Preparation and in vitro Evaluation of Injectable Alginate/Thiolated Chitosan Hydrogel Scaffold for Neural Tissue Engineering
Journal of "Regeneration, Reconstruction & Restoration" (Triple R),
Vol. 6 (2021),
Introduction: Spinal cord injuries are one of the main causes of disability with devastating neurological consequences and secondary conflicts in other organs. Tissue engineering and regenerative medicine have been recognized as novel, promising methods in the treatment of tissue injuries, especially in neurological damage in recent decades. Hydrogels have the advantage of compatibility with damaged tissue, and injectable hydrogels can be applied in minimally invasive surgeries. This study aimed to evaluate an injectable hydrogel-based scaffold consisting of thiolated chitosan and alginate for neural tissue regeneration.
Materials and Methods: In the present study, an injectable hydrogel-based containing thiolated chitosan and alginate was prepared. Microbiology and pH tests were performed. Microstructural properties and porosity of scaffold were evaluated by scanning electron microscope (SEM). The swelling /shrinkage ratio and rates of biodegradation were also conducted. Finally, the viability of L929 cells on the scaffold was assessed using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay.
Results: Thiolated chitosan/ alginate hydrogel had low pH with no contamination. SEM showed hydrogel had a porous microstructure with a mean pore diameter of 21.89 ± 0.32 μm which is suitable for cell culture. Furthermore, according to MTT test results, this hydrogel was biocompatible.
Conclusion: Thiolated chitosan/ alginate hydrogel is convenient for application in neural tissue engineering based on its structural properties and its ability to support cell proliferation. According to the in vitro analysis, it can also be used as a scaffold to create a suitable environment for increasing cell viability.
- Neural Tissue Engineering
- Thiolated Chitosan
How to Cite
2. Sivashanmugam A, Arunkumar R, Vishnu Priya M, Nair SV, Jayakumar R. An overview of injectable polymeric hydrogels for tissue engineering. Eur Polym J. 2015;72:543-65.
3. Li J, Chen G, Xu X, Abdou P, Jiang Q, Shi D, Gu Z. Advances of injectable hydrogel-based scaffolds for cartilage regeneration. Regen Biomater. 2019;6(3):129-40.
4. Cornelison RC. An injectable acellular nerve graft as a platform for treating spinal cord injury [Doctoral dissertation]. Austin: Univ. Texas; 2015.
5. Han Q, Jin W, Xiao Z, Ni H, Wang J, Kong J, Wu J, Liang W, Chen L, Zhao Y, Chen B, Dai J. The promotion of neural regeneration in an extreme rat spinal cord injury model using a collagen scaffold containing a collagen binding neuroprotective protein and an EGFR neutralizing antibody. Biomaterials. 2010;31(35):9212-20.
6. Wang G, Wang X, Huang L. Feasibility of chitosan-alginate (Chi-Alg) hydrogel used as scaffold for neural tissue engineering: a pilot study in vitro. Biotechnol Biotechnol Equip. 2017;31(4):766-73.
7. Yao Z, Chen F, Cui H, Lin T, Guo N, Wu H. Efficacy of chitosan and sodium alginate scaffolds for repair of spinal cord injury in rats. Neural Regen Res. 2018;13(3):502-9.
8. Hashimoto T, Suzuki Y, Suzuki K, Nakashima T, Tanihara M, Ide C. Review Peripheral nerve regeneration using non-tubular alginate gel crosslinked with covalent bonds. J Mater Sci Mater Med. 2005;16(6):503-9.
9. Lee KY, Mooney DJ. Alginate: properties and biomedical applications. Prog Polym Sci. 2012:37(1):106-26.
10. Cho Y, Shi R, Borgens RB. (2010). Chitosan produces potent neuroprotection and physiological recovery following traumatic spinal cord injury. J exp biol. 2010;213(Pt 9):1513-20.
11. Wang Y, Zhao Y, Sun C, Hu W, Zhao J, Li G, Zhang L, Liu M, Liu Y, Ding F, Yang Y, Gu X. Chitosan degradation products promote nerve regeneration by stimulating Schwann cell proliferation via miR-27a/FOXO1 axis. Mol neurobiol. 2016;53:28-39.
12. Stefanov I, Hinojosa-Caballero D, Maspoch S, Hoyo J, Tzanov T. Enzymatic synthesis of a thiolated chitosan-based wound dressing crosslinked with chicoric acid. J Mater Chem B. 2018;6(47):7943-53.
13. Ehterami A, Salehi M, Farzamfar S, Samadian H, Vaez A, Ghorbani S, Ai J, Sahrapeym H. Chitosan/alginate hydrogels containing Alpha-tocopherol for wound healing in rat model. J Drug Deliv Sci Technol. 2019;51:204-13.
14. Li Z, Zhang M. Chitosan-alginate as scaffolding material for cartilage tissue engineering. J Biomed Mater Res A. 2005;75(2):485-93.
15. Madigan NN, McMahon S, O'Brien T, Yaszemski MJ, Windebank AJ. Current tissue engineering and novel therapeutic approaches to axonal regeneration following spinal cord injury using polymer scaffolds. Respir Physiol Neurobiol. 2009;169(2):183-99.
16. Nomura H, Zahir T, Kim H, Katayama Y, Kulbatski I, Morshead CM, Shoichet MS, Tator CH. (2008). Extramedullary chitosan channels promote survival of transplanted neural stem and progenitor cells and create a tissue bridge after complete spinal cord transection. Tissue Eng Part A. 2008;14(5):649-65.
17. Chedly J, Soares S, Montembault A, Von BY, Veron-Ravaille M, Mouffle C, Benassy MN, Taxi J, David L, Nothias F. Physical chitosan microhydrogels as scaffolds for spinal cord injury restoration and axon regeneration. Biomaterials. 2017;138:91-107.
18. Jian R, Yixu Y, Sheyu L, Jianhong S, Yaohua Y, Xing S, Qingfeng H, Xiaojian L, Lei Z, Yan Z, Fangling X, Huasong G, Yilu G. Repair of spinal cord injury by chitosan scaffold with glioma ECM and SB216763 implantation in adult rats. J Biomed Mater Res A. 2015;103(10):3259-72.
19. Prang P, Müller R, Eljaouhari A, Heckmann K, Kunz W, Weber T, Faber C, Vroemen M, Bogdahn U, Weidner N. The promotion of oriented axonal regrowth in the injured spinal cord by alginate-based anisotropic capillary hydrogels. Biomaterials. 2006;27(19):3560-9.
20. Grulova I, Slovinska L, Blaško J, Devaux S, Wisztorski M, Salzet M, Fournier I, Kryukov O, Cohen S, Cizkova D. Delivery of Alginate Scaffold Releasing Two Trophic Factors for Spinal Cord Injury Repair. Sci Rep. 2015;5(1):13702.
21. Rahmati M, Ehterami A, Saberani R, Abbaszadeh-Goudarzi G, Rezaei Kolarijani N, Khastar H, Garmabi B, Salehi M. Improving sciatic nerve regeneration by using alginate/chitosan hydrogel containing berberine. Drug Deliv Transl Res. 2020. doi:10.1007/s13346-020-00860-y.
22. Archana D, Upadhyay L, Tewari RP, Dutta J, Huang YB, Dutta PK. Chitosan-pectin-alginate as a novel scaffold for tissue engineering applications. Indian J Biotechnol. 2013;12(4):475-82.
23. Shao X, Hunter CJ. Developing an alginate/chitosan hybrid fiber scaffold for annulus fibrosus cells. J Biomed Mater Res A. 2007;82(3):701-10.
24. Aksoy EA, Sezer UA, Kara F, Hasirci N. Heparin/Chitosan/Alginate Complex Scaffolds as Wound Dressings: Characterization and Antibacterial Study Against Staphylococcus epidermidis. J Biomater Tissue Eng. 2015;5(2):104-13.
- Abstract Viewed: 118 times
- PDF Downloaded: 65 times