Review Article

Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury in Female Volleyball Players: A Review

Ali Fatahi, Neda Molahoveizeh

Journal of Clinical Physiotherapy Research, Vol. 6 No. 3 (2021), , Page e42

Volleyball is one of the most popular sports among the female athletes. Although volleyball is considered as a non- contact game, high incidence of injuries are reported for volleyball players. Knee injuries are one of the most common types of injuries in volleyball. This study aimed to review the literature regarding the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries focused on the volleyball players. A review literature was conducted via searches in Google Scholar, Scopus, PubMed, EBSCO host (Medline Database, Sport Discus), and Science Direct (2011 to march 2021) using various key terms such as "anterior cruciate ligament" and "knee injury". Based on the evidences, although the internal and external risk factors for ACL injury have been extensively studied, the biomechanical factors that expose athletes to this injury are still unclear. To answer the specific question of the present study, different factors associated with ACL injury especially in female’s athletes, a comprehensive review of basic and applied studies is necessary. In this paper, after explaining about ACL injuries extracted from articles, the role and application of ACL, its mechanics and patho-mechanics have been discussed. Also, occurrences of ACL injury in volleyball ranks among the other sports, athlete/non-athletes, gender and age of players, is divided as well. It is believed that biomechanical and neuromuscular differences in the trunk and lower limbs are the most likely reason for the significant difference in the high prevalence of non-collision ACL injury in female compared to men.

Original Articles

Introduction: Nowadays, urinary incontinence is a common problem among women. Kegel and core stability exercises might be effective in the treatment of urinary incontinence and its complications. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of core stability exercises and pelvic muscle exerciser on pelvic floor muscle strength, quality of life, and sexual satisfaction in women with urinary incontinence and uterine prolapse. Materials and Methods: This experimental study was conducted using a pretest-posttest design. The paticipants were30 women with the urinary incontinence who were selected using purposeful sampling and were randomly divided into experimental and control groups. In the pretest and posttest, participants filled out the Larson's Sexual Satisfaction Questionnaire (LSSQ) and Incontinence Quality of Life Scale (IQOL), their pelvic muscle strength was measured using a pelvic biofeedback device, and intensity of urinary incontinence by a Visual Analogue Scale (VAS).  Experimental group performed the core stability exercises for eight weeks (three sessions of 30 min per week) and used Pelvic Muscle Exerciser XFT-200. Control group continued their routine daily activities. Results: Ten people from each group completed the follow-up and were analyzed. Findings suggested that core stability exercises and using pelvic muscle exerciser had a significant effect on the avoidance of severe urinary incontinence (P<0.01), pelvic floor muscle contraction strength (P<0.01), quality of life (P<0.01), sexual compatibility (P<0.01) and quality of sexual life (P<0.01) and have there was no significant effect on the desire to have sex (P>0.05) and sexual attitude (P>0.05). Conclusion: It appears that core stability exercises in women with urinary incontinence could strengthen pelvic floor muscles and improve uterine prolapse in these people. In addition, handling the symptoms of urinary incontinence may improve the variables of quality of life in women with uterine prolapse and urinary incontinence.

The Effect of Two Selected Exercise Protocols alongside Attention Instructions on the Pain and Balance of Male Elderly Suffering Knee Osteoarthritis

Homa Pouradeli, Heydar Sadeghi, yahya Sokhangouei, Mohammad Ali Azarbayjani

Journal of Clinical Physiotherapy Research, Vol. 6 No. 3 (2021), , Page e39

Introduction: Despite numerous treatments, definitive treatment for osteoarthritis has not yet been found. However, due to the symptoms of osteoarthritis of the knee, the latest non-pharmacological therapies include reducing pain and weakness, improving range of motion, and facilitating performance in daily activities are on the rehabilitation protocols. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of two selected training protocols on pain and balance in elderly men with knee osteoarthritis. Materials and Methods: In this semi-experimental study, 31 elderly men aged 60 to 80 years with knee osteoarthritis from the elderly center of Kerman were assigned into two groups including electrotherapy plus knee extensor exercise group and electrotherapy plus hip abductor exercise group. The individuals in each group were randomly divided into two subgroups: the external focus and the internal focus. The exercises were performed three times a week for eight weeks. To assess pain, a VAS scale, and to assess a static, dynamic and total balance, Romberg, TGUG, and TBT tests were used before and after the test, respectively. Analysis of covariance or ANCOVA at a significant level of 0.05 was used for statistical analysis of data considering the effect of focus of attention. Results: The results showed that there was a statistically significant difference between pre- and post-exercise in pain, static balance, dynamic balance, and total balance test, but there was no statistically significant difference between the two exercises group. There was no statistically significant difference between external and internal focus and there was no significant interaction between variables (P˃0.05). Conclusion: According to the results of the research, strength training of the hip abductor muscles along with common treatments and attention-oriented guidelines can be recommended for pain management and improving the level of performance of the elderly with osteoarthritis of the knee.

Three Planar Symmetry of Hip, Knee and Ankle Joints’ Moments during Running

Ali Fatahi, Razieh Alizadeh, Mehrangiz Salehi, Rozhin Molavian

Journal of Clinical Physiotherapy Research, Vol. 6 No. 3 (2021), , Page e40

Introduction: Symmetry and asymmetry of the limbs’ movement pattern during running are introduced as one of the main critical challenges of human locomotion. The aim of this study was to investigate three planar symmetry of hip, knee and ankle joints’ moments during running at a fixed speed. Methods and Materials: the present study was conducted as a quasi-experimental study. Elite runner (age: 34.75±6.63 years) participated in this study. Running at constant speed was conducted by each subject at 2/5 m.s-1 on treadmill while kinematic (Raptor-4 motion analysis) and kinetic data (Force plate, Bertec) were captured at 150 Hz and 300 Hz, respectively. The internal joint moments in each plane were represented in the joint-coordinate system and were calculated using a standard inverse-dynamics approach and were normalized by the subject’s body mass as well as running cycle over 101 time points. Independent t tests were conducted to examine the symmetry of hip, knee and ankle moments between dominant and non-dominant joints during stance phase of running (P<0.05). Results: results of the present study showed no significant difference between two limb’s peak moments of lower joints in every three plane. Highest values of the dominant limb’s peak moments in sagittal, frontal and transvers plane were derived in (knee, ankle, hip), (hip, knee, ankle) and (knee, ankle, hip) respectively. Conclusion: Symmetry exists in lower joints three planar moments during running at the constant speed. According to the results dominant and non- dominant lower joints play propulsive and absorbent roles cooperatively.

Kinetical Analysis of Predictive Injury Parameters during Landing in Volleyball Players

Ali Fatahi, Razieh Yousefian Molla, Mitra Ameli

Journal of Clinical Physiotherapy Research, Vol. 6 No. 3 (2021), , Page e41

Introduction: Kinetics parameters are known as some of the main reasons of volleyball injuries resulting from landing during performing various skills. Information about lower extremity kinetics in landing will help to understand characteristics of various injuries and develop injury prevention programs. So the aim of the present study was kinetical analysis of predictive injuries parameters during landing in volleyball players. Materials and Methods: Eighteen junior male volleyball players (Age: 17.78±0.94yrs) were asked to perform three maximal blockjump on a force platform. The data of force (Fmax, Fmin), impulse (I), loading rates (LRmax, LRmax-min), time to stabilization (TS), time to peak forces (TPF) and time to maximum to minimum force (TFmax-min) variables were extracted andanalyzed. Pearson correlation coefficient (r) was employed to investigate possible relationship between kinetics and temporal landing parameters of block jump in participants. Results: The results showed significant correlations between some variables including Fmax with LRmax, LRmax-min and TPF, Fmin with TS, LRmax with Fmax, LRmax-min and TPF, LRmax-min with Fmax, LRmax, TPF and TFmax-min, TS with Fmin, TPF with Fmax, LRmax, and LRmax-min, TFmax-min with LRmax-minduring landing in volleyball players. Conclusion:Biomechanists and sports injury expertise should monitor both of temporal and kinetic variables with respect to performance optimization as well as decreasing injury prevalence.

Introduction: Given that the difference in the neuromuscular functions and the movement patterns in athlete and non-athlete individuals are challenging, this study aimed to investigate a light on the effect of the level of physical activity on the Electromyography of core stability muscles and ground reaction force (GRF) and changes in the center of mass (COM) to center of pressure (COP) during gait. Material and Methods: Eighteen young men participated in this quasi-experimental study and were divided into groups including athletes and non-athletes. Mean and standard deviation used to describe data; Shapiro Wilk Test was used to verify the normality of the data and the T-test was used to compare the results of the two groups at p ≤0.05. Results: The patterns of muscles functions were found to be similar in the two groups. However, there was a difference in the root mean square (RMS) of the two groups and this difference was significant in the Multifidus muscle. The amount of GRF was found to be higher at the time of heel contact (Fz1) and midstance, (Fz2) in non-athlete subjects compared to athlete subjects. More changes in COM-COP were found in non-athlete subjects than athlete subjects. Moreover, a significant difference was indicated between the two groups in terms of the time to peak force, with athlete subjects experiencing higher loading rate for vertical force. Conclusion: Due to findings, the effect of physical activities on gait patterns could lead to changes in the interaction and coordination between core stability, GRF, and changes in COM-COP during walking.