Articles can contain errors due to honest mistakes, native language barriers, or research misconduct. If the errors are significant enough to undermine the validity of the study's findings and conclusions, the article should be retracted to correct the scientific record.

Reasons for retraction can include:

-Redundant publication


-Peer review manipulation

-Unauthorized use of data or material

-Copyright infringement

-Legal issues

-Unethical research practices

-Failure to disclose competing interests.

Retractions can be initiated by the authors, institution, readers, or editor. However, disputes over authorship alone should not lead to retraction. The authors of the retraction notice should ideally be the same as the original authors, but other responsible individuals or the editor may also be included. The notice will provide details on why the article is being retracted, who requested it, and how it was discovered. The retraction will also be clearly linked to and from the original article.

Publications will be retracted as soon as possible after the editor determines that it is necessary. In cases where there is insufficient evidence, the editor may consider publishing an expression of concern instead. In rare instances, articles may be removed due to defamatory content, violation of personal privacy, or a court order. However, metadata and a retraction notice will still be available.
Authors may republish corrected work if only some parts of the original article are found to be unreliable. They will need to notify the editors of the new journal and obtain permission from the copyright holder. It is recommended to cite the original retraction notice and explain why the work was flawed and what changes have been made.

In cases where errors are considered unintentional and the underlying science remains valid, the journal may consider retraction with republication (replacement) after further review and editorial scrutiny. The extent of changes made will be documented in supplementary materials or an appendix to ensure transparency.


Retraction and Correction Policies

Retraction: Articles should be retracted to correct the scientific record if errors undermine findings, due to issues such as redundant publication, plagiarism, peer review manipulation, unauthorized data use, copyright infringement, legal issues, or undisclosed conflicts of interest.

Correction: If parts of an article are unreliable but the overall findings remain valid, a correction should be published. In cases of unintentional errors, retraction with republication (replacement) may be considered after further review