REVIEW


Purpose: Several randomized-controlled trials (RCTs) were performed to compare the efficacy of sexual intercourse or masturbation and no sexual activity in treating distal ureteral stones, indicating conflicting results. The meta-analysis was conducted to assess the role of sexual intercourse or masturbation in the treatment of distal ureteral calculi.


Materials and Methods: PubMed, Cochrane Library, EMBASE, Scopus, Clinicaltrail.gov, and Web of Science were searched by October 2021. Men who were instructed of no sexual intercourse or masturbation, and only received standard symptomatic treatment are comparators. Relative risk (RR), weighted mean difference (WMD), and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using random or fixed effects models.


Results: Five RCTs including 500 subjects were analyzed in the study. Compared with controls, subjects in experimental group had significantly higher expulsion rate at 2nd and 4th week (95%CI: 1.334 to 2.638, RR: 1.876, I2 = 73.6%, P < .001; 95%CI: 1.148 to 1.752, RR: 1.418, I2 = 55.9%, P < .001), significantly decreased requirement for analgesic injections (95%CI: -1.071 to -.126, WMD: -.598, I2 = 90.3%, P = .013), and significantly shorter expulsion time (95%CI: -6.941 to -.436, WMD: -3.689, I2 = 83.7%, P = .026).


Conclusion: Performing sexual intercourse or masturbation 3 or 4 times a week can be an alternative treatment option of distal ureteral calculi (0-10 mm in size). However, more clinical evidence with better designs solving raised concerns is warranted.


 

Purpose: Aspirin (ASA) is often stopped prior to percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) due to the surgical bleeding risk. However, this practice is based on expert opinion only, and mounting evidence suggests holding aspirin perioperatively can be more harmful than once thought. In our review we aimed to discuss the safety of low dose aspirin continued or discontinued in the whole perioperative period of PCNL.


Patients and Method: We performed a computerized PubMed, EMBASE and Cochrane Library search of relevant studies. Study identification satisfied the PRISMA guidelines. Newcastle-Ottawa scale (NOS) was used to evaluate the quality of including studies. Favored outcomes such as operative time, complications and change in hemoglobin were extracted. Statistical analysis was performed with Rev-Man software 5.3 and forest plots were used to illustrate our findings.


Results: After screening, four studies were included in the present systematic review. There was no difference in the number of total complications (OR:1.25; 95 % CI 0.82-1.90; p=0.30), major complications (OR: 1.24; 95 % CI 0.53-2.93; p=0.62) and blood transfusion rate (OR:0.99; 95 % CI 0.46-2.12; p=0.98) between the continuing low dose aspirin group and discontinuing group. Moreover, the overall stone-free rate was also not statistically significant (OR:3.17; 95 % CI 0.89-11.25; p=0.07). It was similar about the change in hemoglobin, hematocrit and creatinine levels between two groups.


Conclusion: Based on our findings, transient cessation of aspirin perioperatively seems not to be necessary for patients who need PCNL complicated with the necessity of aspirin therapy. However, further well-designed prospective studies with large sample size are needed to confirm and validate our findings.

ORIGINAL PAPER (ENDOUROLOGY AND STONE DISEASE)


Impact of Percutaneous Nephrostomy on the Efficacy of in Situ Shock Wave Lithotripsy for Upper Ureteral Stones

Seung Woo Yang, Ji Yong Lee, Ju Hyun Shin, Jae Sung Lim, Ki Hak Song

Urology Journal, Vol. 19 No. 04 (2022), , Page 262-267
https://doi.org/10.22037/uj.v18i.6762

Purpose: To investigate whether a Percutaneous nephrostomy (PCN) has any impact on the success rate of shock wave lithotripsy (SWL) and to estimate the probability of stone-free in SWL patients with upper ureter stones.


Materials and Methods: Overall, 236 patients who underwent SWL for upper ureter stones between 2015 and 2019 were evaluated. Forty-nine patients who underwent PCN during SWL were identified. Medical data of the patients were retrospectively reviewed, and possible prognostic features were evaluated.


Results: Out of all patients, 147 patients were selected through propensity score matching. There were no significant differences between the PCN and no PCN groups, except for a lower stone-free rate (55.1% vs. 74.5%, p = .018) and one-session success rate (24.5% vs. 50.0%, p = .003) in the PCN group. In univariate analysis, a younger age, the female sex, a smaller size of stone, lower mean stone density (MSD), and absence of PCN were positive predictive factors of being stone-free in patients who underwent SWL. In multivariate analysis, a smaller size, lower MSD, and absence of PCN were positive predictive factors of being stone-free in patients who underwent SWL.


Conclusion: Stone size, MSD, and PCN were prognostic factors that influence the outcome of SWL. The presence of PCN during SWL is associated with adverse success rates in patients with upper ureter stones.

Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy of flexible ureteroscopic lithotripsy (FURSL) based on the concept of enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS).


Materials and Methods: This study retrospectively analyzed 435 patients diagnosed with upper urinary calculi between 2017-2020 and categorized them into ERAS (ERAS management) and control groups (traditional management). The operative time, postoperative ambulation time, postoperative hospital stay, the total cost of hospitalization, postoperative complications, and stone removal rate between the two groups were subsequently compared.


Results: The FURSL procedure was successfully performed in 427 patients but failed in 4 patients of the ERAS group (n = 216) and 4 of the control group (n = 219). No postoperative complications occurred in either group except for fever and hematuria. There was no significant difference in postoperative fever and stone removal between the two groups (all P > .05). However, patients in the ERAS group had a shorter operative time, shorter postoperative ambulation time, less postoperative severe hematuria, shorter postoperative hospital stay, and lower total cost of hospitalization than those in the control group (all P < .05).


Conclusion: FURSL, based on the concept of ERAS, is safe and reliable for the treatment of upper urinary calculi, with rapid postoperative recovery and a low cost of hospitalization. It is worthy of clinical promotion.

ORIGINAL PAPER(UROLOGICAL ONCOLOGY)


Purpose: Bladder cancer is a common cancer in the world with the highest rates in Southern and Western Europe, North America, and Western Asia. It imposes a high economic burden to the health care system globally. The objective of this study is to provide the incidence of bladder cancer and its geographic distribution in Iran in 2014, 2015 and 2016.


Results: We registered 5817, 5662 and 6630 new bladder cancer cases in 2014, 2015 and 2016, respectively with men counting 82% of cases in every year. The ASR of bladder cancer in total Iranian population was 8.50 (95% CI: 8.28-8.72), 8.05 (95% CI: 7.83-8.27) and 8.74 (95% CI: 8.52-8.96) per 100,000 in those years. The male to female ratio was 5 every year. Kerman has the highest ASR in each of the years, respectively 15.49, 13.07 and 12.46, and Ilam has the lowest ASR during 2014 to 2015, respectively 4.27 and 3.50, and Sistan and Baluchestan has the lowest rate in 2016 (ASR:3.56) in both sexes.


Conclusion: The highest incidence of bladder cancer was observed in Central, southern and northwestern parts of Iran. Through the analysis of the incidence patterns and the identification of risk factors associated with it, steps can be taken towards prevention and control measures.

Prognostic Significance of the Neutrophil-to-Lymphocyte Ratio in Patients with Non-Muscle Invasive Bladder Cancer treated with Intravesical Bacillus Calmette–Guérin and the Relationship with the CUETO Scoring Model

Jae-Wook Chung, Jin Woo Kim, Eun Hye Lee, So Young Chun , Dong Jin Park, Kyeong Hyeon Byeon, Seock Hwan Choi, Jun Nyung Lee, Bum Soo Kim, Hyun Tae Kim, Eun Sang Yoo, Tae Gyun Kwon, Yun-Sok Ha, Tae-Hwan Kim

Urology Journal, Vol. 19 No. 04 (2022), , Page 281-288
https://doi.org/10.22037/uj.v18i.6765

Purpose: In this study, we evaluated the predictability of a modified Club Urológico Español de Tratamiento Oncológico (CUETO) scoring model and preoperative neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) in patients with non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC).


Materials and Methods: From August 2005 to May 2016, a total of 281 patients received intravesical bacillus Calmette–Guérin therapy after transurethral resection of a bladder tumor. The pathologic stage of all patients was Ta or T1. Of 281 patients, 84 (29.9%) experienced recurrence and 14 (5.0%) developed progression. The mean follow-up period was 46 months. The cut-off value for NLRs was 2.29.


Results: One hundred-eight patients (38.4%) displayed a high NLR (> 2.29). In Kaplan–Meier curve analysis, a high NLR was associated with lower recurrence-free survival (RFS) (P < .001) and progression-free survival (PFS) (P = .002). CUETO scores were associated with RFS (P < .001), but not with PFS (P = .423). A combination of NLRs and the CUETO risk model correlated with RFS (P < .001) and PFS (P = .002). In multivariate analysis, female gender, concomitant carcinoma in situ (CIS), tumor number >3, recurrent tumors, and a high NLR were independent factors predicting recurrence (all P < .05). Concomitant CIS, recurrent tumors, and a high NLR were independent factors for predicting progression (all P < .05).


Conclusion: In patients with NMIBC, an NLR >2.29 was identified as a significant factor for predicting tumor recurrence and progression. Inclusion of preoperative NLR enhanced the accuracy of the CUETO model to predict disease progression.

Construction of A Novel Ferroptosis-related Prognostic Risk Signature for Survival Prediction in Clear Cell Renal Cell Carcinoma Patients

Fucai Tang, Jiahao Zhang, Langjing Zhu, Yongchang Lai, Zhibiao Li, Zeguang Lu, Zhicheng Tang, Yuexue Mai, Rende Huang, zhaohui He

Urology Journal, Vol. 19 No. 04 (2022), , Page 289-299
https://doi.org/10.22037/uj.v19i.6999

Purpose: Targeted ferroptosis is a reliable therapy to inhibit tumor growth and enhance immunotherapy. This study generated a novel prognostic risk signature based on ferroptosis-related genes (FRGs), and explored the ability in clinic for clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC).


Materials and Methods: The expression profile of mRNA and FRGs for ccRCC patients were exacted from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database. A ferroptosis-related prognostic risk signature was constructed based on univariable and multivariable Cox-regression analysis. Kaplan-Meier (KM) survival curves and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were performed to access prognostic value of riskscore. A nomogram integrating riskscore and clinical features was established to predict overall survival (OS). Based on differentially expressed genes between high- and low-OS groups with 5-year OS, function enrichment analyses and single-sample gene set enrichment analysis (ssGSEA) were investigated to immune status.


Results: A 9-FRGs prognostic risk signature was constructed based on 37 differentially expressed FRGs. ROC and KM curves showed that riskscore has excellent reliability and predictive ability; Cox regression disclosed the riskscore as an independent prognosis for ccRCC patients. Then, the C-index and calibration curve demonstrated the good performance of nomogram in training and validation cohort, and its predictive ability better than other features. Immune-related biological processes were enriched by function enrichment analysis, and the immune-related cells and functions were differential by ssGSEA between high- and low-OS groups.


Conclusion: Our study identified and verified a novel 9-FRGs prognostic signature and nomogram to predict OS, providing a novel sight to explore targeted therapy of ferroptosis for ccRCC.

A New Technique for Continent Urinary Diversion: Initial Experience and Description of the Technique

Dario Del Biondo , Giorgio Napodano , Ferdinando Di Giacomo, Dante Dino Di Domenico , Bruno Feleppa , Sertac Yazici, Aniello Rosario Zito

Urology Journal, Vol. 19 No. 04 (2022), , Page 300-306
https://doi.org/10.22037/uj.v19i.7088

PURPOSE: Orthotopic neobladder is a well-established surgical solution for continent urinary diversion after radical cystectomy. Nevertheless, it still represents a challenging surgery. Some critical issues of orthotopic bladder substitution include relevant complication rates, renal function impairment, urinary incontinence and patient quality of life. We present a new ileal neobladder technique, Vesuvian Orthotopic Neobladder (VON), performed for the first time at our institution in 2020. The main purpose of this new surgical procedure is to simplify and speed up the reservoir reconstruction through a ten standardized technical steps and obtain an appropriate bladder capacity at the same time.


 


METHODS: Inclusion criteria were muscle-invasive bladder carcinoma or non muscle-invasive high risk bladder cancer patients fit for bladder substitution. The exclusion criteria were locally advanced cancer, presence of hydronephrosis, renal or hepatic impairment. A chest-abdominal CT scan and urinary cytology were performed before the procedure. Patients received neoadjuvant chemotherapy, as required. Overall, operative time, bladder reconfiguration time, hospitalization time, catheterization time were recorded. All complications associated with the procedure were classified according to the Clavien Dindo score. The bladder volume was evaluated by ultrasound three months after the surgery.


 


RESULTS: A total of six male patients diagnosed with non-metastatic muscle-invasive or high-risk non-muscle invasive bladder cancer who underwent radical cystectomy followed by VON reconfiguration were included in the study. Mean age was 62.8 (±4.9) years; all selected patients enjoyed good health conditions (Charlson Comorbidity Index 4-6). One patient presented with high-risk non-muscle invasive bladder cancer. Four patients received neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Mean overall operative time was 273.3 (±18.6) minutes. Average time for neobladder reconstruction was 63.7 (±16.1) minutes. There were no intraoperative complications. A single case of urethral anastomosis leakage occurred and was treated conservatively. Bladder volume on ultrasound evaluation ranged between 250 and 290 ml.  Day time and nocturnal continence were observed in four and three patients, respectively.


 


CONCLUSION: The new VON technique is a good alternative to traditional orthotopic bladder procedures. VON reconstruction seems to offer the advantage of speeding up the procedure, reducing intestinal compromise with good storage capacity. The ten surgical steps can be considered a good starting point for further improvements in surgical technique. More robust data regarding the number of procedures and the duration of follow-up is required.

ORIGINAL PAPER (PEDIATRIC UROLOGY)


Temporary Renal Enlargement in Children with a First Episode of Febrile Urinary Tract Infection is a Significant Risk of Recurrent Infection

Shingo Ishimori, Junya Fujimura, Shohei Oyama, Tadashi Shinomoto, Satoshi Onishi, Kengo Hattori, Yo Okizuka, Atsushi Nishiyama, Hirotaka Minami

Urology Journal, Vol. 19 No. 04 (2022), , Page 307-314
https://doi.org/10.22037/uj.v19i.6892

Purpose: Although morphological renal abnormalities in children with febrile urinary tract infection (fUTI) have been showed a predictive factor for recurrent infection, there are no available data on recurrence regarding sonographic renal enlargement at first fUTI episode, especially focusing on whether renal enlargement is temporary or not.


Materials and Methods: This cohort study reviewed the medical records of children who underwent renal ultrasound during their first fUTI during 2005–2013 and who were aged <15 years at diagnosis. We defined a kidney as temporary enlarged when the kidney length was ≥2 standard deviation above normal renal length for that age on sonography or a difference of ≥1 cm in sonographic length between the right and left kidneys, following normal renal length after antibiotic treatment.


Results: A total of 132 children were enrolled, of whom 11 had sonographic temporary temporal renal enlargement during their first fUTI. After completing antibiotic therapy for a first fUTI episode, 20 (15%) children had fUTI recurrence. The clinical characteristics at first episode of fUTI were not significantly different between renal enlargement and nonrenal enlargement groups. Children with temporary renal enlargement at a first fUTI episode had significantly lower fUTI recurrence-free survival proportion than those with nonrenal enlargement according to the Kaplan–Meier method (p = 0.003)


Conclusion: Identification of temporary temporal renal enlargement as a predictor of recurrent fUTI may help identify children with a first episode of fUTI who will be warned of close monitoring.

Purpose: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the results of two different flap procedures for prevention of urethrocutaneous fistula in hypospadias patients undergoing tubularized incised plate urethroplasty .


Patients and Methods: We retrospectively reviewed 89 patients who underwent hypospadias repair. The standard technique of tubularized incised plate urethroplasty was used. There were 45 patients in Group 1 and 44 patients in Group 2, in which ventral and dorsal dartos flaps were used to cover the neourethra respectively. Surgical complications were assessed as the main outcomes. The results were analyzed with Chi-square and Mann-whitney u tests.


Results: There was no significiant difference between the groups in terms of age and meatus location. We observed postoperative surgical complications in 15 (33.3 %) patients in Group 1 and in 4 (9.1 %) patients in Group 2. The complications noted in the Group 1 were urethrocutaneous fistula in 10 patients ( 22.2 %) and meatal stenosis in 5 patients ( 11.1 %). In Group 2, fistula was observed in 2 patients (4.6 %) and stenosis in again 2 patients (4.6 %). Urethrocutaneous fistulas occurred statistically more frequently when ventral based dartos flaps were used (P < .05).


Conclusion: Several flap procedures and their modifications have been suggested to avoid fistula formation. Within these procedures, dartos flaps are reported to be very useful for primary distal or proximal hypospadias repair and reoperations. In this study, we concluded that ; vascularized dorsal preputial dartos flap procedure is safe and more effective than ventral based flap in prevention of fistula formation.

ORIGINAL PAPER (ANDROLOGY)


The Association of Penile Fracture and Female Sexual Abnormalities

Burhan Baylan, İbrahim Kartal , Alihan Kokurcan

Urology Journal, Vol. 19 No. 04 (2022), , Page 320-324
https://doi.org/10.22037/uj.v19i.6818

Purpose: To study the effect of female sexual abnormalities on the etiology of penile fracture, which is an important urological emergency.


Materials and Methods: The sexual function of the partners of patients with penile fracture (study group, n = 90) treated at our clinic and healthy women (control group, n = 90) were evaluated on a voluntary basis. In both groups, sexual function was evaluated with the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI). Each substance of the FSFI was evaluated separately by comparing both groups and the effect on the development of penile fracture was investigated.


Results: There was no difference in demographic and clinical characteristics between the study and control groups. Evaluation of sexual function with FSFI revealed that the scores of vaginal lubrication, orgasm, satisfaction, and pain subscales were lower in the study group (p < .001). Among these subscales, anorgasmia was determined as the factor with the largest effect on the development of penile fracture (OR = 7.333, 95% CI = 2.666–20.166, p < .001). No correlation was found between the largest dimension of penile fracture and FSFI total and subscale scores in the study group.


Conclusion: We believe that female vaginal dryness and dyspareunia in particular are factors which could cause the development of penile fracture during sexual intercourse. The treatment could prevent the development of penile fracture in the male.

UNCLASSIFIED


Assessment of the Prognostic Effect of Blood Urea Nitrogen to Serum Albumin Ratio in Patients with Fournier’s Gangrene in a Referral Center

Farzad Allameh, Saeed Montazeri, Vahid Shahabi, Seyyed Ali Hojjati, Amir Alinejad Khorram, Zahra Razzaghi, Sahar Dadkhahfar

Urology Journal, Vol. 19 No. 04 (2022), , Page 325-328
https://doi.org/10.22037/uj.v18i.6556

Purpose: To assess the prognostic effect of blood urea nitrogen to serum albumin ratio in patients with Fournier’s gangrene (FG) in a referral center in order to reduce the mortality of FG patients.


Materials and Methods: Patients with FG were admitted and enrolled consecutively in this study from March 2008 to April 2020. Statistical analysis was done to evaluate the differences between the two groups and to identify the best cutoff value to predict mortality and the need for intensive care.


Results: Of all 114 patients, 46 patients (40.35%) died in the course of hospitalization and 40 entered the study. No variable manifested a notable difference except for the BUN to albumin ratio, which was significantly different (P-value = 0.045). The ratio of BUN to albumin was not associated with any other variables and was independently a predictor of death in FG patients.


Conclusion: The ratio of BUN to albumin was significantly different among deceased and survived patients with FG. Therefore, more studies with a larger sample size are still needed to access this parameter properly.

Efficiency of Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy Combined with Negative-Pressure Wound Therapy in the Treatment Strategy of Fournier’s Gangrene –A Retrospective Study

Łukasz Michalczyk, Agnieszka Grabińska, Beata Banaczyk, Marek Braszko; Aneta Andrychowicz; Tomasz Ząbkowski

Urology Journal, Vol. 19 No. 04 (2022), , Page 329-332
https://doi.org/10.22037/uj.v18i.6797

Purpose: Fournier’s gangrene (FG) is a serious, aggressive, and often fatal multi-organism infection that affects the soft tissues of the perineum, rectum, and external genitalia. This study aimed to analyse the treatment’s strategies of FG.


Materials and Methods: This was a retrospective study of 35 patients with a diagnosis of FG admitted between 2016 and 2021. The diagnosis of FG was established on a clinical basis. Data on patient’s age, sex, comorbidities, laboratory results (C-reactive protein (CRP), white blood cell (WBC), hematocrit (HCT), platelets (PLT), sodium, potassium, creatinine, procalcitonin, international normalized ratio (INR), and gangrene culture), extent of resection, antibiotics used, and hospitalisation time were obtained. The extent of resection was assessed on a scale of 1–5.


Results: The study group consisted of all men (n=35) aged 24–85 (mean, 58) years. In 13/35 (37%) patients, hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) combined with negative-pressure wound therapy (NPWT) was used as a treatment for wound healing in Fournier’s syndrome (group 1), and in 22/35 (63%) patients, open standard wound care was used (group 2). There were no fatalities in group 1, but four deaths (18%) were noted in group 2. The median extent of resection was 3 in group 1 and 2 in group 2. There was a correlation between the extent of resection and use of HBOT combined with NPWT. The hospitalisation time was much shorter in group 2 (mean, 23 days) than in group 1 (mean, 26 days).


Conclusion: HBOT and NPWT (group 1) showed advanced wound healing with a high efficiency rate. The longer median hospitalisation time in this group may be related to the severity of injury. 

Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy of botulinum toxin type A (BTX-A) injection in patients with chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CPPS) after transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP).


Materials and Methods: Six patients after TURP received the injection of BTX-A around the prostate capsule or pelvic floor under ultrasound guidance. The clinical outcomes including overall pain intensity (assessed by visual analog scale, VAS), the Functional Pelvic Pain scale (FPPS), and mental state by anxiety and depression questionnaires, the generalized anxiety disorder (GAD-7) and Hamilton depression rating scale (HAM-D)) were assessed at pre-treatment, and 1, 4, 12 weeks after treatment.


Results: Six male patients, aged 65 to 76 years were enrolled. The improvement of VAS pain score, the Functional Pelvic Pain scale, and mental assessment were observed at 1, 4, and 12 weeks after treatment for all six patients. All 6 patients had no safety concerns through 12 weeks visit, except 3 patients complained transient pain at injection site.


Conclusion: Injection of BTX-A around the prostate under ultrasound guidance may be effective and safe for patients with CPPS after TURP.

CASE REPORT


Percutaneous Internal Drainage in Symptomatic Renal Parapelvic Cyst Refractory to Sclerotherapy: A Case Report

Suyoung Park, Jeong Ho Kim, Jung Han Hwang, Ki Hyun Lee, Sung Hyun Yu

Urology Journal, Vol. 19 No. 04 (2022), , Page 339-342
https://doi.org/10.22037/uj.v19i.7042

Percutaneous sclerotherapy is a safe and effective treatment for renal parapelvic cysts. However, if the cyst is in communication with the adjacent renal pelvocalyceal system, sclerotherapy is contraindicated and alternative treatment should be considered. Here, we report a case of a patient with a symptomatic renal parapelvic cyst that was treated using a novel technique involving percutaneous new tract formation between the cyst and renal pelvis.