Research/Original Articles

A method of GC-MS analysis of serum metabolites

Masoud Soheili, Afsaneh Arefi Oskuei, Mostafa Rezaei Tavirani, Seyyed Mojtaba Banitaba, Ghazaleh Aliakbarzadeh, Mahmoud Salami

Archives of Advances in Biosciences, Vol. 9 No. 1 (2018), 25 December 2017 , Page 1-6

Metabolites are the intermediate and natural low molecular weight products of metabolic reactions that naturally occur within cells. Metabolomics is a post-genomics study that analyzes metabolic profile in all biological samples. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) is a powerful technique that detects volatile components. In this study we evaluate the metabolite profile of serum with a simple method for derivatization. The metabolic profile of serum taken from 16 rats was analyzed using GC-MS after protein precipitation with acetonitrile. Then, it was derivatized with a method requiring the less number and volume of materials. Acquisition chromatograms were pre-processed and analyzed using National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) library. We detected 35 metabolites with probability of >60% perfect match according to spectrum fragments analysis by NIST library.This study represents the metabolome profile of serum instead the change of metabolites that can be evaluated by a simple derivatization method.

Effect of training after discharge on re-admission and re-hospitalization of patients with heart failure (randomized single-blind clinical trial)

Forough Pazhuheian, Alireza Abadi, Farid Zayeri, Taban Baghfalaki, Payam Amini, Nastaran Laal, Parisa Ahmadi, Farhad Pazhuheian

Archives of Advances in Biosciences, Vol. 9 No. 1 (2018), 25 December 2017 , Page 7-15

    Discharge is the process of transferring a patient from hospital which involves a transfer of responsibility from inpatient service providers or hospitalist to the patient and primary care physicians. Inappropriate follow up after discharge will increase the risk of re-admission and re-hospitalization which leads to the poor performance of the health system. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of physician's caring after discharge on re-admission and referral to doctors.This study was conducted as a clinical trial on patients with early intervention for educational instruction. The clinical trial was conducted at a later stage on 120 patients with heart failure who were hospitalized in Taleghani Hospital, Tehran. For a period of five months after discharge, using block randomization, the subjects were divided into two groups, including intervention and control groups. At the time of discharge, the patients in the intervention group received instructions and were trained by physicians, while no intervention was applied for the subjects in the control group. In addition to demographic questions, the patients were asked about two main outcomes, i.e. "re-admission" and "referral to doctors".  To collect the required data, the subjects in both groups were contacted via telephone calls (nine times) every week in the first month after discharge and two times per week in the following two months. Generalized linear mixed effects model method was used for evaluating the effect of physicians caring after discharge on re-admission and re-hospitalization.The results of this study showed that with the passage of time (weekly) after discharge, there was a significant increase in the rate of re-admission in the control group, while there was no significant increase in re-hospitalization. There was no statistical evidence showing a significant difference between the rates of re-admission along with the time in the treatment intervals. In other words, the patients in the control group experienced a significant increase in the odds ratio of re-admission over the time.



Reliability of functional connectivity in resting-state functional MRI

Atiye Nazari, Hamid Alavimajd, Nezhat shakeri, Mohsen Bakhshandeh

Archives of Advances in Biosciences, Vol. 9 No. 1 (2018), 25 December 2017 , Page 16-20

     Functional MRI is a noninvasive method in brain imaging. Localization, classification, prediction and connectivity are the most common issues. Functional connectivity is a branch of fMRI that focuses on connectivity between voxels and ROIs. There are several methods for investigating functional connectivity such as correlation analysis. In any field, it is very important that results of any research have reliability according to the experiment. Any methods and measurement instruments need to be reliable. Without reliability, results are meaningless and our research is not trustworthy. Brain imaging can be used as a valuable tool for pre-surgical planning, so the results should be highly reproducible. Test-retest reliability can be explored using the intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC). I2C2 is an extent of ICC to verify the reliability in high-dimensional data as imaging studies. 13 subjects of test-retest resting-state fMRI are used to investigate reliability. I2C2 of four ROIs are also computed (Caudate, Cingulate, Cuneus and Precentral regions). Functional connectivity is found to have moderate reliability ranging 0.6244 to 0.6941. 95% confidence interval of I2C2 is calculated by nonparametric bootstrap in which CI of Caudate region I2C2 has the shortest length.


Scientometric analysis of Radiology, Nuclear Medicine and Medical Imaging publications of Iran in the Web of Science and Scopus Databases

Mohammad Esmaeilpour-Bandboni, Iman Alizadeh, Mohammad Hossein YektaKooshali, Aboozar Ramezani

Archives of Advances in Biosciences, Vol. 9 No. 1 (2018), 25 December 2017 , Page 21-28


Scientometric analysis should be given great heed in university and research centers for various research and educational reasons. This study aimed to carry out a scientometirc analysis of Radiology, Nuclear Medicine and Medical Imaging articles authored by Iranian researchers and published in journals indexed in the Web of Science and Scopus databases from 2001 to 2016. This is a cross-sectional descriptive study in which as many as 3335 documents authored by Iranian researchers were identified on the two citation databases using field-specific keywords. HistCite™, MS Excel and VOSviewer™ were used to analyze the data. The study discovered that in terms of publications in both citation databases, Iran is almost among the top 30 countries in quantitative and qualitative studies. Iran's contribution was, however, very low in both web of Science (0.32%) and Scopus (0.52%). It was found that “Iranian Journal of Radiation Research” and “Iranian Journal of Radiology” are indexed in both databases; Tehran University of Medical Sciences and University of Tehran are also the most contributing institutions in the databases. According to the findings of the study, it is recommended that Iranian researchers increase their scientific cooperation with researchers from other leading countries in these fields including the United States, Japan and Germany to gain a better quantity and quality of publications.

The effects of interaction of Dopaminergic and Kisspeptin neural pathways on Ghrelin secretion in rats

Azizeh Sadeghzadeh, Abolfazl Bayrami, Fariba Mahmoudi, Homayoun Khazali, Asadollah Asadi

Archives of Advances in Biosciences, Vol. 9 No. 1 (2018), 25 December 2017 , Page 29-35

Dopamine, kisspeptin and ghrelin are important factors for regulating the reproduction and food intake. Finding the effective central or peripheral factors on ghrelin secretion attracted the attention of most researches. In the present experimental study, the effects of dopamine, kisspeptin and the GPR54 receptor signaling pathway role in the mediating the dopamine effects  was determined on ghrelin secretion. Forty Wistar male rats weighing 220-250g in 8 groups received saline, 1nmol kisspeptin, 5, 15 or 45 microgram dopamine hydrochloride, simultaneous injections of 1nmol peptide 234 and kisspeptin, 15microgram dopamine and kisspeptin or peptide234 and 15microgram dopamine via third cerebral ventricle respectively. Blood samples were collected via tail vein. Mean serum ghrelin concentrations were determined by rat ghrelin kit and ELISA method. Kisspeptin significantly decreased mean serum concentration compared to saline group, while 15 or 45 microgram dopamine significantly increased mean serum ghrelin level compared to saline group. Kisspeptin significantly blocked the stimulatory effects of dopamine on ghrelin secretion compared to dopamine group. Dopaminergic and kisspeptin/GPR54 signaling pathways may interact to control the ghrelin secretion at hypothalamic level. Stimulatory effects of dopamine on ghrelin secretions could exert partly via decreasing the activity of hypothalamic kisspeptin neurons.

Antinociceptive and Anti-inflammatory effects of Hydroalcoholic extract of aerial parts of Thymus carmanicus in male mice

Sima Nasri, Masoumah Ahmadpour yazdi

Archives of Advances in Biosciences, Vol. 9 No. 1 (2018), 25 December 2017 , Page 36-44

     Differentspecies of Thymusare capable of producing various pharmacological effects. The present paper aimsto investigate the analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of hydro-alcoholic extract of areal parts of Thymus Carmanicus Jalas.In this experimental research, using the formalin,writhing and tail immersion tests, anti-inflammatory effectswere  studied in micebyxylene-induced ear edemaand mercury immersion methods. Male NMRI mice weighing 20-25g were dividedinto five groups: negative control, positive control and three experimental groups, being injectedintraperitoneally by 250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg of hydroalcoholic extracts of Thymus carmanicus. The most effective dose of the extract was selected for the possible involvement of opioidergic systems. Animalsubjects were studied by pretreatment of opioid antagonist, naloxone. The data were analyzed throughANOVA and Tukey's test.Results indicated that in the formalin test,  thedoses of 500 and 1000 mg/kg of theextract significantly reduced the score of analgesic in experimental groups(P<0.001).Meanwhile, pretreatment with naloxone inhibited some of the extract induced antinociceptive effects in comparison to controlgroup.In writhing and hot tail immersion tests,all doses of theextract significantly alleviatedpain in experimental groups(P<0.01).  Moreover, the xylene-induced ear edema (P<0.001)as well asfoot edema in mercury immersion method was considerably reduced(P<0. 05). This study not onlyshowedthathydroalcoholic extract of areal parts of Thymuscarmanicus hasanalgesic and anti-inflammatory effects but also indicated that some of the antinociceptive properties of Thymus carmanicus are mediated by opioidergic mechanism, which in turn validated the traditional uses of the plant in the treatment of pain.

Review Article

Assessment of correlation between urinary secretary IgA (sIgA) levels and different types of urinary tract infection (UTI) in various age groups

Masoumeh Navidinia, Amir Rasoul Teymouri, Mehdi Goudarzi

Archives of Advances in Biosciences, Vol. 9 No. 1 (2018), 25 December 2017 , Page 45-49

Urinary tract infections (UTIs) currently rank among the most prevalent infectious diseases worldwide, with chronic and recurrent infections being especially problematic. Urinary secretory IgA (sIgA) in mucosal surface is an important immunological defense in preventing bacterial adherence to periurethral epithelia and uroepithelial. This is a thematic review describing and focusing on a central element which is  taken into consideration from different point of views .So, the present study  surveyed a brief consideration of assessment correlation between urinary sIgA levels and urinary tract infection (UTI) in various age groups. In children with anatomic abnormalities, higher rates of sIgA was seen compared to children without anatomic abnormalities. The interesting point was that children with recurrent UTI with normal urinary tract had lower levels of sIgA compared to the control group. Also, no remarkable difference of the sIgA concentration rate was seen in healthy and rUTI children who had no bacteriuria; yet, it was considerably higher in children with bacteriuria. It was proven that locally synthesized sIgA was low in patients’ urine with recurrent UTI, independent of the presence or absence of bacteriuria. UTI did not interfere with sIgA secretion as shown by high sIgA in patients with upper UTI. Low urinary sIgA may illustrate one factor predisposing to recurrent UTI. The outcomes displayed that the existence of sIgA is associated with the UTI in children as well as in adults; however, sIgA showed to be manipulative to the infective agent and can also be applied to recognize infection type. Therefore, evaluation of urine antibody levels can provide another marker of host responses to infection, which can be used either as a simple screening test or could be beneficial to facilitate along with other experiments in establishing an assessment.

A systematic review of proteomic biomarkers associated with risk stratification in pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia

Nasrin Dehghan-Nayeri, Peyman  Eshghi, Kourosh  Goudarzi Pour, Ahmad Gharehbaghian

Archives of Advances in Biosciences, Vol. 9 No. 1 (2018), 25 December 2017 , Page 50-55

     Risk-based therapy protocols have dramatically improved survival rates in more than 80% of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (chALL). Prognostic biomarkers could be valuable for predicting the relapsed ALL patients and may therefore contribute to improving ALL outcome. Presently, there are little data on the role of prognostic biomarkers in the risk stratification of ALL. The aim of the present systematic review is to survey the identified prognostic biomarkers of chALL. In this study, protein-protein interaction of identified biomarkers was evaluated to reveal the biological pathways related to high risk chALL. To pursue this goal, firstly all relevant studies were collected through the PubMed and Google Scholar databases with no restrictions. Then, the biomarkers of high risk patients were recorded and finally protein-protein interaction of biomarkers was analyzed through using the STRING database. After screening 82 abstracts, three studies were included with 36 high risk and 33 low risk B-ALL participants. Totally, 142 biomarkers were investigated in this study. Protein interaction network analysis of biomarkers revealed two main pathways, namely ribosome and spliceosome. Dysregulation of two key pathways, ribosome and spliceosome can be associated with the high risk phenotype of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia.