Awareness and attitude of radiographers towards radiation protection

Maryam Mojiri, Abbas Moghimbeigi

Archives of Advances in Biosciences, Vol. 2 No. 4 (2011), 21 December 2011,

    Whereas radiology departments have potential to present hazardous effects due of ionizing radiations, awareness and knowledge of application protection guidelines and instruments among radiology technicians has an important role to safe working in these places. Therefore radiographers' knowledge regarding radiation and their healthy behaviors during work time evaluated by a special questionnaire form including different relative questions. The level of participants' awareness about necessity of application film-badge and following the periodical examination were 70% and 63% respectively. Most of them are familiar with radiation adverse effects and they apply the protection devices for themselves and patients by 83.1% and 78.9%. based on the obtained data, the employees have a good awareness about construction protection especially in door shielding and wall. Their knowledge around dose limit was acceptable and there is a significant relationship between their awareness about Maximum permissible dose and their education level (p< 0.008). Taking part in different relative courses and continuously educations will affected on radiographers' awareness about  important aspects of their activities in workplace and will be ensured working with ionizing radiation.


Association of phenylthiocarbamide taste blindness trait with early onset of childhood obesity in Mysore

Saraswathi YS, Mohsen Najafi, Vineeth VS, Kavitha P, Suttur S Malini

Archives of Advances in Biosciences, Vol. 2 No. 4 (2011), 21 December 2011,

Ability to taste Phenylthiocarbamide (PTC) a bitter compound is widely used to know the heritable trait in both genetic and anthropological studies. The study is based on the ability of a person to sense the taste of PTC. Inability to taste has also been associated with medical illness not typically with taste impairment, so far no study has yet proved whether PTC blindness correlates with childhood obesity. This study is the first attempt to examine PTC sensitivity in obese children and healthy children to determine variation in the perception of bitter tastes which is associated with eating behavior, body mass index, and childhood obesity. The present investigation is carried out in Mysore, during years 2008 - 2009. Phenylthiocarbamide taste sensitivity was measured by administering PTC solution for obese and control children by modified method of Harris and Kalmus. The result focused that tasters were significantly more frequent (67%) than non-tasters (33%) in control population. A higher proportion of non-tasters were observed in obese children (72%) when compare to non-obese subjects (28%). These differences were not explained by alterations in perception of basic taste sensitivity or age.  Increased frequency of non-taster allele is evident in children with obese condition. This could be due to lack of preference for food among non-tasters. As the phenotypic variation in PTC sensitivity is genetic in origin, it may represent a surrogate risk factor for the development of childhood obesity.

      Berberis vulgaris L. (B. vulgaris) and specially its root have been used for a long time as a plant medicine in many countries including Iran. This plant is native in different parts of the world and is native in north areas of Iran like Khorasan. Recent research on this plant has shown its different therapeutic effects, Alkaloids especially Berberine has the most therapeutic usage among its compounds. This research is about the effects of Berberis vulgaris L. root's hydroalcoholic extract has done in two parts: its antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects was determined by Formalin and Xylene test respectively after determination of mortal plant dosage. Their dosage was 20, 40, 80 and 160 mg/kg. The three drugs include Naloxone 2 mg/kg, Dextromethorphan 20 mg/kg and L-NAME 10 mg/kg  interact with more significant dosage of B. vulgaris. The results showed antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of root’s extract of B. vulgaris in acute and chronic phases of Formalin test. The extract efficiency was analyzed in part two through Formalin test by three drugs individually and also by root’s extract. Conclusion: due to reduction of extract’s antinociceptive effect in both acute and chronic phases after Naloxone injection, it may concluded that the extract shows its signs through opioid receptors.

Haptoglobin genotypic distribution in Iranian patients with coronary heart disease

Bahram Kazemi, Ensieh Khalkhal, Ashraf Shabani

Archives of Advances in Biosciences, Vol. 2 No. 4 (2011), 21 December 2011,

Haptoglobin is a plasma protein with hemoglobin binding capacity. Haptoglobin has important biological functions such as binding to free hemoglobin and removes it from the circulation, thus preventing iron loss and kidney damage during intravascular hemolysis, superior antioxidant capacity, protection against free radicals. Studies on the distribution of Hp show that the gene frequencies of Hp dependent on geographical and genetic family. In the other, several authors have showed the correlation between HP types and different diseases, such as inflammation, infection, cardiovascular diseases and malignant tumors.Smoking, hypertention,diabetes mellitus and serum lipid concentrations are risk factors for developing cardiovascular diseases. In addition, Hp polymorphism has been proposed as a risk factor for developing atherosclerotic vasculare disease. In this study, the association between Haptoglobin genotypic distribution and the incidence of coronary heart disease investigated. 50 Iranian patients with coronary heart disease were randomlyselected. Genomic DNA extracted from peripheral blood leukocytes. In PCRs with primers A and B, amplification products of 1757 and 3481 bp were amplified from genomic DNA containing alleles Hp1 and Hp2, respectively. In the population studied, the distribution of haptoglobin polymorphism was 36% (n = 18) for the Hp1-1 type, 62% (n =31) for the HP1-2 type, and 2% (n = 1) for the HP2-2 type.  The trend in this study showing a lower frequency of 3-vessel disease and less severe coronary artery stenosis in patients with the HP1-1 phenotype than in patients with the HP1-2 phenotypes may be indicative of a protective effect of the HP1-1 phenotype against the development of atherosclerotic coronary artery disease.


     It is important to measure organ dose in diagnostic radiology & radiotherapy. Because measurement on patients has some limitations, phantoms are being constructed to be implemented. One kind of several phantoms which is being used so far is anthropomorphic phantom which is similar to a man. In this work, using human natural bone as phantom skeletal tissue & paraffin plus NaCl (as impurity) as soft tissue substitute an anthropomorphic phantom was constructed which consists of three parts: 1. head & neck 2.torso 3.hip. Phantom dimensions were selected from the standard man. To measure absorbed dose in tissues, at the sites of parotid, thyroid, sternum, diaphragm, abdomen and hip some cylinders were inserted which were constructed from phantom material and had some cavities to insert TLDs in different depths. Due to importance of photoelectric effect in diagnostic radiology & Compton effect in radiotherapy, two important parameters which should be considered in construction of a phantom is effective atomic number and electronic density were6.57& 3.36×1023 electron.gr-1 , respectively.

A Study of medical errors

Morteza Abdoljabbari

Archives of Advances in Biosciences, Vol. 2 No. 4 (2011), 21 December 2011,

Any time Throughout the human story, when man has been exposed to boredom and health problems , he has used the expertise of those in the life of medicine and treatment. The holy Prophet (PBUH) has been narrated as saying, "The experts are healers of people, and in case the healers are themselves ill, who will treat the patients? From the Holy narration by the Holy Prophet (PBUH), we learn that the important figures in the society, especially the physicians, have to be always in good health both physically and morally. The medical team being known as outstanding characters, are highly valuable in the society. In the past they were known as 'healers', a title which is used to call the God showing that Islam pays a special attention to the physicians. It is so incredible to utilize this value in guiding the people, especially the patients in the best way possible. . It has to be noted that those with the highest quality features, characters, and self-efficient personalities shall be better benefited. . The health of the healers is therefore, an undeniable necessity. Studies have revealed that even a 24-hour monthly work shift may triple the occurrence of medical errors. As the most serious part of the present study is the definition of the term "Fault" in medicine, it becomes mandatory to define it morphologically and terminologically to see what it really refers.  


Appraisal of fibroblast viability in different concentration of glucose as mimicry diabetic condition

Maryam Ebrahimi, Mostafa Rezaei Tavirani, Saeed Heidari Keshel, Reza Raeisossadati, Behrooz Hoseinzade Salavati, Fatemeh Daneshimehr

Archives of Advances in Biosciences, Vol. 2 No. 4 (2011), 21 December 2011,

Diabetes mellitus is a common name for a group of diseases of a much diversified etiopathogenesis, characterized by chronically increased concentration of blood glucose. Diabetes results from alterations of various genes, each having a partial and additive effect. The inheritance pattern is thus complex, and environmental factors play an important role in favoring or delaying the expression of the disease. Diabetes can cause devastating complications, including cardiovascular diseases, kidney failure, and blindness, leg and foot amputations, delay in wound healing, which often result in disability and death. Fibroblast cells play a critical role in wound healing. They are the most common cells of connective tissue in animals. Tissue damage stimulates fibrocystic and induces the mitosis of fibroblasts. Wound healing processes in diabetic patients are so longer and sometimes cause to cut damaged tissue.

In this study Fibroblasts were isolated from foreskin and cultured as primary cell culture in different concentrations of glucose (8.8 mmol/l, 13.13 mmol/l, 18.31 mmol/l, 27.7 mmol/l, 37.18 mmol/l, 47.17 mmol/l, 83.24 mmol/l, 124.8 mmol/l and 166.4 mmol/l) for 48h incubation time. Traditionally, the determination of cell growth is done by counting viable cells after staining witha vital dye. Among several approaches have been used in the past, The MTT method of cell determination is most invaluable to cultures which are prepared in multiwall plates. This assay is a sensitive, quantitative and reliable colorimetric assay that measures viability, proliferation and activation of cells.

The results of this preliminary study suggest that altered glucose concentrations may affect fibroblast behavior in ways that are important for tissue repair and wound healing. The cells had low level of confluency and viability and in high concentration fibroblast had very low cell division.


Review Article

Diminished fertility in men with increased BMI

Mohsen Najafi, Azin Yousefi, Sharath Kumar C, Malini S S

Archives of Advances in Biosciences, Vol. 2 No. 4 (2011), 21 December 2011,

The incidence of obesity as a risk factor for normal life is increasing worldwide. Its impact on hypertension, cardiovascular diseases, osteoporosis, insulin resistance and diabetes mellitus, is well recognized.  Previous studies have proved the association between female obesity and infertility and several linked genes have been worked out. However, a little is known about the effect of obesity on male reproductive system and infertility. Recently some clinical studies have reported diminished semen parameters like sperm count, sperm motility and vitality and changing in reproductive hormones in over weight and obese men. Lack of such study in Asian countries and particularly in Indian population who are genetically more prone to obesity necessitates picking up this research to achieve robust findings in this regard.