Research/Original Articles

     Rodents are well established at port areas and their ectoparasite can be vectors of many diseases. Ships at seaport play an important role in spreading disease by transporting infected vectors. Plague, murine typhus, salmonellosis, trichinosis, leptospirosis and rat bite fever are known to be spread by rats. In view of the seriousness of the problem present study was undertaken to assess the prevalence of rodent – ectoparasite association at Kolkata Port Trust, Kolkata (India). A total of 442 rodent traps were laid and 17 rodents including two species of rodents Bandicota indica and Rattus rattus were collected with 3.8 trap positivity rate. Infestation rate of ectoprasites was 76.5%. Mites with 86.6% were the predominant ectoparisite retrieved from rodents followed by fleas and lice. The rodent ectoparasite index was 13.6 per rat. A total 78 vector larval trombiculide mite chigger (Leptotrombidium deliense) and 123 mesostigmatid mites (Laelaps sp.) were collected. Chigger infestation rate was found to be 11.1 per rat.  Passenger terminal was the only site where no mite could be retrieved.  A total 26 fleas were retrieved giving an overall flea index as 1.53. The flea species collected from rodents were Xenopsylla cheopis and Ctenocephalides felis. Serological examination of rodent serum was found non- reactive for Orentia (Scrub typhus) and plague antibodies. Bacteriological investigation of organs impression smear and tissue of rodents showed no plague bacilli activity and isolation of Yersinia pestis. Result of the study suggests routine surveillance for rodent and their arthropods ectoparasite to apply appropriate control methods for controlling transmission and spreading of rodent borne diseases.

A survey on the fatty acid composition of cow’s milk in different production systems in Khorramabad, Iran with respect to ω-6:ω-3 ratio

Soheyl Eskandari, Salman Miyar Abbas Kiani, Ali Kiani, Maryam Shekarchi, Farahnaz Ghaffari, Saeed Mohammadzadeh, Naghmeh Alikami

Archives of Advances in Biosciences, Vol. 5 No. 2 (2014), 25 January 2014


      The ratio of ω-6: ω-3 is connected to the higher risk of non-communicable diseases, thus this ratio is becoming more important than quantity of ω-6 and ω-3 in human nutrition. In countries like Iran, cow’s milk is mainly produced in rural area and less in conventional systems. The lactating cows reared in rural and conventional farms are different in terms of nutrition, daily yields, and proportion of concentrate to forage that these might affect milk fatty acid profiles. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the ratio of ω-6: ω-3 in cow’s milk produced in conventional and rural dairy farms in west of Iran, Khorramabad. Twenty bulk milk samples (rural and conventional) were collected from the conventional dairy farms and local milk collection centers. Fatty acid profiles were determined and results showed that conventional milk had higher ω-6 (2.1± 0.4) and lower ω-3 (0.16 ± 0.03) in comparison with rural milk. The ratio of ω-6:ω-3 in rural milk was significantly lower (8:1) than that in conventional milk (13:1) (p<0.01). In conclusion, milk produced in rural dairy farms had better ratio of ω-6:ω-3, thus rural milk could be healthier for human nutrition in terms of ω-3 fatty acids.

A Survey on General Health among students of guidance schools

Seyyed Rahmatollah Mousavi Moghadam, Masoumeh Imanzad, Hamed Tavan, Koroush Sayemiri, Khadijeh Soghra Amini

Archives of Advances in Biosciences, Vol. 5 No. 2 (2014), 25 January 2014

In recent years, the prevalence of mental disorders has increased and the prevalence of 18-23% is reported for Iran. This study aims to evaluate psychological aspect of general health status of children in Ilam city, located in Iran using a questionnaire. This study is a descriptive-comparative research that measures general health of boys and girls in schools. The required information is obtained by means of the GHQ-28 standard questionnaire which distributed among 118 children. The general health is divided into four categories, in which the dangerous group receives the higher scores in the range of 64-84. The SPSS software is used for data analysis. The sample consisted of 64 (54%) boys and 54 (46%) girls and overall score of children are classified into four categories. Among the samples, 38 participants (32.2%), 61 children (51.7%), 17 children (14.7%) and two persons (1.7%) are received the scores of 0-21, 22-42, 43-63 and 64-84, respectively. Also, the statistical association is observed between age, grade and general health of participants (P <0.05). Relatively large numbers of children possessed good general health status. It is found that as age of participant is increased its general health degrades.


Effect of intra-organizational factors on research

Alireza Farajollahi, Kamran Sedagat, Mahasti Alizadeh, Masoumeh Imanzad, Asghar Ashrafi Hafez

Archives of Advances in Biosciences, Vol. 5 No. 2 (2014), 25 January 2014

      Along with other areas in our country, the research in medical sciences is a necessity for the maintenance and improvement of community health. The objectives of this study were to determine the intra-organizational factors of conducting research in Tabriz University of Medical Sciences. The matrix of the study included entire academic members and research staff of the university where 121 of them were selected randomly for a descriptive cross sectional study. A questionnaire was designed to collect data using Likert Spectrum. The major difficulty was the lack of sufficient free time. Significant differences were seen in respect with the access to facilities and conducting research, assessing expected benefits of conducting research, level of research awareness among academic members with and without research project. Differences in respect with motivation force, collaboration, job satisfaction and expected benefits from conducting research were shown to be not significant. As stated by academic members, their problems involved with conducting research projects provides lesser role of intra-organizational factors compared to that of personal factors. In other words, the most major problems in not doing research are the lack of sufficient time and proper skills in research method and innovation in looking for problems to be solved.


Assessment of an Tentative Novel Body of X-Ray tube in order to Decrease the Applicability Limitation in Medical Practice

Mojtaba Navvabpour, Mohammad Navvabpour, Mohammad Ghane-e Dehkordi, Hossein Nazari Moghadam, Seyed Mohammad Reza Aazami

Archives of Advances in Biosciences, Vol. 5 No. 2 (2014), 25 January 2014

The output of X-ray, especially in the field of required energy for diagnosing the disease is very low (in diagnosing lamps, it is less than 1%). In this kind of lamps the rest of the electrical energy is transformed to heat. This considerable amount of heat induces a myriad of too many limitations in choosing higher levels of radiation, particularly in specialized techniques. This process is the outcome of X-ray generating mechanism; thus, one of the proper solutions to reduce the limitations caused by generating high heat is enhancing the cooling rate in these lamps. In this project, the design and alloy of the framework, surface and the substance were altered in a manner whereby the cooling rate increases or heat accumulation in lamps decreases. This surface was designed in the shape of a two-part disc with wings whose substance is the same as the framework. The substance of the framework is made of an alloy of copper and chromium. The disc shape of the framework and its aerodynamic compatibility further expose its contacting surface to the air.  This contacting surface can be expanded to 10 times more than the ordinary frameworks. The heat conductivity coefficient of this alloy is approximately 220 w/ mk, which in comparison with the heat conductivity coefficient of the ordinary lamps framework, being about 10, is 22 times more. The results of the tests reveal that the cooling rate of this framework is 10 times (or 1000%) more than the ordinary one. This process reduces the limitations of choosing radiation factors with the same proportion

Use of neural network for optimization of energy cost in moving limb

Yadulla Manavy, Mona Zamanian-Azodi, Samira Gilanchi, Roghieh Omidi

Archives of Advances in Biosciences, Vol. 5 No. 2 (2014), 25 January 2014

Artificial neural networks are used in many smart apparatus and different fields such as signal processing pattern diagnoses, military systems, medicine, financial systems, and artificial intelligence. In this article using quality of neural networks in optimizing energy cost in moving limb and its effectiveness in organization a cognitive function founded by presenting an algorithm for use in human smart robotics and worldwide research will be described and discussed. Neural system contributes to minimal cost energy in decision-making and command exportation to skeletal muscle and suggested optimal energy cost in skeletal muscle that could be presented in software conformation.


Characterization of coagulase-negative staphylococci isolated from hospitalized patients in Tehran, Iran

Mehdi Goudarzi, Sima Sadat Seyedjavadi, Hossein Goudarzi, Shahram Boromandi, Mona Ghazi, Mehdi Azad, Zahra Tayebi

Archives of Advances in Biosciences, Vol. 5 No. 2 (2014), 25 January 2014

     Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) are a main cause of nosocomial infection. The main purpose of this study was to determination of frequency of CNS isolates in in hospitalized patients and their susceptibility pattern to antimicrobial agents. During 11 month study, 65 CNS clinical isolates were recovered from hospitalized patients in different wards of hospital. In vitro susceptibility of isolates to 12 antimicrobial agents Penicillin; Ampicilin; Cephalothin; Cefoxitin; linezolid; Nitofurantoin; Erythromycin; Norfloxacin; Gentamicin; Vancomycin; Chloramphenicol and Oxacillin was performed by Kirby-Bauer’s Disk diffusion method according to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) criteria. Out of 1875 samples of hospitalized patients 65(3.47%) patients were infected with CNS. Twenty one (32.3 %) were isolated from the urine samples, 17(26.1%) from sputum, 15(23.1%) from pus samples, 8(12.3 %) from ear swabs, 3(4.7%) from fluid and 1(1.5%) from blood sample. All of CNS isolates were sensitive to nitrofurantoin. The rates of resistance to the majority of antibiotics tested varied between 4.5% and 100 %. The rate of resistance to beta lactam antibiotics, Chloramphenicol, erythromycin, gentamycin was high (more than 70%). The most of isolates remained susceptible to linezolid, and nitofurantoin. All of isolates were susceptible to vancomycin. Multi-drug resistant CNS with reduced susceptibility to linezolid and nitrofurantoin are emerging pathogens of clinical concern. Monitoring of antibiotic resistance with attention to multi-resistant profile and aware to practitioners in the field is necessary.

Students and faculty viewpoint of Ilam University of Medical Sciences about the students’ evaluation system of the instruction quality

Abbas Nasrollahi, Alireza Mirzaei, Mashallah Shamsizad, Zahra Mirzaei, Akram Azar-Abdar, Reza Vafaee, Nasser Vazifeshenas

Archives of Advances in Biosciences, Vol. 5 No. 2 (2014), 25 January 2014

Student evaluation of the quality of instruction is considered as one of the most widely used methods for assessing faculty in universities. This study aimed to identify and compare faculty and students' views about the evaluation system of the quality of faculty teaching in 2011-2012 in Ilam University of Medical Sciences. In this descriptive – analytical study, statistical population was included faculty members (n = 92) and students (n=1,100) that their viewpoint in three fields: competence of students for evaluation, assessment tools quality and factors affecting the results of the evaluation using two designed questionnaires and descriptive and inferential statistics analyzing data, were studied. Scores of participants' viewpoint was as follows: Students  capacity to do faculty proficiency evaluation (3.62±0.91), evaluation of teaching methods(1.01±3.72) evaluation and scoring methods(3.41± 1.01) and their suitability for evaluation of designing of the course content (3.16± 0.99), the number of questionnaire questions (3.25 ± 0.9) Matching evaluations  tools to evaluation goal or validity (3 ± 0.96) how to design questions (3.20± 0.96) and the rate of bias in the questionnaire (3.16± 1.02), In addition, the effect of factors on student evaluations was as follow: factors related to the student (3.62± 1.06), factors related to the course and class (3.29 ± 1.06), factors related to the instructor (3.64 ± 1.01), and factors related to the evaluation system (3.18± 1.11). Compare the viewpoints of faculty and students also showed significant differences in two groups' viewpoints (p <% 5).Despite the current evaluation system is partially confirmed by the study subjects but due to the influence of the results of variety of factors, significant objections have been raised, particularly from faculty, when it is used as the only source, so that in order to reduce weaknesses and strengthen the evaluation system, the review of evaluation form and methods of designing in line with increasing the validity and reliability should be done.


Antimicrobial effect of Carboxy Methyl Cellulose (CMC) containing aqueous and ethanolic Eucalyptus camaldulensis L. leaves extract against Streptococcus pyogenes, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus epidermidis

Behrooz Alizadeh Behbahani, Farideh Tabatabaei Yazdi, Ali Mortazavi, Mohammad Mahdi Gholian, Fatemeh Zendeboodi, Alireza Vasiee

Archives of Advances in Biosciences, Vol. 5 No. 2 (2014), 25 January 2014

Oil from the eucalyptus tree (Eucalyptus camaldulensis L.) is used today in many over the counter cough and cold products, to relieve congestion. Eucalyptus oil is also used in creams and ointments to relieve muscle and joint pain, and in some mouthwashes. In this study Eucalyptus camaldulensis leaves extracted with water and ethanol 96°and the antimicrobial effects of extracts were evaluated by “using the method of Collins” and “disk agar diffusion method”. Antimicrobial properties of Carboxy Methyl Cellulose (CMC) films containing 20, 40, 60, and 80 mg/ml concentration of the extract studied against on Streptococcus pyogenes PTCC 1447, Pseudomonas aeruginosa PTCC 1310 and Staphylococcus epidermidis PTCC 1435. The results showed that aqueous and alcoholic extract were quite effective in 2000 μg/ml concentration on Streptococcus pyogenes and Staphylococcus epidermidis and have inhibition effect, while both extracts have no certain antimicrobial effect on Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) of ethanolic extract of Eucalyptus camaldulensis leaves were performed for each microorganism. Minimal Bactericidal Concentration (MBC) for bacteria was performed using the dilution method. The edible films containing mangrove extract presented more effective impact on the growth of Streptococcus pyogenes than Pseudomonas aeruginosa (p<0.05). The result indicates extracts of Eucalyptus camaldulensis leaves have the greatest effect on gram-positive bacterium Streptococcus pyogenes. As a result, aqueous and ethanloic extracts of Eucalyptus camaldulensis leaves, have been strong antimicrobial activity against many food pathogen bacteria

Prognostic factors in birth time: A Survival Analysis

Ahmad Reza Baghestani, Abolfazl Payandeh, Mojtaba Soltani Kermanshahi, Zahra Taher Asadi

Archives of Advances in Biosciences, Vol. 5 No. 2 (2014), 25 January 2014

The waiting time between children births are called tempo. This phenomenon plays a crucial role in the child and mother health. The purpose of the present study is determination of factors which influence this variable of interest. A significance level of 5% and power of 80% considered to calculate the required sample size for this cross sectional study. The sample size of 124 women determined using PASS software (ver. 11.0.4). These women randomly selected of married women between 15-45 years old with at least two children, living in Irin village. We consider the waiting time between the first and the second birth in women randomly sampled from Irin village of Tehran province of Iran.The selected mothers had 364 children at the time of study. The average and standard error for the number of children were 2.940 and 1.102 respectively. 59% of the children were girl and the rest were boy.Tempo variable as an index estimated using Toki method. The lowest tempo is for 5th to 6th births (28.5) and highest is for 6th to 7th (60). Cox regression model was used to determine the significant explanatory factors.Birth of child was considered as an event and time between the first and the second event was considered as outcome in this model.According to the fitted Cox regression model, only maternal education and father’s occupation were statistically significant at 5% on time to second birth.

Evaluate the liver function in hyperthyroidism patients

Seyed Hamid Madani, Zahra Rostami Far, Nasrin Jalilian, Mohammad Erfan Zare, Farhad Shaveisi Zadeh

Archives of Advances in Biosciences, Vol. 5 No. 2 (2014), 25 January 2014

Thyroid hormones regulate the metabolisms of all cells including hepatocytes, and hence, modulate hepatic function. Hyperthyroidism is one of the most common endocrine disorders characterized by increased secretion of thyroid hormones T3 and/or T4. This study investigated frequency of abnormal liver function tests in the patients with hyperthyroidism that referred to Imam Reza Hospital of Kermanshah from 1st October 2009 to 30th April 2012. Patients who had complication disorders such as cardiovascular disease, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, liver disease and using any of drugs effecting liver and thyroid function tests and patients with positive hepatic viral markers were excluded from the study. After excluding patients with complication disorders, fifty patients were remained. Fifty volunteers without history of significant diseases were chosen as matched control group. Mean ALT (Alanine amino transferase) of cases were 52.1±6.97 and of controls were 25.6±3.9. Also, Mean ALP (Alkaline phosphatase) of cases was 259.94±25.83 and of controls were 185.10±33.75. There is significant difference between ALT, ALP in case group in compare the control group (P<0.05and P<0.01 respectively). Further, there is no significant difference in serum levels of AST (Aspartate amino transferase) and Mean direct bilirubin between case and control group. These findings indicate that ALT and ALP levels are frequently elevated in hyperthyroidism. Hence, they are possibly thyroid dependent enzymes.

Evaluation of the relationship between serumsVisfatin and Resistin levels with BMI in PCOS young women

Fatemeh Farshchian, Faranak Kazeruni, Fahimeh Ramezani Tehrani, Hadi Parsian, Saeed Namaki, Houshang Amirrasouli, Azam Moslemi, Ali Rahimipour

Archives of Advances in Biosciences, Vol. 5 No. 2 (2014), 25 January 2014

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common endocrine / metabolic disorder in women of reproductive age .Abdominal adiposity and obesity are frequently present in PCOS. It now appears that, obesity is associated with a low-grade inflammation of white adipose tissue.

Adipokines play a significant role in the pathogenesis of a low-grade inflammation associated with obesity. Among variety of adipokines, resistin and visfatin are proposed as important pro inflammatory mediators and they have recently been suggested to be associated with obesity related diseases.The aim of this study is to evaluate the correlation of visfatin and resistin serum levels and the ratio of these two adipokines with BMI in PCOS women under age of 35 years old. Twenty eight young women with clinically confirmed PCOS disease (14 lean and 14 obese), and 12 young, healthy and lean women with stable weight and BMI<25 were enrolled. Blood was obtained from the included persons, and visfatin and resistin were assessed by ELISA method. We did not observe any significant differences in serum visfatin and resistin concentrations and also in the Visfatin/Resistin ratio between PCOS and control group. Also we did not found a significant correlation between visfatin and resistin with BMI. This study demonstrated that serum resistin and visfatin levels do not seem to be directly involved in the pathology of PCOS.

The effect of iron- gold core shell magnetic nanoparticles on the sensitization of breast cancer cells to irradiation

Hamidreza Kheiri Manjili, Hossein Naderi-Manesh, Maedeh Mashhadikhan, Leila Ma'mani, Safoora Nikzad, Sharafaldin al mussawi

Archives of Advances in Biosciences, Vol. 5 No. 2 (2014), 25 January 2014

Herein, iron-gold core shell magnetic nanoparticles Fe@Au NPs was investigated as contrasting agent in radiation therapy in the breast cancer. Assessment of cytotoxic and radio sensitizing potential was done by MTT method and Flow cytometry. Radiation was done using Co 60 source. The response of cells to treatment with radiation alone and radiation with nanoparticles was assessed. The study demonstrates that Fe@Au nanoparticles do not have considerable cytotoxic effects, but they increase the effectiveness of radiation that means the survival of the group without nanoparticles exposed to 5 Gy radiations is 75%while the group with nanoparticles is 33%. With 2 Gy radiations the survival of the two groups are 87% and 80% respectively.                                                                                

     The infections risk related to pathogenic germs increases at the present time considering the increased resistance which certain microbes acquire, whose usual antibiotics are ineffective to treat the infectious disease. The aim of this study was to determine antimicrobial effect of the aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Lavandula stoechas L. and Rosmarinus officinalis L. on Listeria monocytogenes PTCC 1297، Bacillus cereus PTCC 1154، Enterobacter aerogenes PTCC 1221، Enterococcus faecalis PTCC 1237 and Salmonella typhi PTCC 1609 in vitro”. In this experimental study, after collecting plants from of Razavi Khorasan province, the extraction was carried out by the maceration method, after antimicrobial effect of the extracts evaluated by two methods, “Collins method” (spreading of the extract on medium surface) and “disk agar diffusion method”. The Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) and Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC) for both species determined by using a dilution method. Statistical analysis was carried out by analysis of variance (ANOVA).The results show that aqueous and ethanolic Lavandula stoechas L. extracts were quite effective in 2000 μg/ml concentration on Listeria monocytogenes، Bacillus cereus and Enterococcus faecalis. The results indicate that ethanolic extracts of Lavandula stoechas L. have the greatest effect on gram-positive bacterium. The result shows that MIC of Lavandula stoechas L. leaves of the aqueous and ethanolic extracts for Enterobacter aerogenes was 32 and 16 mg/ml respectively. The result shows that MIC of Rosmarinus officinalis L. leaves of the aqueous and ethanolic extracts for Enterobacter aerogenes was 128 and 64 mg/ml respectively.The Lavandula stoechas L. and Rosmarinus officinalis L. extracts presented the more effective impact on the growth of gram-positive bacteria than  gram-negative bacteria (p<0.05).


Specific migration of Bisphenol-A Diglycidyl Ether (BADGE) and its derivatives in four different temperatures in epoxy lacquer

Soheyl Eskandari, Samira Siami, Morteza Shahrestani, Abdulrasoul Oromiehie, Maryam Mizani

Archives of Advances in Biosciences, Vol. 5 No. 2 (2014), 25 January 2014


     Migration of compounds from packaging materials is one of the most important aspects of food safety. Epoxy resins have been in inner coatings of food cans since the 1960s. These resins can be produced from Bisphenol-A Diglycidyl Ether (BADGE) that is also utilized as a starter. Migration of potentially toxic compounds in epoxy resins used for commercial cans is a very important food safety issue. Residual BADGE from epoxy coating can be hydrolyzed and chlorohydrolysed into two degradation products, which correspond to its first and second hydrolysis and chlorohydrolyse products. Specific migration of these compounds was evaluated in two water-based food stimulants: %3 acetic acid and %15 ethanol at various temperatures (-6, 5, 25 and 40 ̊C) during 10 days. Solid Phase Extraction (SPE) was used to fortify analysts. A flourimetric-detection RP-HPLC was applied to separation and quantification of BADGE, its hydrolysis and chlorohydroxy derivatives. The EU has adjusted the specific migration limit of these compounds in food due to migration from can coatings. Higher levels of migration were found in 15% ethanol than 3% acetic acid. The results illustrated that decreasing of temperature up to –6 ̊C was increased migration. The highest concentration was observed in BADGE.H2O up to 0.9 mg/Kg. Migration of these compounds takes place in food stimulants; the amounts were lower than exceeding EU limits.

The effect of Saccharomyces strain and fermentation conditions on quality prameters of non-alcoholic beer

Amir Mohammad Mortazavian, Seyed Hadi Razavi, Seyed Mohammad Mousavi, Shirin Malganji, Sara Sohrabvandi

Archives of Advances in Biosciences, Vol. 5 No. 2 (2014), 25 January 2014

In this study, the effect of several species of fermenting yeast and fermentation conditions (periodic aeration and temperature) on quality parameters of non-alcoholic beer is assessed. Yeast starters with different inoculation percent were added separately into wort with determined gravity. Wort was fermented for 48 h in different temperatures under aerobic condition or periodic aeration (every 12 h). Growth rate, wort gravity and ethanol content were analyzed for 48 hours (12-h interval). Also, 6 trained panelists were asked for sensory evaluation of final product. The highest growth rate and the highest ethanol content were found in treatments with 4×107 cfu/ml inoculation fermented at 24˚C under periodic aeration and in those fermented under anaerobic conditions, respectively. The highest gravity was observed for treatments with 107 cfu/ml inoculation, periodic aeration and fermentation at 4˚C. The lowest growth rate and ethanol content were observed in treatments with 107 cfu/ml, fermented at 4˚C under anaerobic condition and those fermented under periodic aeration, respectively. In treatments with 4×107 cfu/ml inoculation, anaerobic condition and fermentation at 4˚C, the lowest gravity was observed. In addition, among yeasts, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Saccharomyces rouxii showed the highest and the lowest growth rate, ethanol content and wort gravity, respectively. Additionally, treatments containing Saccharomyces cerevisiae resulted in non-alcoholic beer with more satisfactory flavor attributes.

Antimicrobial effects of Kelussia odoratissima extracts against food borne and food spoilage bacteria "in vitro"

Maryam Heidari Sureshjani, Farideh Tabatabaei Yazdi, Seyed Ali Mortazavi, Behrooz Alizadeh Behbahani, Fakhri Shahidi

Archives of Advances in Biosciences, Vol. 5 No. 2 (2014), 25 January 2014

The aim of this paper was to investigate the antibacterial potential of Kelussia odoratissima Mozff extract against Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. Karafs-eKoohi with the scientific name of Kelussia odoratissima is an Iranian endemic edible plant in the middle region of Iran with enormous use as food, spice and medicinal herb. The antibacterial effect of the extracts was investigated using pour plate and disk diffusion methods. Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC( and Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC) were also studied using the dilution method. Repeated measure ANOVA was used for data analysis. The results showed that in disk diffusion method all concentrations of ethanolic extract had inhibitory effect against Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus. Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC( of Kelussia odoratissima leaves of aqueous and ethanolic extracts for Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus were 16 and 8 mg/ml, and for Enterobacter aerogenes were 32 and 16 mg/ml, respectively. Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC) of Kelussia odoratissima leaves of aqueous and ethanolic extracts for Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus were 32 and 16 mg/ml, and for Enterobacter aerogenes were 64 and 32mg/ml, respectively. The results showed that the extract of Kelussia odoratissima had a satisfactory antimicrobial activity and the ethanolic extract of Kelussia odoratissima leaves had greater inhibitory effects on the strains studied compared to aqueous extract in vitro. A significant correlation was also observed between zone of inhibition and concentration of extracts.

Determination of fatty acids composition in Persian Gulf shrimp, Metapenaeus affinis

Soheyl Eskandari, Mohammad Amir Bitaab, Behrooz Abtahi, Farahnaz Ghaffari, Mahnaz Moeini Namin, Saeedeh Mosafer Khorjestan

Archives of Advances in Biosciences, Vol. 5 No. 2 (2014), 25 January 2014

The aim of this work was to analyze the fatty acid profile in Persian Gulf shrimp, Metapenaeus affinis that is one of the edible and well-known shrimps and has suitable amount of fatty acids specific polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). It has been reported that, a high dietary consumption of marine n-3 fatty acids may prevent the development of atherosclerosis and thrombosis. The fatty acids profile were analysed in the male and female shrimps. The maximum amount of saturated fatty acids (SFA) was 35.88 percent of total fatty acids in Bandar Abbas (St. A) samples. Highest monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) were 19.59% in station C and uppermost of PUFA was in Bushehr samples equal to 47.2 %. The figures of SFA showed significant difference between stations (p<0.05). MUFA hadn’t significantly different (p>0.05) and finally PUFA differed statistically only between station A and B. ω3 and ω9 in station A also had statistically differ with other stations and demonstrate that ω3 lower but ω9 higher than other stations. Difference in percentage of fatty acids among stations may consequence of consuming different nutrients by each group of shrimp.

Short Communication

A study in Egypt during June 2012-August 2013 revealed that there were a disastrous out break of foot and mouth disease where SAT2 strain have been identified as the main reason for its  occurrence. Trained and untrained persons routinely perform uncontrolled treatments leading to sever economic losses. The present paper represents an intervention that was developed to empower the community to combat foot and mouth disease in Egypt. In a rural district of Egypt (Aja) with a livestock population of approximately 41000 a multipronged approach was used in 2012 to improve combating foot and mouth disease in Egypt. The focus of the intervention was the community. The organization of interventions was also carefully planned. A base line assessment (n=300) was conducted prior to intervention. The intervention comprised large scale gathering of the community (males and females) across the district. Smaller gatherings included teachers, sheikh of mosques and the training untrained persons. The Egyptian Television channels were used to broadcast messages recorded by prominent figures in the local language. The local FM channel and everyday newspaper were also used to disseminate messages on foot and mouth disease control. The interventions resulted in improving the ways of treatment and control of foot and mouth disease in Egypt.