by radiologist in detection of gallstones and increased wall thickness of gallbladder were significantly better.

The Effect of Low-Dose Ketamine in Treating Acute Asthma Attack; a Randomized Clinical Trial

Mehrdad Esmailian, Mahboubeh Koushkian Esfahani, Farhad Heydari (Author)

Archives of Academic Emergency Medicine, Vol. 6 No. 1 (2018), , Page e21

Introduction: Efficient treatment of asthma can play an important role in controlling asthma attacks, rapid recovery and decrease of patient mortality. Therefore, in the present study the therapeutic effect of low-dose ketamine is evaluated in patients with acute asthma attack.

Methods: In the present single-blind, randomized clinical trial with placebo control, the effect of low-dose intravenous ketamine in treating 18 to 85 year-old asthmatic patients who presented to the emergency department was evaluated. Peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) and the patients’ response to treatment were measured before and 1 hour after treatment. Additionally, using SPSS 22.0, effectiveness of ketamine with 0.3, 0.4, and 0.5 mg/kg doses followed by infusion of the same dose during 30 minutes were compared with placebo.

Results: 92 patients were enrolled (59.8% female, mean age 48.5 ± 13.9 years). 15 (16.3%) patients were treated with 0.3 mg/kg ketamine, 14 (15.2%) with 0.4 mg/kg, and 16 (17.4%) with 0.5 mg/kg doses. Mean PEFR was 336.2 ± 101.5 liters in the placebo group and 345.8 ± 84.7 liters in the ketamine group before intervention (p = 0.6), while after intervention, they were 352.1 ± 101.2 and 415.8 ± 76.2 liters, respectively (p = 0.001). Ketamine treatment with 0.4 and 0.5 mg/kg doses led to a higher increase in PEFR compared to 0.3mg/kg dose (df: 3, 88; F = 23.8; p < 0.001).

Conclusion: It seems that administration of 0.4 - 0.5 mg/kg doses of intravenous ketamine followed by infusion of the same dose during 30 minutes can be effective for rapid recovery of PEFR in patients with mild to moderate asthma.

Lidocaine-Midazolam-Fentanyl Combination in Controlling Pain for Reduction of Anterior Shoulder Dislocation; a Randomized Clinical Trial

Ali Arhami Dolatabadi, Aida Mohammadian, Hamid Kariman (Author)

Archives of Academic Emergency Medicine, Vol. 6 No. 1 (2018), , Page e24

Introduction: Finding a fast-acting compound with minimal side-effects to induce a safe and efficient analgesia with short or medium duration of action is of great interest in the emergency department. The present study has been designed with the aim of comparing the effect of midazolam + fentanyl + lidocaine combination with midazolam + fentanyl + placebo in pain management of anterior shoulder dislocation reduction.

Methods: The present two-arm parallel double-blind randomized controlled trial was performed on patients who presented to emergency department with anterior shoulder dislocation. Patients were randomly allocated to the 2 treatment groups of midazolam + fentanyl + placebo (double-drug group) and midazolam + fentanyl + intravenous (IV) lidocaine (triple-drug group). Then outcomes such as treatment success rate and side-effects following prescription of drugs were compared between the 2 groups.

Results: 100 patients were included in the present study (50 patients in each group; mean age of the studied patients 27.3±8.9 years; 93.0% male). Using the double-drug regimen led to 35 (70%) cases of complete analgesia, while this rate in the triple-drug group was 41 (82%) cases (p=0.16). The calculated number needed to treat was 9 cases. This means that about one in every 9 patients in treatment arm will benefit from the treatment. The most important side-effects observed included dysrhythmia (1 patient in double drug and 1 patient in triple-drug group), apnea (2 patients in each group) and SPO2<90% (2 patients in triple-drug group) (p=0.78). Number needed to harm was 25 cases. In other words, for each 25 patients treated with the triple drug regimen, 1 case of SPO2<90% is observed.

Conclusion: Findings of the present study showed that adding IV lidocaine to IV midazolam + fentanyl drug combination does not provide additional analgesia in sedation for anterior shoulder reduction.

Prehospital Emergency Medical Services Challenges in Disaster; a Qualitative Study

Mohamad Sorani, Sogand Tourani, Hamid Reza Khankeh, Sirous Panahi (Author)

Archives of Academic Emergency Medicine, Vol. 6 No. 1 (2018), , Page e26

Introduction: Prehospital Emergency Medical Care (EMC) is a critical service in disaster management. The aim of this study was to explore the challenges of prehospital Emergency Medical Services (EMS) during disaster response in Iran.

Methods: A qualitative study was conducted from April 2015 to March 2017. Data were collected through in-depth, semi-structured interviews with 23 experienced individuals in the field of disaster that were selected using purposeful sampling. Data were analyzed using content analysis approach.

Results: Fifteen sub-themes and the following six themes emerged in the analysis: challenges related to people, challenges related to infrastructure, challenges related to information management systems, challenges related to staff, challenges related to managerial issues and challenges related to medical care.

Conclusions: Iran’s prehospital EMS has been chaotic in past disasters. Improvement of this process needs infrastructure reform, planning, staff training and public education. 

Epidemiology and Outcome of Patients with Acute Kidney Injury in Emergency Department; a Cross-Sectional Study

Saeed Safari, Behrouz Hashemi, Mohammad Mehdi Forouzanfar, Mehrnoush Shahhoseini, Meysam Heidari (Author)

Archives of Academic Emergency Medicine, Vol. 6 No. 1 (2018), , Page e30

Introduction: Elimination of preventable deaths due to acute kidney injury (AKI) in low-income countries by 2025 is an important healthcare goal at the international level. The present study was designed with the aim of evaluating the prevalence and outcome of AKI in patients presenting to emergency department.

Methods: The present cross-sectional, retrospective study was performed on patients that presented to the emergency departments of 3 major teaching hospitals, Tehran, Iran, between 2005 and 2015 and were diagnosed with AKI. Patient selection was done using consecutive sampling and required data for this study was extracted by referring to the medical profiles of the patients and filling out a checklist designed for the study.

Results: 770 AKI patients with the mean age of 62.72 ± 19.79 (1 – 99) years were evaluation (59.1% male). 690 (89.61%) cases of AKI causes were pre-renal or renal. Among the pre-renal causes, 74 (73.3%) cases were due to different types of shock (p < 0.001). The most common etiologic causes of AKI in pre-renal group were hypotension (57.3%) and renal vascular insufficiency (31.6%). In addition, regarding the renal types, rhabdomyolysis (35.0%), medication (17.5%) and chemotherapy (15.3%) and in post-renal types, kidney stone (34.5%) were the most common etiologic causes. 327 (42.5%) patients needed dialysis and 169 (21.9%) patients died. Sex (p = 0.001), age over 60 years (p = 0.001), blood urea nitrogen level (p < 0.001), hyperkalemia (p < 0.001), metabolic acidosis (p < 0.001), cause of failure (p = 0.001), and type of failure (p = 0.009) were independent risk factors of mortality.

Conclusion: The total prevalence of AKI in emergency department was 315 for each 1000000 population and preventable mortality rate due to AKI was estimated to be 28.2 cases in each 1000000 population. The most important preventable AKI causes in the pre-renal group included shock, sepsis, and dehydration; in the renal group they included rhabdomyolysis and intoxication; and stones in the post-renal group.

Introduction: Screening of high risk patients and accelerating their treatment measures can reduce the burden of the disease caused by acute upper gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding. This study aimed to compare the full and modified Glasgow-Blatchford Bleeding Score (GBS and mGBS) in prediction of in-hospital outcomes of upper GI bleeding.

Methods: In the present retrospective cross-sectional study, the accuracy of GBS and mGBS models were compared in predicting the outcome of patients over 18 years of age with acute upper GI bleeding confirmed via endoscopy, presenting to the emergency departments of 3 teaching hospitals during 4 years.

Results: 330 cases with the mean age of 59.07 ± 19.00 years entered the study (63.60% male). Area under the curve of GBS and mGBS scoring systems were 0.691 and 0.703, respectively, in prediction of re-bleeding (p = 0.219), 0.562 and 0.563 regarding need for surgery (p = 0.978), 0.549 and 0.542 for endoscopic intervention (p = 0.505), and 0.767 and 0.770 regarding blood transfusion (p = 0.753). Area under the ROC curve of GBS scoring system regarding need for hospitalization in intensive care unit (0.589 vs. 0.563; p = 0.035) and mortality (0.597 vs. 0.564; p = 0.011) was better but the superiority was not clinically significant.

Conclusion: GBS and mGBS scoring systems have similar accuracy in prediction of the probability of re-bleeding, need for blood transfusion, surgery and endoscopic intervention, hospitalization in intensive care unit, and mortality of patients with acute upper GI bleeding.

Performance of Local Anesthesia with Lidocaine among Opium Addicts and Non-Addicts; a Case Control Study

Alireza Majidi, Tala Shahhosseini, Sadrolla Mahmoudi (Author)

Archives of Academic Emergency Medicine, Vol. 6 No. 1 (2018), , Page e35

Introduction: Compared to ordinary people, addicts usually have a lower pain threshold. The current work attempts to compare the performance of local analgesia with lidocaine among opium addicts and non-addicts.

Methods: In this case-control study, opium addicts and healthy patients with skin laceration referring to emergency departments of two educational hospitals were compared regarding the response to local anesthesia with lidocaine, as well as side effects.

Results: 197 cases with the mean age of 43.44 ± 20.12 years were studied (72.1% male). 98 (49.8%) cases were addicts and 99 (50.2%) were healthy people. Two groups were similar regarding age (p = 0.281), sex (p = 0.666), and wound size (p = 0.272). The amount of pain reduction 5 (df =1.5, F=0.38, p = 0.88) and 10 (df =1.5, F=0.58, p = 0.72) minutes after lidocaine injection was not different between the groups. Subgroup analysis based on sex and age of patient did not show any differences between the groups (p > 0.1 for all analysis). The mean duration of analgesia was 16.4 ± 5.37 minutes in addicts and 16.95±1.79 in control group (p = 0.334).

Conclusion: Lidocaine, as a commonly used local anesthetic agents, does not show different effects in addicts and non-addicts in repairing skin laceration.

Awareness of Basic Life Support among Egyptian Medical Students; a Cross-Sectional Study

Esraa Ghanem, Muhammad Elgazar, Khaled Oweda, Hussien Tarek, Fathy Assaf, Mostafa Wanees, Ahmed Elgebaly, Abdelrahman Ibrahim Abushouk (Author)

Archives of Academic Emergency Medicine, Vol. 6 No. 1 (2018), , Page e36

Introduction: It is important for all medical and paramedical staff to be aware of basic life support (BLS) maneuvers. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the level of BLS awareness among Egyptian medical students.

Methods: The level of BLS knowledge was assessed using a validated questionnaire and the results were analyzed using an answer key, prepared from the Advanced Cardiac Life Support (ACLS) manual. We used the Student's t-test to analyze the association between awareness level and year of study, previous BLS training and practical experience.

Results: A total of 823 medical students with the mean age of 20.3 ± 2.7 years, from Al-Azhar medical schools completed the questionnaire (463 and 360 in academic and clinical years, respectively). About 72% and 84% of students failed to recognize the proper point of chest compression in adults and infants, respectively. Moreover, the majority (80%) did not know how to give rescue breathing in infants. Only 18% of students correctly identified early signs of shock and only 22% knew how to help patients with myocardial infarction. Being in clinical years, previous BLS training or practical experience were significantly associated with higher BLS knowledge scores (p < 0.001).

Conclusion: The level of BLS awareness among Egyptian medical students is generally poor. Introduction of regular BLS courses into the undergraduate curriculum is a must to increase the level of BLS knowledge among Egyptian future physicians.

Introduction: This study aims to analyze the references that the authors and editors used during the writing of Rosen’s Emergency Medicine, 8th edition.

Methods: 15,209 references, which were used in 197 chapters of Rosen’s EmergencyMedicine, 8th edition, were examined regarding the distribution of countries, journals, publication year, and the department of the affiliation of the first author.

Results: A total of 63.1% (n = 9591) of the references were led by authors from the United States (US). US-based journals were mostly used, and Annals
of Emergency Medicine was the journal from which the references were most frequently extracted, with a percentage of 5.2% (n = 756). The studies conducted by emergency physicians have increased in recent years, and emergency physicians, with a percentage of 17.8% (n = 351), were the leading authors of studies conducted between 2010 and 2013, which were cited in the references of Rosen’s Emergency Medicine, 8th edition.

Conclusion: US-based studies make up a significantly bigger portion of the references used in Rosen’s Emergency Medicine, 8th edition. If Europe and other countries give due importance to emergency medicine, they will have the capability to produce studies that can be used as references in textbooks asmuch as the US.

Acute Lidocaine Toxicity: a Case Series

Mitra Rahimi, Mahboubeh Elmi, Hossein Hassanian-Moghaddam, Nasim Zamani, Kambiz Soltaninejad, Reza Forouzanfar, Shahin Shadnia (Author)

Archives of Academic Emergency Medicine, Vol. 6 No. 1 (2018), , Page e38

Introduction: Parenteral form of lidocaine is the best-known source of lidocaine poisoning. This study aimed to evaluate the characteristics of acute lidocaine toxicity.

Methods: In this retrospective cross-sectional study, demographics, clinical presentation, laboratory findings, and outcome of patients intoxicated with lidocaine (based on  ICD10 codes) admitted to Loghman Hakim Hospital, during April 2007 to March 2014 were analyzed.

Results: 30 cases with the mean age of 21.83 ± 6.57 year were studied (60% male). All subjects had used either 6.5% lidocaine spray or 2% topical formulations of lidocaine. The mean consumed dose of lidocaine was 465 ± 318.17 milligrams. The most frequent clinical presentations were nausea and vomiting (50%), seizure (33.3%), and loss of consciousness (16.7%). 22 (73.3%) cases had normal sinus rhythm, 4 (13.3%) bradycardia, 2 (6.7%) ventricular tachycardia, and 2 (6.7%) had left axis deviation. 11 (36.6%) cases were intubated and admitted to intensive care unit (ICU) for 6.91 ± 7.16 days. Three patients experienced status epilepticus that led to cardiac arrest, and death (all cases with suicidal intention).

Conclusion: Based on the results of this study, most cases of topical lidocaine toxicity were among < 40-year-old patients with a male to female ratio of 1.2, with suicidal attempt in 90%, need for intensive care in 36.6%, and  mortality rate of 10%.

New Molecular Aspects of Cardiac Arrest; Promoting Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation Approaches

Mona Zamanian-Azodi, Mostafa Rezaei-Tavirani, Mohammad Rostami-Nejad, Fatemeh Tajik-Rostami (Author)

Archives of Academic Emergency Medicine, Vol. 6 No. 1 (2018), , Page e40

Introduction: Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is a method to improve survival of patients with cardiac arrest. This study aimed to identify the key genes affected five minutes after cardiac arrest, hoping to elevate the efficacy of CPR.

Methods: In this bioinformatics study differentially expressed genes of six pigs were downloaded from GEO and screened. The significant and characterized genes were analyzed via calculating fold change and protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks. The crucial nodes were determined based on centrality parameters and their related biological processes were investigated via ClueGO.

Results: 17 significant up-regulated (LogFC ≥ 2) and 22 down-regulated (LogFC < -0.5) genes were detected. Transthyretin (TTR logFC = 4.59) and Gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor (GNRHR logFC = 3.84) had higher logFC among up-regulated and down-regulated genes, respectively. The critical genes including four up-regulated and five down-regulated genes were detected from network analysis. GNRHR and Prolactin precursor (PRL) were among the most important down res 5 minutes after cardiac arrest and Beta-2 adrenergic receptor and Cadherin-1 were among the most important up regulated gens. 

Conclusion: The introduced potential biomarkers could reveal a new molecular aspect for CPR performance and pituitary gland protection was highlighted in this respect.   

Job Burnout, Stress, and Satisfaction among Emergency Nursing Staff after Health System Transformation Plan in Iran

Nader Tavakoli, Seyed Hosein Shaker, Siamak Soltani, Mohsen Abbasi, Milad Amini, Ali Tahmasebi, Seyed Mohammad Hosseini Kasnavieh (Author)

Archives of Academic Emergency Medicine, Vol. 6 No. 1 (2018), , Page e41

Introduction: Job burnout, stress, and satisfaction are linked to quality of care, patient outcomes and retention of staff. This study was conducted to determine the mentioned issues among emergency nurses.

Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on all nurses working in the emergency departments of 10 hospitals in Tehran, Iran, in 2017. Standard questionnaires were used for gathering the data of participants regarding job burnout, stress, and satisfaction.

Results: 709 (90%) participants returned the completed questionnaires (58.9% female). The mean age of the nurses was 33 (SD = 7) years. The level of job burnout was moderate in 76.1%, low in 22.5%, and high in 1.4% of the nurses. The level of burnout in the married nursing staff was lower than single nurses (3.78 ± 0.98 versus 4.14 ± 0.58, p = 0.049). The level of job satisfaction was moderate in 61.1%, low in 22.2%, and high in 16.7%. There was a significant correlation between age and job satisfaction (p = 0.027, r = 0.3). Job burnout was directly correlated with job stress (p ≤0.001, r = 0.57) and job burnout was negatively correlated with job satisfaction (p = 0.001, r = -0.41).

Conclusion: More than 60% of the studied emergency nurses had moderate levels of job burnout, stress, and satisfaction. Job burnout had a direct correlation with job stress and indirect correlation with job satisfaction. Planning to reduce burnout of the emergency nursing staff seems to be necessary.

Glasgow Coma Scale and FOUR Score in Predicting the Mortality of Trauma Patients; a Diagnostic Accuracy Study

Parisa Ghelichkhani, Maryam Esmaeili, Mostafa Hosseini, Khatereh Seylani (Author)

Archives of Academic Emergency Medicine, Vol. 6 No. 1 (2018), , Page e42

Introduction: Many scoring models have been proposed for evaluating level of consciousness in trauma patients. The aim of this study is to compare Glasgow coma scale (GCS) and Full Outline of UnResponsiveness (FOUR) score in predicting the mortality of trauma patients.

Methods: In this diagnostic accuracy study trauma patients hospitalized in intensive care unit (ICU) of 2 educational hospitals were evaluated. GCS and FOUR score of each patient were simultaneously calculated on admission as well as 6, 12 and 24 hours after that. The predictive values of the two scores and their area under the receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve were compared.

Results: 90 patients were included in the present study (mean age 39.4±17.3; 74.4% male). Comparing the area under the ROC curve of GCS and FOUR score showed that these values were not different at any of the evaluated times: on admission (p=0.68), and 6 hours (p=0.13), 12 hours (p=0.18), and 24 hours (p=0.20) after that.

Conclusion: The results of our study showed that, GCS and FOUR score have the same value in predicting the mortality of trauma patients. Both tools had high predictive power in predicting the outcome at the time of discharge.

Intravenous Haloperidol versus Midazolam in Management of Conversion Disorder; a Randomized Clinical Trial

Mohammadali Jafari, Amir Aliheidari Biuki, Majid Hajimaghsoudi, Mehdi Bagherabadi, Ehsan Zarepur (Author)

Archives of Academic Emergency Medicine, Vol. 6 No. 1 (2018), , Page e43

Introduction: Conversion disorder is a condition in which the patient shows psychological stress in physical ways. This study aimed to compare the effects of haloperidol versus midazolam in patients with conversion disorder.

Methods: This double-blind randomized clinical trial was conducted on patients with conversion disorder who had presented to the emergency department, throughout 2015. Patients were randomly divided into two groups and were either treated with 2.5 mg of intravenous (IV) haloperidol or 2.5 mg of IV midazolam. Recovery rate, time to recovery, and side effects of both drugs 1 hour, 24 hours, and 1 week after treatment were compared using SPSS19.

Results: 140 patients were divided into two groups of 70. There were no significant differences between the groups regarding the baseline characteristics. 12 (17.1%) patients who were treated with IV haloperidol experienced drug side effects within 1 hour and 12 (17.1%) within 24 hours, while only 3 (4.3%) patients in IV midazolam experienced side-effects within 1 hour after drug administration (p = 0.026).  The symptoms of the disease subsided in 45 (success rate: 64.3%) patients in midazolam and in 64 (success rate: 91.5%) participants in haloperidol group (P<0.001). Mean recovery time was 31.24 ± 7.03 minutes in IV midazolam and 30.53 ± 7.11 minutes in IV haloperidol group (p = 0.592). Absolute risk reduction (ARR) of treating patients with haloperidol compared to midazolam is about 27%.

Conclusion: The response of patients to treatment with haloperidol is clearly better than midazolam. Although more transient and minor side-effects were observed in the group treated with haloperidol compared to midazolam group, serious side-effects were rare for both treatments.

Quetiapine versus Haloperidol in Controlling Conversion Disorder Symptoms; a Randomized Clinical Trial

Saeed Reza Ghanbarizadeh, Hossein Dinpanah, Reza Ghasemi, Yaser Salahshour, Samaneh Sardashti, Mostafa Kamali, Seyed Reza Khatibi (Author)

Archives of Academic Emergency Medicine, Vol. 6 No. 1 (2018), , Page e47

Introduction: About 5% of visits to emergency departments are made up of conversion disorder cases. This study was designed with the aim of comparing the effectiveness of quetiapine and haloperidol in controlling conversion disorder symptoms.

Methods: The present single-blind clinical trial has been performed on patients with conversion disorder (based on the DSM-IV definition) presenting to emergency department of 9-Day Hospital, Torbat Heydariyeh, Iran, from January 2017 until May 2018.

Results: 73 patients were allocated to haloperidol and 71 to quetiapine group. Mean age of these patients was 32.03 ± 12.80 years (62.50% female). Two groups were similar regarding the baseline characteristics. Within 30 minutes, 90.41% of haloperidol cases and 91.55% of quetiapine cases were relieved (p=0.812). The most common side effects after 30 minutes were extrapyramidal symptoms (9.59%) in the haloperidol group and fatigue and sleepiness (7.04%) in the quetiapine group. Extrapyramidal symptoms was significantly higher than the quetiapine group (p=0.013).

Conclusion: The results of the present study showed that although quetiapine and haloperidol have a similar effect in relieving the patients from conversion disorder symptoms, the prevalence of extrapyramidal symptoms is significantly lower in the group under treatment with quetiapine. Therefore, it seems that quetiapine is a safer drug compared to haloperidol.

Serum Procalcitonin and Lactoferrin in Detection of Acute Appendicitis; a Diagnostic Accuracy Study

Mohammad-Reza Motie, Anvar Soleimani, Arash Soltani, Seyed Isaac Hashemy (Author)

Archives of Academic Emergency Medicine, Vol. 6 No. 1 (2018), , Page e51

Introduction: Finding an accurate diagnostic test can reduce the rate of unnecessary abdominal surgery in cases of suspected acute appendicitis (AA). This study aimed to evaluate the diagnostic value of serum lactoferrin (LF) and procalcitonin (PCT) in detection of patients with acute appendicitis.

Methods: In this diagnostic accuracy study, screening performance characteristics of PCT and LF were calculated in patients suspected with acute appendicitis and healthy volunteers as control group.

Results: 131 cases participated (61 as case and 70 as control). The mean serum level of LF (0.9±0.14 vs 0.2±0.13 µg/ml; p 0.0001) and PCT (0.15±0.21 vs 0.11±0.02 ng/dl; p = 0.02) were significantly higher in patients suspected with AA. The AUC of PCT and LF were 0.46 (95% CI: 0.31-0.61) and 0.61 (95%CI: 0.47 - 0.76), respectively. At a 0.90 µg/ml cut-off value, LF had 77% (95 % CI: 63 - 91) sensitivity and 43% (95 % CI: 31 - 55) specificity. Also, at a 0.11 ng/dl cut-off value, PCT had 41% (95 % CI: 26 - 56) sensitivity and 69% (95 % CI: 53 - 85) specificity.

Conclusion: Based on the main finding of present study, the overall accuracy of serum PCT and LF in detection of patients with acute appendicitis are in poor to failed range and it seems that they could not be considered as good screening tools for this purpose.

Correlation of Hyperchloremic Metabolic Acidosis and Renal Function in Critically ill Patients of Emergency Department: an Observational Study

Mauro Giordano, Tiziana Ciarambino, Pietro Castellino, Lorenzo Malatino, Giuseppe Signoriello, Giuseppe Paolisso, Luigi Elio Adinolfi (Author)

Archives of Academic Emergency Medicine, Vol. 6 No. 1 (2018), , Page e52

Introduction: Early detection is crucial for prompt management of acute kidney injury (AKI) patients in emergency department (ED). This study aimed to investigate the usefulness of hyperchloremic metabolic acidosis (HCMA) levels in this regard.

 Methods: In this retrospective observational study, > 18 years old critically ill patients presenting to ED of Marcianise Hospital, Italy, were divided into non-AKI and AKI group according to KDIGO guideline. The level of HCMA ((arterial pH x bicarbonate)/chloride) was compared between groups and correlation of HCMA with estimated glomerular filtration rate (e-GFR) in ARF patients was evaluated.

Results: 134 patients with the mean age of 76.5 ± 3.1 years were enrolled (64 non-AKI and 70 AKI; 64% female). Two groups were similar regarding mean age (p = 0.251), sex (p = 0.091), APACHII score (p = 0.215), Charlson Comorbidity Index (p= 0.187), and body mass index (p = 0.129). The mean HCMA level was 1.98 ± 0.09 in the non-AKI group and 1.56 ± 0.07 in the AKI group (p=0.039). There was a positive correlation between HCMA and e-GFR levels in AKI group (r: 0.467, p=0.0092).

Conclusions: If confirmed and validated in a future study, ABG derived formula for HCMA may be a useful tool for early detection of AKI patients in emergency department.

Intravenous versus Subcutaneous Midazolam Using Jet-injector in Pediatric Sedation; a Randomized Clinical Trial

Majid Hajimaghsoudi, Mehdi Bagherabadi, Ehsan Zarepur, Vahid Ahmadi Hanzaei (Author)

Archives of Academic Emergency Medicine, Vol. 6 No. 1 (2018), , Page e53

Introduction: The quality of interventions in children is largely dependent on their control. Hence, this study compared the sedative effects of subcutaneous (SC) and intravenous (IV) Midazolam in pediatric sedation induction.

Methods: This randomized clinical trial was conducted on children aged 1-6 years presenting to emergency departments of Shahid Sadoughi and Shahid Rahnemoon Hospitals, Yazd, Iran. Participants were randomly assigned to IV or SC midazolam using a jet injector and success rate, degree of sedation, and satisfaction of parents and physician were compared between groups.

Results: 60 cases with the mean age of 3.15±1.43 (1-6) years were randomly assigned to the SC (30 cases) or IV (30 cases) groups (56.7% female). SC and IV groups were similar regarding the mean age (p = 0.165) and sex (p = 0.121).

Depth of sedation (p=0.900), control of child (p=0.711), in-charge physician’s satisfaction (p=0.467), successful sedation and need for rescue dose (p=0.519) were not different between groups. IV midazolam group had a significantly shorter recovery time (about 10 minutes; p=0.040) and SC midazolam group had a significantly higher level of parent satisfaction (p=0.001).

Conclusion: The findings indicate no significant difference in depth of sedation, control of child, in-charge physician’s satisfaction, successful sedation (reaching stage 1 of sedation or higher), and need for rescue dose of SC and IV midazolam. Parents’ satisfaction was significantly greater with SC administration and IV injection had shorter recovery time.

Burn-induced Oxidative Stress and Serum Glutathione Depletion; a Cross Sectional Study

Arash Beiraghi-Toosi, Roya Askarian, Faezeh Sadrabadi Haghighi, Mohammad Safarian, Fereshteh Kalantari, Seyed Isaac Hashemy (Author)

Archives of Academic Emergency Medicine, Vol. 6 No. 1 (2018), , Page e54

Introduction: Several studies have shown the role of oxidative stress in pathophysiology of burn injuries. This study aimed to evaluate the changes of oxidant-antioxidant levels during the week following burn injuries and its correlation with grade of burn.

 Methods: In this prospective cross-sectional study, changes of total glutathione, reduced glutathione (GSH), oxidized GSH (GSSG), GSH/GSSG ratio, as well as Pro-oxidant-antioxidant balance (PAB) were investigated on the 1st, 2nd and 7th days of admission in patients with > 15 % burns.

Results: 40 patients with the mean age of 21.1 ± 14.5 were studied (47.5% male). More than 50% of patients were in the 18 – 55 years age range and over 70% had 20% – 60% grade of burn. Total serum glutathione level and GSH had significant decreasing trends (P < 0.001) and GSSG and GSH/GSSG ratio had increasing trends (p < 0.001). No significant correlation was observed between serum GSH level and the total body surface area (TBSA) of burn injury (r = 0.047; p = 0.779). The evaluation of PAB and its correlation with TBSA showed a significant and direct association between them on the 1st (coefficient = 0.516; p = 0.001), 2nd (coefficient = 0.62; p <0.001), and 3rd (coefficient = 0.471; p = 0.002) day of follow up.

Conclusion: According to this study, the redox perturbation occurred in burn injury which was measured and proved by decreased GSH/GSSG ratio as well as the shift of PAB in favour of oxidants. Besides, since PAB positively correlated with the severity of dermal damage, it might suggest the application of antioxidants as a part of therapeutic protocol for which the dosage should be proportionate to the surface area of the damaged skin.


Screening performance of Ultrasonographic B-lines in Detection of Lung Contusion following Blunt Trauma; a Diagnostic Accuracy Study

Saeed Abbasi, Hossein Shaker, Fariba Zareiee, Davood Farsi, Peyman Hafezimoghadam, Mahdi Rezai, Babak Mahshidfar, Mani Mofidi (Author)

Archives of Academic Emergency Medicine, Vol. 6 No. 1 (2018), , Page e55

Introduction: Chest ultrasonography is routinely used in evaluation of chest trauma for diagnosis of pulmonary injury. This study aimed to evaluate the accuracy of B-Lines for diagnosing lung contusion in patients with blunt trauma of the chest.

Methods: Trauma patients who met the inclusion criteria were enrolled in the study and underwent ultrasonography by trained emergency medicine residents. Ultrasound results were recorded in terms of number of B-lines and the existence of peripheral parenchymal lesion (PPL). After ultrasound, the patient underwent chest x-ray and chest CT scan (as reference test) and screening performance of B-lines and PPL were evaluated.

Results: 147 patients underwent chest ultrasound. The mean age of the patients was 40.74 ± 18.6 (78.9% male). B-lines˃3 had 94.0% (95% CI: 83.45-98.75) sensitivity and 57.7% (95% CI: 47.3-67.7) specificity, B-lines˃6 had 90.0% (95% CI: 78.2-96.7) sensitivity and 93.81% (95% CI: 87.0-97.7) specificity, and PPL had 34.0% (95% CI: 21.2-48.8) sensitivity and 100% (95% CI: 96.3-100.0) specificity. Composite findings of B-lines˃6 + PPL had 92.0% (95% CI: 80.8-97. 8) sensitivity and 93.8% (95% CI: 87.0-97.7) specificity in the diagnosis of lung contusion.

Conclusion: PPL and B-Lines˃6 had the highest accuracy in detecting lung contusion. B-Line˃6 had high sensitivity and specificity and was easy to perform; thus, it seems that B-Line˃6 could be considered as an alternative screening tool in detection of lung contusion.

Low-Dose Fentanyl, Propofol, Midazolam, Ketamine and Lidocaine Combination vs. Regular Dose Propofol and Fentanyl Combination for Deep Sedation Induction; a Randomized Clinical Trial

Afshin Amini, ali arhami, Hamid Kariman, Hamidreza Hatamabadi, Elham Memary, Sohrab Salimi, Shahram Shokrzadeh (Author)

Archives of Academic Emergency Medicine, Vol. 6 No. 1 (2018), , Page e57

Introduction: Need for procedural sedation and analgesia (PSA) is felt in emergency department (ED) more and more each day. This study aimed to compare the effectiveness of low-dose fentanyl, propofol, midazolam, ketamine and lidocaine combination with regular dose of propofol and fentanyl combination for induction of deep sedation.

Methods: In this single-blind clinical trial, candidate patients for sedation and analgesia aged more than 15 and less than 60 years old, with pain score ≥6 were allocated to one of the groups using block randomization and were compared regarding onset of action, recovery time, and probable side effects.

Results: 125 patients with the mean age of 37.8 ± 14.3 years were randomly allocated to each group. 100% of the patients in group 1 (5 drugs) and 56.5% of the patients in group 2 (2 drugs) were deeply sedated in the 3rd minute after injection. The 2 groups were significantly different regarding onset of action (p = 0.440), recovery time (p = 0.018), and treatment failure (p < 0.001).

Conclusion: Low-dose fentanyl, propofol, midazolam, ketamine and lidocaine combination was more successful in induction of deep sedation compared to regular dose of propofol and fentanyl combination. Recovery time was a little longer in this group and both groups were similar regarding drug side effects and effect on vital signs.

Evaluation of Airway Management Proficiency in Pre-Hospital Emergency Setting; a Simulation Study

Shahrzad Ghiyasvandian, Afshin Khazaei, Masoumeh Zakerimoghadam, Rasoul Salimi, Ali Afshari, Abbas Mogimbeigi (Author)

Archives of Academic Emergency Medicine, Vol. 6 No. 1 (2018), , Page e58

Introduction: Infrequency and low exposure to critically ill patients requiring airway management will lead to reduction in the skills and performance of the Emergency Medical Technicians (EMTs) over time. The present study was conducted primarily aiming to evaluate airway management in stationary ambulance simulations and identify the factors affecting Endotracheal Intubation (ETI) success rate.

Method: This is a simulation study. The study population comprised of active EMTs in prehospital emergency bases in Hamadan province. The participants were placed at the back of an ambulance to perform the airway management scenario, which had already been prepared. To investigate the factors affecting the success (≤3 attempts) or failure rate of intubation, both unadjusted and adjusted odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) for univariate and multivariate regressions were reported.

Results: 184 subjects with the mean age of 33.91+6.25 years and the median work experience of 8 years were studied (54.3% with a history of training in the past year).  The median number of previous intubations performed by technicians in the last year was 7 times (IQR 4-9). The total success rate at ventilation, intubation and back-up airway were 50.67%, 53.29%, and 50.0%, respectively. Out of the total 552 attempts for ETI placement, 58.2% of the technicians were able to perform ETI within 3 attempts. Univariate analysis showed that age (OR=1.06, P=0.022), previous number of ETIs (OR=2.49, P<0.001), work experience (OR=1.13, P<0.001), and previous ETI training (OR=1.85, P=0.041) were significantly associated with ETI success rate. After adjustment, previous number of ETIs (OR=2.66, P<0.001) was the most effective factor on ETI success rate.

Conclusion: Success rate in airway management, especially ETI, is low. Therefore, improvement in modifiable factors such as increasing the number of ETIs performed and gaining experience in the same conditions as pre-hospital emergency is necessary.

Oral Oxycodone Compared With Intravenous Morphine Sulfate for Pain Management of Isolated Limb Trauma; a Randomized Clinical Trial

Parisa Eizadi, Mohammad Jalili, Ahmadreza Dehpour (Author)

Archives of Academic Emergency Medicine, Vol. 6 No. 1 (2018), , Page e59

Introduction: Appropriate pain relief enhances patient satisfaction and reduces patient anxiety. This study aimed to compare oral oxycodone with intravenous (IV) morphine sulfate (MS) in pain management of acute limb trauma.

Method: In this randomized double-blind clinical trial, patients over 14 years old, with acute isolated limb trauma were randomized to receive either 5mg IV MS or 5 mg oral oxycodone. Pain intensity and adverse effects of medications were recorded 0, 30 and 60 minutes after drug administration and compared between the groups.

Result: 58 patients were studied. Pain intensity was similar between the two studied groups at 30 minutes (P = 0.834) and 60 minutes (P = 0.880) after drug administration. Furthermore, there was no significant difference between the two groups regarding decrease in pain within the defined time interval. Drowsiness was reported more frequently in MS group after 30 minutes (p = 0.006). Patients in MS group asked for more rescue analgesia. Other adverse effects were similar in both groups.

Conclusion: Oral oxycodone is as effective as IV morphine sulfate in treatment of acute musculoskeletal pain following blunt limb trauma.

Review Article

Applications of End-Tidal Carbon Dioxide (ETCO2) Monitoring in Emergency Department; a Narrative Review

Hamed Aminiahidashti, Sajad Shafiee, Alieh Zamani Kiasari, Mohammad Sazgar (Author)

Archives of Academic Emergency Medicine, Vol. 6 No. 1 (2018), , Page e5

Capnograph is an indispensable tool for monitoring metabolic and respiratory function. In this study, the aim was to review the applications of end-tidal carbon dioxide (ETCO2) monitoring in emergency department, multiple databases were comprehensively searched with combination of following keywords: “ETCO2â€, “emergency department monitoringâ€, and “critical monitoring†in PubMed, Google Scholar, Scopus, Index Copernicus, EBSCO and Cochrane Database.

Value of Manchester Acute Coronary Syndromes Decision Rule in the Detection of Acute Coronary Syndrome; a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Fatemeh Ramezani, Sajjad Ahmadi, Gholamreza Faridaalaee, Alireza Baratloo, Mahmoud Yousefifard (Author)

Archives of Academic Emergency Medicine, Vol. 6 No. 1 (2018), , Page e61

Introduction: There is still no consensus on the value of Manchester Acute Coronary Syndromes (MACS) decision rule in detecting acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Therefore, the purpose of the present systematic review and meta-analyzes is to summarize the clinical evidence in the evaluation of  the value of MACS in the diagnosis of ACS.

Methods: A literature search was performed on the Medline, Embase, Scopus, and Web of Science databases. Outcomes included acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and major adverse cardiac event (MACE).  Data were analyzed in the STATA 14.0 statistical program and the results were reported as summary receiver operating characteristics (SROC), sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative likelihood ratio, and diagnostic odds ratio with 95% confidence interval (95% CI).

Results: Finally, 8 articles included in the meta-analysis. The area under the SROC of MACS was excellent in rule out of AMI (AUC = 0.99, 95% CI: 0.97 to 0.99) and MACE (AUC = 0.97, 95% CI: 0.95 to 0.98). The sensitivity and specificity of the troponin-only MACS/history electrocardiogram alone MACS (HE-MACS) in the rule out of AMI were0.99 (95% CI: 0.98-0.99) and 0.22 (95% CI: 0.11-0.37), respectively, and for  the original MACS were in order 0.99 (95% CI: 0.98-0.99) and 0.26 (95% CI: 0.20-0.34),. The sensitivity and specificity of the troponin-only MACS / HE-MACS in the rule out of MACE were 0.94 (95% CI: 0.92-0.96) and 0.22 (95% CI: 0.12-0.39) compared to the 0.99 (95% CI: 0.98-0.99) and 0.27 (95% CI: 0.22-0.33) for the original MACS.

Conclusion: The findings of this study showed that original MACS, troponin-only MACS, and HE-MACS are able to rule out AMI and MACE. However, further studies are needed in developing countries to confirm its external validity.

Ubiquitin C-Terminal Hydrolase-L1 (UCH-L1) in Prediction of Computed Tomography Findings in Traumatic Brain Injury; a Meta-Analysis

Fatemeh Ramezani, Amir Bahrami-Amiri, Asrin Babahajian, kavous Shahsavari Nia, Mahmoud Yousefifard (Author)

Archives of Academic Emergency Medicine, Vol. 6 No. 1 (2018), , Page e62

Introduction: Ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase-L1 (UCH-L1) is one of the promising candidates, with an acceptable diagnostic value for predicting head computed tomography (CT) scan findings. However, there has been a controversy between studies and still, there is no general overview on this. Therefore, the current systematic review and meta-analysis attempted to estimate the value of UCH-L1 in predicting intracranial lesions in traumatic brain injury.

Methods: Two independent reviewers screened records from the search of four databases Medline, Embase, Scopus and Web of Science. The data were analyzed in the STATA 14.0 statistical program and the findings were reported as a standardized mean difference (SMD), summary receiver performance characteristics curve (SROC), sensitivity, specificity, and diagnostic odds ratio with 95% confidence interval (95% CI).

Results: Finally, the data of 13 articles were entered into the meta-analysis. The mean serum level of UCH-L1 was significantly higher in patients with CT-positive than in TBI patients with CT negative (SMD = 1.67, 95% CI: 1.12 to 2.23, I2 = 98.1%; p <0.0001). The area under the SROC curve for UCH-L1 in the prediction of intracranial lesions after mild TBI was 0.83 (95% CI: 0.80 to 0.86). Sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic odds ratio of serum UCH-L1 was 0.97 (95% CI: 0.92 to 0.99), 0.40 (95% CI: 0.30 to 0.51) and 19.37 (95% CI: 7.25 to 51.75), respectively. When the analysis was limited to assessing the serum level of UCH-L1 within the first 6 hours after mild TBI, its sensitivity and specificity increased to 0.99 (95% CI: 0.94 to 1.0) and 0.44 (95% CI: 0.38 to 0.052), respectively. In addition, the diagnostic odds ratio of 6-hour serum level of UCH-L1 in the prediction of intracranial lesions was 680.87 (95% CI: 50.50 to 9197.97).

Conclusion: Moderate level of evidence suggests that serum/plasma levels of UCH-L1 have good value in prediction of head CT findings. It was also found that evaluation of serum/plasma level of UCH-L1 within the first 6 hours following TBI would increase its predictive value. However, there is a controversy about the best cutoffs of the UCH-L1.

Brief Report

Candidemia in Febrile Neutropenic Patients; a Brief Report

Maysam Yousefi, Davood Yadegarynia, Ensieh Lotfali, Zahra Arab-Mazar, Ali Ghajari, Alireza Fatemi (Author)

Archives of Academic Emergency Medicine, Vol. 6 No. 1 (2018), , Page e39

Introduction: Febrile neutropenic patients are at risk of serious infections. The aim of the present study is to identify the frequency, species, and susceptibility patterns of candidemia in febrile neutropenic patients. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on febrile neutropenic patients suspected with candidemia who had been referred to 3 educational hospitals during 9 months. Results: The blood samples of 80 febrile neutropenic patients with the mean age of 48§16.6 years were studied (60% female). Five (6.25%) episodes of candidemia were identified. The underlying disease was acute myeloid leukemia in 4 (80%) cases and all 5(100%) cases had central venous catheter and were receiving prophylactic ciprofloxacin and acyclovir. 100% of isolates were found to be susceptible to Voriconazole, 80% to Caspofungin, 60% to Amphotericin B, and 40% to Fluconazole. Conclusion: The frequency of candidemia among the studied febrile neutropenia patients was 6.25%, with 80% mortality rate, and themost frequently identified yeastwas Candida albicans (100% susceptible to Voriconazole).

Quality of Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation in Emergency Department Based on the AHA 2015 Guidelines; a Brief Report

Ali Vafaei, Amin Shams Akhtari, Kamran Heidari, Somayeh Hosseini (Author)

Archives of Academic Emergency Medicine, Vol. 6 No. 1 (2018), , Page e46

Introduction: Adhering to existing guidelines on cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) can increase the survival rate of the patients. The present study has been designed with the aim of determining the quality of CPR performed in the emergency department based on the latest protocol by the American heart association (AHA).

Methods: In this prospective cross-sectional study CPR process was audited in patients above 18 years old in need of CPR presenting to the emergency departments of 3 teaching hospitals based on the AHA 2015 guidelines. Less than 60% agreement was considered as fail, 60-70% as poor, 70-80% as moderate, 80-90% as good, and 90-100% as excellent.

Results: 80 cases of CPR were audited (55% male).  Location of arrest was the hospital in 58 (72.5%) cases and 48 (60.0%) of the cases happened during the day. 28 (35.0%) cases had orotracheal intubation before the initiation of CPR. 30 (37.5%) patients had a shockable rhythm at the initiation of CPR. Based on the findings, out of the 31 studied items, 9 (29.03%) had excellent agreement, 10 (32.25%) had good, 4 (12.90%) had moderate, 2 (6.45%) had poor, and 6 (19.35%) had fail agreement rate.

Conclusion: Based on the findings of the present study, the quality of applying the principles of basic and advanced CPR in the emergency department of the studied hospital had intermediate, poor and fail agreement with the recommendations of the AHA 2015 in at least one third of the cases.

Characteristics of Mortalities related to Pulmonary Embolism following Multiple Trauma; a Brief Report

Fares Najari, Babak Mostafazadeh, Asadollah Akbari, Ideh Baradaran kaya, Dorsa Najari (Author)

Archives of Academic Emergency Medicine, Vol. 6 No. 1 (2018), , Page e48

Introduction: Pulmonary embolism (PE) is introduced as the third major cause of death after trauma in those who survive more than 24 hours. This study aimed to describe the characteristics of mortalities due to trauma related PE in cases referred to the forensic medicine department.

Methods: The present cross sectional study was conducted on medical profiles of cadavers that were registered as trauma related mortality in the dissection department of the Forensic Medicine Organization, Tehran, Iran, during 2011 to 2016.

Results: The cause of death for 92 of the 10800 (0.85%) evaluated cadavers was diagnosed as trauma related PE. The mean age of these patients was 58.37 ± 19.39 years (66.3% male). Only 14 (15.2%) hospitalized patients had received anticoagulant agents. The most frequent trauma related PE mortality cases were male (p = 0.003) and aged > 55 years (p = 0.005), with trauma to death time of < 3 weeks (p = 0.004), lower limb injury (p = 0.003), car crash trauma mechanism (p = 0.003), and no anticoagulant prescribed (p = 0.001).

Conclusion: According to the results of the present study, the prevalence of trauma related PE mortality was 0.85%. It seems that, having a clear anticoagulation therapy protocol in trauma centers could be helpful in decreasing the prevalence of traumatic thromboembolism and its’ related mortality.

Rhabdomyolysis and Acute Poisoning; a Brief Report

Abdolkarim Pajoumand, Farshid Fahim, Meisam Akhlaghdoust, Nasim Zamani, Zeinab Amirfirooz, Mahnaz Dehdehasti (Author)

Archives of Academic Emergency Medicine, Vol. 6 No. 1 (2018), , Page e56

Introduction: Some studies have reported creatinine phosphokinase (CPK) as a new emerging way in predicting the outcomes of poisoned patients. This study aimed to evaluate the association of serum CPK level in the first 24 hours with outcomes of poisoned patients.

Methods: This retrospective cross-sectional study was performed using the medical profiles of poisoned patients aged between 13 and 70 years old who were referred to the emergency department of a big referral medical toxicology center during 6 years and whose necessary data for this study was available.

Results: 318 patients with the mean age of 34.9±14.5 years were studied (77.1% male). The mean serum CPK level of patients was 4693.1 ± 10303.8 (35–89480) IU/L. There was no significant correlation between serum CPK level and cause of poisoning (r= 0.16; p=0.51), age (r = -0.021; p = 0.651), sex (r = 0.131; p = 0.281), seizure (r = -0.022; p = 0.193), level of consciences (r = -0.138; p = 0.167), and duration of hospital stay (r= 0.242, p = 0.437). The mean serum CPK level was significantly higher in ICU admitted (p<0.0001), AKI (p<0.0001), hyperkalemia (p<0.0001), hypophosphatemia (p=0.045), and hypocalcaemia (p=0.008) cases.  The best cut off point of serum CPK level in predicting acute kidney injury (AKI) was estimated to be 10000 IU/L (sensitivity = 83.8% and specificity = 68.8%).

Conclusion: It seems that CPK could be considered as a candidate tool for screening the intoxicated patients in need for ICU admission and at risk for AKI.

Case Report

Using Intra-Aortic Balloon Pump for Management of Cardiogenic Shock Following Aluminum Phosphide Poisoning; Report of 3 Cases

Ahmad Bagheri-moghaddam, Hassan Abbaspour, Shahrad Tajoddini, Vahideh Mohammadzadeh, Ali Moinipour, Bita Dadpour (Author)

Archives of Academic Emergency Medicine, Vol. 6 No. 1 (2018), , Page e3

Introduction: Aluminium phosphide (Alp) poisoning mortality rate has been reported as high as 70-100%, and refractory hypotension and cardiogenic shock are the two most common presentations leading to death. Due to lack of specific antidote, all treatments are focused on supportive care and recently, intra-aortic balloon pump (IABP) has been suggested to treat cardiogenic shock resulting from toxic myocarditis. In the current paper, we introduce three Alp poisoned patients for whom IABP was applied to manage their refractory shock. Case presentation: Two men and one woman who were admitted to emergency department (ED) of Imam Reza academic Hospital, Mashhad, Iran due to intentional Alp poisoning are reported. The cases visited the ED shortly after ingestion and nearly all of them showed hypotension, tachycardia and metabolic acidosis during early hospitalization. Due to persistent shock state, despite receiving intravenous fluid therapy and vasopressor agents, IABP insertion was performed in these cases. Finally, one of them survived and the other two died. Conclusion: It still cannot be decided whether IABP insertion is effective in cases of Alp poisoning or not. It might be reasonable to try this intervention along with other conservative treatments in patients who survive more than 12 hours and consistently suffer from refractory hypotension.

Methamphetamine-Induced Cardiomyopathy (MACM) in a Middle-Aged Man; a Case Report

Zulfiqar Qutrio Baloch, Muhammad Hussain, Shabber Agha Abbas, Jorge L. Perez, Muhammad Ayyaz (Author)

Archives of Academic Emergency Medicine, Vol. 6 No. 1 (2018), , Page e9

The development of methamphetamine-associated cardiomyopathy (MACM) represents a severe complication of chronic methamphetamine abuse. MACM-induced irreversible structural and functional changes in the heart can eventually lead to decompensated heart failure, ultimately requiring heart transplantation. In this case report we present a 47-year old male with a previous history of chronic amphetamine abuse who presented to the emergency room with severe dyspnea at rest associated with mild substernal non-radiating chest pain. He denied any previous cardiac history but had a positive urinary toxicology for methamphetamine. A complete cardiac workup ruled out all other etiologies. The patient required a 3-week intensive pharmacotherapy intervention to stabilize acute heart failure symptoms. At discharge he was classified as having New York Association Class III (NYHA-III) heart failure. His medical symptoms did not improve and he was considered for heart transplantation. With the increase in availability and abuse of methamphetamine, case of MACM such as ours are more frequently being encountered in the emergency departments. In addition to raising awareness, our case provides an outline of how MACM patients likely may present and the subsequent morbid sequela. Clinicians should maintain a high degree of suspicion when assessing all patients with a history of methamphetamine abuse. Early cardiac evaluation can help identify ventricular compromise in asymptomatic patients providing an opportunity to intervene prior to the development of irreversible MACM.

Sudden Death Following Oral Intake of Metal Objects (Acuphagia): a Case Report

Mohammad Ali Emamhadi, Fares Najari, Mohammad Javad Hedayatshode, Shokoufeh Sharif (Author)

Archives of Academic Emergency Medicine, Vol. 6 No. 1 (2018), , Page e16

According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), pica is described as eating one or more non-nutritive, non-food substances over a period of at least 1 month that is severe enough to warrant clinical attention. The present case is a 44-year-old man who was brought to emergency department following severe abdominal pain, but died before admission or receiving any treatments. On the autopsy, 64 bolts and metal fittings (3700 grams) were found in the esophagus, stomach, small intestine, and large intestine of the patient.

Loss of Guide Wire as an Important Complication of Central Venous Catheterization; a Case Report

Fares Najari, Mohamadjavad Amirian, Sara Sadjadi, Ideh Baradaran Kayal (Author)

Archives of Academic Emergency Medicine, Vol. 6 No. 1 (2018), , Page e17

Many critically ill patients need aggressive procedures, such as central venous catheterization. The complication rate of central venous line placement is estimated to be 15%. Common complications include arterial puncture, hematoma, pneumothorax, hemothorax, arrhythmia, thoracic duct injury, infection, and thrombosis. Cardiac tamponade, pericardial effusions, pleural effusions, air or guidewire embolisms, and lost guide wires are rare but severe complications. Here we report a case of lost guide wire following central venous line insertion.

Sudden Death due to Hydatid Cyst Emboli; a Case Report

Mohammad Ali Emam Hadi, Fares Najari, Leila Soleimani (Author)

Archives of Academic Emergency Medicine, Vol. 6 No. 1 (2018), , Page e20

Echinococcosis is an infection caused in human by complex parasites that causes cystic hydatid disease. These infections are prevalent in most areas where livestock is raised in association with dogs. These parasites are found in all continents. Slowly enlarging cysts generally remain asymptomatic until their size has expanded. Here we present a case of sudden death following cyst emboli to the large veins and right heart of a young adult female.

Hopkins Syndrome in a 14-Year-Old Boy; a Case Report

Alireza Majidi, Sasan Saket, Zohreh Nabizadeh Gharghozar, Ehsan Akrami, Seyed Mohsen Fayyazi (Author)

Archives of Academic Emergency Medicine, Vol. 6 No. 1 (2018), , Page e23

Hopkins syndrome (HS) is a flaccid paralysis resembling poliomyelitis that has been seen in some children who are recovering from an acute episode of asthma. This syndrome should be suspected based on clinical findings even before the occurrence of characteristic breathing patterns and epilepsy. We report a 14-year-old boy who had experienced an episode of HS.

Systemic Fibrinolytic Therapy in the Presence of Absolute Contraindication; a Case Series

Mahdi Pishgahi, Toktam Alirezaei, Behzad Hajimoradi, S.Mojtaba Nekooghadam, Shima Shahi (Author)

Archives of Academic Emergency Medicine, Vol. 6 No. 1 (2018), , Page e25

In massive pulmonary embolism (PE), fibrinolytic therapy is a potential lifesaving treatment; therefore, if other treatments are not available, the physicians encounter this question: can we accept the risk of complications
from fibrinolytic therapy, especially intracranial hemorrhage, in the presence of absolute contraindication, in order to save the patient’s life? Here, we describe three cases of massive PE with absolute contraindication for
fibrinolytic therapy who presented to emergency department following dyspnea. Since, surgical or catheter embolectomy were not available and patients were very high risk for transferring to another hospital, systemic
fibrinolytic was administered. The patients improved clinically and were discharged from hospital. It seems that, if no other acceptable treatments are available, physicians could consider fibrinolytic therapy, even at the
presence of contraindication, to save the patient’s life.

Rectus Muscle Hematoma as a Rare Differential Diagnosis of Acute Abdomen; a Case Report

Mohammadreza Maleki-Verki, Hasan Motamed (Author)

Archives of Academic Emergency Medicine, Vol. 6 No. 1 (2018), , Page e28

Rectus sheath hematoma is a rare but well-known problem. Exercise, pregnancy, subcutaneous injection of insulin, abdominal surgery and severe coughs can be predisposing factors of hemorrhage in the mentioned muscle sheath. Here, we will discuss a case of rectus sheath hematoma in a 28 year-old female patient who presented to emergency department with complaint of abdominal pain and improved in 1 week with palliative care.

Post-Traumatic Pulmonary Pseudocyst following Blunt Chest Trauma; a Case Report

Nasim Ghafourian, Fatemeh Mahdizadeh, Mina Zavareh, Mitra Ahmadi, Mohammad Hossein Askarzadeh, Fatemeh Jalili (Author)

Archives of Academic Emergency Medicine, Vol. 6 No. 1 (2018), , Page e29

Traumatic pulmonary pseudocyst is a rare complication of chest trauma that has been poorly documented and usually resolves without specific treatment. Here, we present a case of pulmonary pseudocyst in a child with chest trauma without obvious symptoms. It is important to consider this diagnosis in patients with chest trauma to avoid unnecessary invasive procedures.

Anaphylaxis as a Rare Side Effect of Pantoprazole; a Case Report

Gholamreza Faridaalaee, Javad Ahmadian Heris (Author)

Archives of Academic Emergency Medicine, Vol. 6 No. 1 (2018), , Page e34

Anaphylaxis is a serious life-threatening allergic reaction. Any medication may potentially trigger anaphylaxis, but reaction to pantoprazole is rare. Our case is a 21 year-old girl with anaphylactic reaction to pantoprazole a short time after prescription.

Hyper Acute Quadriplegia with Chronic Lead Toxicity; a Case Report

Mehdi Mesri, Fares Najari, Ideh Baradaran Kayal, Dorsa Najari (Author)

Archives of Academic Emergency Medicine, Vol. 6 No. 1 (2018), , Page e44

Industrial lead toxicity is more common among miners. This type of toxicity occurs in two forms: acute and chronic. Chronic toxicity is associated with different levels of brain dysfunction, motor impairment, cognitive dysfunction, and neuropsychiatric problems, including depression, anxiety, irritability, and emotional disorders. However, quadriplegia induced by chronic toxicity is very rare.  Here we report a 37-year-old male patient with a history of desert hunting, where he used to roll lead bullets in his mouth, who was admitted with sensory impairment, muscle weakness, and quadriplegia and final diagnosis of lead toxicity.

Intravascular Hemolysis following Acute Zinc Phosphide Poisoning; a Case Report

Zana Ramezani, Asrin Babahajian, Vahid Yousefinejad (Author)

Archives of Academic Emergency Medicine, Vol. 6 No. 1 (2018), , Page e45

Zinc phosphide (ZnP) is low-cost, accessible, and very effective as a rodenticide. It has been used for many human suicide poisonings around the world, including Iran. Nonspecific gastrointestinal symptoms and cardiotoxicity are the most serious complications of ZnP poisoning, which are associated with a high mortality rate. The aim of this paper was to report a poisoned patient that ingested ZnP with suicidal attempt and faced complications due to hemolysis.

Simultaneous Occurrence of Dysrhythmia and Seizure as a Diagnostic Difficulty; a Case Report

Forod Salehi, Hamidreza Riasi, Hamideh Riasi, Arvin Mirshahi (Author)

Archives of Academic Emergency Medicine, Vol. 6 No. 1 (2018), , Page e49

Torsades de pointes (TdP) is a rare but hazardous ventricular dysrhythmia caused by an increase in the QT interval of the heart rhythm and is categorized into congenital or acquired types. Signs and symptoms of TdP include syncope, seizure, ventricular fibrillation, and even sudden death. According to statistics, among these symptoms, syncope and the seizure can be considered as signs that make the TdP diagnosis difficult. Here, we present an infant referring to Vali-e-Asr Hospital in Birjand with frequent seizures and aspiration pneumonia. She was diagnosed with Torsades de Pointes and a medium-sized patent ductus arteriosus, and subsequently underwent a patent ductus arteriosus ligation.

Paradoxical Embolism in a Patient with Patent Foramen Ovale; a Case Report

Mohammad Khani, Fariba Bayat, Atoosheh Rohani, Mehdi Pishgahi (Author)

Archives of Academic Emergency Medicine, Vol. 6 No. 1 (2018), , Page e50

Patent foramen ovale (PFO) is usually asymptomatic; however, it could be quite dangerous for patients with right side clot in which thrombus can transmit the PFO and paradoxically emboli to systemic circulation. Here we present a patient with ankle fracture and paradoxical embolus to the brain, who was successfully treated with emergent thrombectomy, inferior vena cava (IVC) filter placement and anticoagulation therapy. Despite the high rate of mortality in these patients, fortunately our patient survived with surgical treatment.


Brain Natriuretic Peptides in Screening of Syncope with Cardiac Origin; a Commentary

Hamideh Feiz-Disfani, Mostafa Kamandi, Kazem Rahmani (Author)

Archives of Academic Emergency Medicine, Vol. 6 No. 1 (2018), , Page e12

Syncope is a serious problem with life-time prevalence of 35%. It is estimated that 1 -3% of referrals to emergency departments and in-patient admissions are due to syncope. The underlying conditions can be cardiac or neurologic. Considering the completely different circumstances ruling the encounters with cardiac and neurologic syncope, in recent years many attempts have beenmade to find the proper tool for differentiating cardiac and non-cardiac causes of syncope. The result of which is formation of some clinical decision rules including San Francisco Syncope Rule (SFSR), Osservatorio Epidemiologico sulla Sincope nel Lazio (OESIL),
Evaluation of Guidelines in Syncope Study (EGSYS), risk stratification of syncope in the emergency department (Rose), and Boston Syncope Rules. The serum marker brain natriuretic peptide (BNP), which is becoming increasingly established in emergency departments for diagnosis of acute heart failure, can reflect the
presence of a structural heart disease. It seems that BNP could be considered as a screening tool in detection of syncope with cardiac origin. In a study by Wojtowicz J et al. who evaluated BNP in children and adolescents with syncope, there was no significant difference in terms of BNP level between the syncope and
control groups. In contrast, Zhang Q et al. concluded that serum BNP is helpful in differentiating cardiac (958.78 § 2443.41 pg/mL) and non-cardiac (31.05 § 22.64 pg/mL) syncope. Tanimoto K et al. considered the cut-off value of 40 pg/ml for BNP in differentiating cardiac and non-cardiac syncope and found that it had 82% sensitivity and 92% specificity. A significant difference was observed in BNP level of the cardiac group (514 pg/ml) compared to the non-cardiac ones (182 pg/ml) in Pfister et al. study. It seems that, more research is needed to clarify this relationship and the variables that might play the role of confounders in a causal inference.
More studies on children are required because there is some controversy regarding this relationship. Running studies with accurate methodology, large sample sizes, and in a multicentric fashion could be helpful in this regard.

Dissimilarity in the Frequency of Venous Thromboembolism Risk Factors among Studies, a Commentary

Meghdad Sedaghat, Mahsa Soltani, Mehrdad Solooki (Author)

Archives of Academic Emergency Medicine, Vol. 6 No. 1 (2018), , Page e13

Venous Thromboembolism (VTE) is the 3rd most prevalent vascular disease behind myocardial infarction and cerebrovascular ischemic attack. This disorder has received attention from health policy makers because of its major complications including recurrent VTE, post thrombotic syndrome, sudden cardiac death and high mortality rate. In the United States, VTE was reported in approximately 201000 cases annually, 25% of which expired within 7 days after diagnosis and 22% of mortalities did not have a definitive diagnosis. Despite the progression in diagnosis and treatment of VTE since 1979, its incidence did not decrease dramatically.
This gap declares that VTE risk factors, especially transient ones, have not been detected completely. Obesity, history of VTE, family history of VTE, recent surgery,
malignancy, myeloproliferative disorders, trauma, pregnancy, post-menopausal hormone therapy, hereditary syndromes like anti phospholipid syndrome (APS), chronic kidney disease (CKD), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), blood transfusion and older age are determined as major risk factors. These factors can be categorized into two major subgroups as intrinsic and predisposing. Recent investigations focused on predisposing ones, which can be justified. Designing a cross sectional study in Imam Hossein Hospital, Tehran, Iran, from 2016 to 2017, we found that inactivity due to disability (30.9%), smoking (29.3%), and active malignancy (18.1%), were the most prevalent transient risks factor of VTE in our sample, respectively. Similar to our results, Kesieme et al. and Cushman et al. declared that VTE is more diagnosed in the elderly. Park MS et al. introduced recent surgery, trauma (73%), and disability to walk (62%) as major independent risk factors of VTE. Fuji T et al. introduced malignancy, recent infectious disease, and obesity as the factors predisposing patients who were admitted for orthopedic surgery to VTE. As can be seen, despite the risk factors of VTE being the same in various studies, their frequency varied between the studies. Population and cultural characteristics and various habits may have an effect in this regard. Therefore, it is suggested to performa multi-center, comprehensive study considering all the racial and ethnic in order to have a correct pattern of the frequency of predisposing factors of this disease in the Iranian population for health and prevention programs.

Key Performance Indicators of Chest Pain Management in Emergency Department; a Letter to the Editor

Mehrdad Taghizadeh, Roghayeh Taghipour, Kamran Heydari (Author)

Archives of Academic Emergency Medicine, Vol. 6 No. 1 (2018), , Page e14

Chest pain is a common complaint among those presenting to emergency department (ED) and is associated with a high rate of mortality. Based on National Center for Health Statistics, chest pain leads to about 6 million visits to EDs in United State. In Iran, ischemic cardiac diseases are the second cause of death in people aged 15 to 49 years. While less than 10% of the patients presenting to ED with chest pain are affected with myocardial infarction (MI), 33% of MI cases are silent. Timely diagnosis and revascularization of ischemic part, using thrombolytic agents or percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), can save cardiac function and the patient’s life. Therefore, in this regard the emphasis is on rapid referral of the patients to treatment centers, initiation of diagnostic measures such as electrocardiography (ECG) and in case of meeting the required criteria, transfer to cat lab for PCI. American Heart Association (AHA) has introduced the proper door to ECG time as 10 minutes if it has not been done in the ambulance. Based on this recommendation, AHA has defined the aims of coronary reperfusion as prescription of thrombolytic in the initial 30 minutes after admission of the patient to ED or PCI in the initial 90 minutes after admission to ED.

Prevalence of Mycoplasma Pneumoniae Infection in Patients with COPD Exacerbation; a Letter to the Editor

Ali Reza Amiri, Kiarash Ghazvini, Hamid Zamani Moghadam (Author)

Archives of Academic Emergency Medicine, Vol. 6 No. 1 (2018), , Page e18

Dear editor;

Currently, control and prevention of respiratory illnesses is considered a health priority in most developed countries and managing the risk factors is necessary for improving the population’s health. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is the 5th cause of death around the world and estimations have indicated that due to an increase in environmental pollution, this disease will become the 3rd cause of death in the future.

In previous studies, pulmonary infection with mycoplasma pneumoniae has been introduced as one of the causes for COPD exacerbation. Mycoplasma pneumoniae affects the upper and lower respiratory tract and its clinical manifestation is trachea-bronchitis accompanied by restlessness and dry coughs. The pathogenesis spectrum of this bacterium ranges from mild pharyngitis and trachea-bronchitis to acute pneumonia. Epidemiologic studies have shown that this bacterium is responsible for more than 20% of community acquired pneumonias.

In a cross-sectional study by the authors of the present letter, 66 patients over the age of 18 years who had presented to the emergency department of Imam Reza Hospital, Mashhad, Iran, with diagnosis of COPD exacerbation were evaluated. Sputum sample of the patients was obtained and sent to the laboratory for performing polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Mean age of the patients participating in this study was 67.28 ± 13.68 years (60.6% male). The result of PCR was positive in 6 patients out of the total of 66 patients (9.1%). The results of the present study showed that there was no correlation between age (p=0.18), sex (p=0.25), duration of being affected with COPD (p=0.20), consumption of antibiotics (p=0.35), smoking (p=0.62), opioid abuse (p=0.44), corticosteroid use (p=0.57), underlying illness (p=0.94) and health care—associated pneumonia (HCAP) (p=0.46) with mycoplasma infection. However, prevalence of leukocytosis (p=0.01) and myalgia (p=0.02) was significantly higher in the mycoplasma group.

Numerous studies have confirmed the presence of mycoplasma pneumoniae in exacerbation of COPD using serologic diagnosis. For instance, in a study by Lieberman et al. prevalence of mycoplasma pneumoniae in patients with COPD exacerbation was reported as 14.2% and in Meloni et al. study the prevalence of this infection was expressed to be 6.7%. These rates were reported between 5% and 14% in other studies.

Thus, it seems that prevalence of mycoplasma is high in COPD exacerbation, but there is still no answer to the question if this infection results in exacerbation of COPD or not and there is controversy between the studies in this regard. Therefore, it is suggested to design case-control or cohort studies to find the answer to this question.

A Simple Device to Control Valsalva Manoeuvre Strain Pressure; a Letter to Editor

Isabel FitzGerald, Andrew Appelboam (Author)

Archives of Academic Emergency Medicine, Vol. 6 No. 1 (2018), , Page e22

We read with interest the article by Motamedi and colleagues about the use of a hand held manometer to measure strain pressure during Valsalva manoeuvre (VM) treatment of supraventricular tachycardia (SVT).  We also used a manometer in our study (REVERT) of a postural modification of the VM and are currently investigating the use of a simple, single patient use device to control VM strain pressure, NCT number: NCT03298880. Such a device would be useful as blood pressure manometers are not always available and cannot be left with patients and other methods of generating the recommended strain such as syringes have been shown to be unreliable. We note that Motamedi’s study demonstrated a cardioversion rate of 14.8% in supine participants, which was similar to the rate achieved in the REVERT trial by control participants in the semi recumbent position (17%). In contrast, participants randomised to the modified VM in the REVERT trial, had a markedly improved cardioversion rate of 43%. This modification required participants to perform a 40 mmHg pressure strain for 15 seconds in a semi recumbent position but with supine repositioning and passive leg raise immediately after the Valsalva strain. To our knowledge this is the first trial to study this modification and was not described in the ‘new modified version’ quoted and referenced in Motamedi’s paper. To achieve the best cardioversion rates, we recommend use of a modified VM as described above with the strain controlled by a manometer where possible. A simple, single patient use device designed to deliver the recommended pressure may be helpful to facilitate this in practice and could be kept by patients for future use.

Vagus Nerve Stimulation and External Defibrillation during Resuscitation; a Letter to Editor

Matthias Wittstock, Johannes Buchmann, Uwe Walter, Johannes Rösche (Author)

Archives of Academic Emergency Medicine, Vol. 6 No. 1 (2018), , Page e27

Dear Editor;

External defibrillation in patients with implanted neuromodulatory devices is a crucial therapeutic challenge. We report a 63-year-old male patient with refractory epilepsy (RE) after recurrent ischaemic strokes in the middle cerebral artery and in the anterior cerebral artery territory 26 and 23 years ago. He received various therapeutic interventions to achieve seizure control with insufficient success. Therefore, vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) (model Pulse 102, Aspire SR, Cyberonics Inc, Houston, Texas) was applied via insertion of a pulse generator in the left upper chest in 2011. VNS stimulation settings were: output current 1.0 mA, pulse width 500 µs, frequency 30 Hz, 30s ON, 3.0 minute OFF.

A reduction of seizure frequency was achieved. Last antiepileptic therapy consisted of levetiracetam 1500 mg td, valproate 1000 mg td, and eslicarbazepine 800 mg td.

In 2016, he was admitted because of generalized seizure and aspiration pneumonia.  During hospital stay he suffered a cardiac arrest (CA) with pulseless ventricular tachycardia (VT) caused by fulminant pulmonary artery embolism. After successful resuscitation, the patient experienced return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC). During resuscitation, biphasic electric shocks were applied using 150 Joule and subsequently 360 Joule with patches placed approximately 10 cm parasternal and at the left chest below the VNS. After successful ROSC the VNS was checked again and no malfunction could be detected. Stimulation settings were not changed. Impedance was normal. Seizures were not observed during the remaining day. Unfortunately, the patient died within one day after successful resuscitation and ROSC because of therapy refractory circulatory insufficiency.

VNS is an established therapeutic approach in treatment of TRE in children and adults to achieve reduction of seizure frequency with proven safety and efficacy. The safety of VNS in emergency situations like cardiac arrest due to VF with need of external defibrillation and application of large amounts of electrical energy is not clear. External defibrillation in VNS patients may potentially be harmful. The literature concerning external defibrillation during resuscitation or external cardioversion (EC) in patients with implanted electronic devices in neurological disorders is sparse. In patients with cardiac pacemakers external defibrillation may damage the cardiac device. EC applied to deep brain stimulation (DBS) patients may cause thalamotomy or DBS failure. Application of electroconvulsive therapy in psychiatric disorders seems to be safe. Two cases of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) in VNS have been reported by Sharma et al. The first patient was a 66-year old female with major depression and the second one, a 57-year-old male with a history of bipolar disorder. Both had VNS for therapy refractory psychiatric illness. ECT was applied because of further worsening of the mental state without malfunction of the VNS device. To our knowledge, this is the first case of external defibrillation in a patient with VNS for TRE without alteration of the neurostimulator’s function. External defibrillation applied to VNS patients seem to be safe and effective. Several steps should be taken to minimize the electrical current flowing through the neurostimulator. First, position the patches as far away as possible from the VNS at least 10 cm each. Second, position the patches perpendicular to the VNS; use the lowest clinically appropriate output setting, and, finally, confirm that the VNS is functioning properly after defibrillation.

Introducing a Device for Measuring Pain Intensity; a Letter to Editor

Keshvad Hedayatyanfard, Shahin Mohammad-Sadeghi, Iman Habibi (Author)

Archives of Academic Emergency Medicine, Vol. 6 No. 1 (2018), , Page e32

Pain is defined as an unpleasant feeling caused by a real or potential tissue injury and is classified into neuropathic, somatic and visceral types. Characteristics such as severity, location, duration and site of pain referral are very helpful in correct diagnosis and treatment of the disease. Pain control in the emergency department is one of the first measures that should be taken for the patients and for this purpose, a wide range of analgesic drugs such as NSAIDs, opioids, and corticosteroids are used.

For evaluating the success rate as well as determining the best medication required for controlling the patient’s pain, being aware of the pain severity is of great importance. Therefore, a device or a method that can monitor pain severity and therefore, the process of patient treatment with high accuracy is very interesting. Currently, various methods exist for assessing pain severity. One way is to ask the patient (self-report) for determining pain severity. Among the most important methods based on self-report of the patient, numerical rating scales (NRS) and verbal rating scales (VRS) can be mentioned. In cases that self-report by the patient is not possible, methods such as Behavioral pain scale (BPS) and critical care pain observation tool (CPOT) can be used.

One of the common methods for assessing pain severity and threshold in animal studies is using monofilaments. These monofilaments are made from polyethylene and the base of their function is the bend that occurs at the time of applying pressure on the surface of the intended organ. A wide range of these filaments is available, each of which apply a pre-determined force depending on the bend.

Results of a study were indicative of 41% to 93% sensitivity and 68% to 100% specificity of monofilaments in determining pain threshold. However, temperature and humidity of the environment can affect the bending and therefore, the accuracy of the monofilaments.

Considering the aforementioned points, researchers of the present study attempted to design a digital device for assessing pain severity and threshold with characteristics such as accuracy, reproducibility, sensitivity, specificity, and ease of use. Among the most important uses of this device, quantitative measurement of response to the external stimulant, pain threshold, and assessing the trend of response to treatment with various analgesic drugs can be pointed out.

The device is made up of 2 parts of body and probe, the body includes an LCD with touch screen and internal memory for recording the performed tests. Its accuracy in measurement is about 100 mg and it can show a maximum of 1000 g. The device can record the maximum force inflicted on the desired organ and can be connected to the computer and data can be printed out. In addition, the trend of force inflicted on the organ of the animal or human can be observed as a curve on the graph.

Inside the probe there is a load cell with high sensitivity for measuring the inflicted force used and a there is also a steel rod, 1 mm in diameter, placed on the probe, which has a smooth cross section. This metal rod can be changed and various diameters can be used for animal and human study purposes.

Method of using the device

For evaluating the patient’s pain severity a force will be inflicted on the intended organ of the patient and when a pain equal to the original pain of the patient is felt and the patient responds to the performed stimulation and moves the intended organ, the maximum force is recorded. This test is performed 5 times and the mean inflicted force is recorded as pain severity.

This device has been registered in the Iranian office of intellectual and mental property under the number 87068. In addition, it has been chosen as the favorite invention in the festival of inventions of the Iranian national elites foundation (in 2015).

Regression to Middle Effect May Threaten Validity of Triage Scales; a Letter to Editor

Amir Mirhaghi, Mohsen Ebrahimi (Author)

Archives of Academic Emergency Medicine, Vol. 6 No. 1 (2018), , Page e60

Triage is sorting patients based on acuity in order to manage care in the emergency department (ED) {Mirhaghi, 2017 #60}(1). Medical institutes are trying to develop triage scales compatible with their own culture of care. A triage scale must be precise and comprehensive enough to guide triage nurses and eliminate uncertainty.